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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4656 matches for " Mutambara Julia "
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An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Students’ Adjustment at a University in Zimbabwe
Mutambara Julia,Bhebe Veni
International Education Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v5n6p244
Abstract: This study provides insight into transition experiences and adjustment of students at a university in Zimbabwe. Research was based on students in the first three semesters of college. Based on prior research college adjustment was conceptualised in this study as involving personal, emotional, social and academic issues. The study was qualitative in nature and the descriptive research design using case study method was used. Structured and unstructured questionnaires were used to gather information. A sample of 115 students was selected using stratified random sampling from the faculty of social sciences. Findings from the study revealed that to a larger extent students were failing to adjust to college demands, this was compounded by the socioeconomic conditions prevailing in Zimbabwe.
Towards Promotion of Maternal Health: The Psychological Impact of Obstetric Fistula on Women in Zimbabwe
Julia Mutambara,Levison Maunganidze,Pamela Muchichwa
International Journal of Asian Social Science , 2013,
Abstract: Objectives: The study sought to determine the psychological effects of obstetric fistula on women in Zimbabwe. Methods: The study was qualitative in nature and the phenomenological design was used. Purposive sampling was used to identify four women with obstetric fistula in two hospitals in Zimbabwe. In-depth interviews using unstructured interview guides were done with these women. Strict ethical principles were adhered to inorder to avoid harm to participants. Data that was obtained from the interviews was grouped into themes and analysed using content analysis. Results: The results of the study revealed that women with obstetric fistula faced the following psychological problems- helplessness, sadness, suicidal thoughts, stigma and blame, feelings of worthlessness, fear, shame and social withdrawal. Conclusions: Women with obstetric fistula face a number of psychological problems and henceforth issues to do with their mental health need to be taken seriously.
The Balobedu Cultural Activities and Plays Pertinent to Primary School Mathematics Learning
Benjamin Tatira,Lillias Mutambara,Conilius J. Chagwiza
International Education Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v5n1p78
Abstract: For many years, mathematics has been conceived as abstract, a product of western values and divorced from people's everyday lives. This has contributed to the fact that rural and economically disadvantaged communities fail to see the link between school mathematics and their real world experiences. Nonetheless, it goes without question that children tirelessly engage in plays and games at the least available opportunity, and rural communities have well-knitted and immortal cultural activities which possess intricate and diverse mathematical concepts. Herein we report on some of the cultural activities and plays for the Balobedu people of South Africa and their implications for mathematics teaching and learning at primary school level. The researchers have seen the interplay of culture and the development of mathematical concepts worthy studying, as a way of bringing a turnaround in the performance of mathematics in the South African primary schools. Mathematics performance currently is trailing all other subjects of the curriculum, yet it is a key area of knowledge whose competence is necessary for individual and economic development in this modern high-tech world we are living in. Incorporating cultural issues in the methods of teaching in rural areas help learners to perceive that mathematical concepts are not done in isolation, but have a strong connection to their everyday life and therefore worthwhile learning.
The cytokine hypothesis: A neurodevelopmental explanation for the emergence of schizophrenia later in life  [PDF]
Julia Howard
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A2011

There is increasing evidence for the cytokine hypothesis, which states that exposure to elevated cytokines in utero due to maternal immune activation is a major risk factor for the development of schizophrenia later in life. This is supported by numerous epidemicologic studies that connect multiple infections with schizophrenia emergence. Furthermore, cytokines are critically involved in early neurodevelopment and deviations from the norm can result in abnormal neuroanatomy and brain chemistry. Animal models of schizophrenia also support the critical role of developmental neuroinflammation in predisposing the brain to anatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Although there is strong evidence for the critical role of cytokines, they most likely work with other contributing risk factors such as genetic predisposition. New evidence indicates that cytokine exposure in utero may prime the brain and that a second stressor during adolescence, referred to as a second hit, may activate existing developmental vulnerabilities resulting in the emergence of clinical schizophrenia. Further knowledge of these pathogenic processes and risk factors could be very instrumental in reducing risk and slowing emergence of schizophrenia.

Computerized Summative Assessment of Multiple-choice Questions: Exploring Possibilities with the Zimbabwe School Examination Council Grade 7 Assessments
Benjamin Tatira,Lillias Hamufari Natsai Mutambara,Conilius J. Chagwiza,Lovemore J. Nyaumwe
Computer and Information Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/cis.v4n6p66
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop educational software for online assessment of multiple choice responses (MCQs). An automated assessment software program, duly developed in this study can display assessment items, record candidates' answers, and mark and provide instant reporting of candidates' performance scores. Field tests of the software were conducted on four primary schools located in Bindura town using a previous year summative Grade 7 assessment set by the Zimbabwe School Examination Council (ZIMSEC). Results were that computerized assessment in mathematics has the potential to enhance the quality of assessment standards and can drastically reduce material costs to the examination board. The paper exposes test mode benefits inherent in computer-based assessments, such as one-item display and ease of candidates selecting/changing optional answers. It also informs the ongoing debate on possible enhancement of candidates' performance on a computer-based assessment relative to the traditional pen-and-paper assessment format. The need for the development of diagnostic instructional software to compliment computerized assessments is one of the recommendations of the study.
How to React to the Subprime Crisis? - The Impact of an Interest Rate Freeze on Residential Mortgage Backed  [PDF]
Julia Hein, Thomas Weber
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.24035
Abstract: Several policy options have been discussed to mitigate the current subprime mortgage crisis. This paper analyses an interest rate freeze on adjustable rate mortgages as one possible reaction. In particular, the implications on Residential Mortgage Backed Securities (RMBS) are studied. We examine shifts in the underlying portfolio’s discounted cash flow distributions as well as changes in the payment profile of RMBS-tranches. We show that the positive effects of a rate freeze, e.g. less foreclosures and a stabilizing housing market, can outweigh the negative effect of lower interest income such that investors might be better off.
Dynamic Activity-Related Incentives for Physical Activity  [PDF]
Julia Schuler, Sibylle Brunner
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2012.21001
Abstract: The present studies adopted the theoretical framework of activity- and purpose-related incentives (Rheinberg, 2008) to explain the maintenance of physical activity. We hypothesized that activity-related incentives (e.g., “fun”) increase more than purpose-related incentives (e.g., “health”) between the initiation and maintenance phase of physical activity. Additionally, change in activity-related incentives was hypothesized to be a better predictor of maintenance of physical activity than change in purpose-related incentives. Two correlative field studies with rehabilitation patients (Study 1) and Nordic Walkers (Study 2) were conducted to test the hypotheses. Participants’ incentives of physical activity were measured at the beginning of exercising and two weeks (Study 1; T2) and three months (Study 2; T2) later. At T2, participants were asked for their current physical activity. Both studies showed a greater change of activity-related incentives than purpose-related incentives. Furthermore, change in activity-related incentives was more predictive of the maintenance of physical activity than change in purpose-related incentives. The results showed the important role of activity-related incentives in maintenance of physical activity. The theoretical contribution to physical activity maintenance research and practical implications for health promotion programs were discussed.
A Survey of Control Structures for Reconfigurable Petri Nets  [PDF]
Julia Padberg, Kathrin Hoffmann
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2015.32002
Abstract: Software systems are increasingly executed in dynamic infrastructures. These infrastructures are dynamic as they are themselves subject to change as they support various applications that may or may not share some of the resources. Dynamic software systems become more and more important, but are difficult to handle. Modeling and simulating dynamic systems requires the representation of their processes and the system changes within one model. To that effect, reconfigurable Petri nets consist of a Petri net and a set of rules that can modify the Petri net. Their main feature is the capability to model complex coordination behavior in dynamically adapting infrastructures. The interplay of both levels of dynamic behavior requires a very precise description, so the specification when and which rules are to be applied plays a crucial role for the convenient use of reconfigurable nets. We differentiate several types of reconfigurable Petri nets and present a survey of control structure for these types, reconfigurable Petri nets. These control structures either concern the infrastructure, i.e., the rules and transformations or the system part, i.e., the firing behavior, or both. They are introduced by a short characterization and illustrated by examples. We state the results for various Petri net types and the tools supporting the different control structures.
Raising a Child with Down Syndrome: Do Preferred Coping Strategies Explain Differences in Parental Health?  [PDF]
Tatjana Alexander, Julia Walendzik
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.71005
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine coping strategies which may represent important personal resources and have a buffering effect in preventing mental health problems in parents of children with Down syndrome. Forty-nine parents of children with Down syndrome completed self-administrated measures of psychological and physical health problems, and coping behaviour, using several established measuring instruments. According to the hierarchical regression analyses, parents who often used regenerative coping strategies, and who experienced positive personal changes in terms of posttraumatic growth suffered from less anxiety and somatisation symptoms, whereas dysfunctional coping was the best predictor for parental depression and physical symptoms. Regenerative coping mediated between parental tendency to recognize their emotional needs and somatisation symptoms. Intervention programs for families of children with Down syndrome may benefit if they address parents’ reflection about their feelings, foster posttraumatic growth processes, and impart knowledge about long-term regenerative coping strategies.
LPS-Induced Proliferation and Chemokine Secretion from BEAS-2B Cells  [PDF]
Eugen J. Verspohl, Julia Podlogar
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.32024
Abstract: The surface antigen CD14 plays an important role in innate immunity, serving as a pattern recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferation, NFκB activation, and chemokine secretion of BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, after LPS stimulation, and some details of inVolved signaling. The presence of CD14 was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was measured with a [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. sCD14, RANTES, and IL-8 concentrations in cell supernatants were measured by ELISA. BEAS-2B cells express CD14 on their surface and secrete soluble CD14 into the supernatant. Cells react on LPS with increased proliferation, activation of NFκB, and the secretion of the pro-inflammatory chemotactic cytokines IL-8 and RANTES, which proves the functionality of the CD14 receptor. Neither CD14 nor sCD14 are regulated by LPS. Specific inhibitors of various intracellular signaling pathways diminish the LPS-induced proliferation and IL-8 secretion: Thus MAP-Kinases p38 and JNK, tyrosine kinases, and PI3-kinase are involved in the signaling cascade from the LPS-CD14-complex on the cell surface to the increased cell proliferation and expression of IL-8; furthermore, ERK 1/2, IRAK 1/4, and the NFκB pathway are inVolved in the latter. The data show the existence and functionality of CD14 receptors on BEAS-2B cells and elucidate the signaling pathways inVolved. LPS is able to increase cell prolife-ration, various cytokines which are dependent on endogenous CD14. Three MAPK pathways, PI3 kinase and tyrosine kinase may be involved. Also CD14 is present/involved which was controversial.
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