Abstract:
In this paper, random coding error exponents and cutoff rate are studied for noncoherent Rician fading channels, where neither the receiver nor the transmitter has channel side information. First, it is assumed that the input is subject only to an average power constraint. In this case, a lower bound to the random coding error exponent is considered and the optimal input achieving this lower bound is shown to have a discrete amplitude and uniform phase. If the input is subject to both average and peak power constraints, it is proven that the optimal input achieving the random coding error exponent has again a discrete nature. Finally, the cutoff rate is analyzed, and the optimality of the single-mass input amplitude distribution in the low-power regime is discussed.

Abstract:
The low-snr capacity of M-ary PSK transmission over both the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and fading channels is analyzed when hard-decision detection is employed at the receiver. Closed-form expressions for the first and second derivatives of the capacity at zero snr are obtained. The spectral-efficiency/bit-energy tradeoff in the low-snr regime is analyzed by finding the wideband slope and the bit energy required at zero spectral efficiency. Practical design guidelines are drawn from the information-theoretic analysis. The fading channel analysis is conducted for both coherent and noncoherent cases, and the performance penalty in the low-power regime for not knowing the channel is identified.

Abstract:
In this paper, the bit energy requirements of training-based transmission over block Rayleigh fading channels are studied. Pilot signals are employed to obtain the minimum mean-square-error (MMSE) estimate of the channel fading coefficients. Energy efficiency is analyzed in the worst case scenario where the channel estimate is assumed to be perfect and the error in the estimate is considered as another source of additive Gaussian noise. It is shown that bit energy requirement grows without bound as the snr goes to zero, and the minimum bit energy is achieved at a nonzero snr value below which one should not operate. The effect of the block length on both the minimum bit energy and the snr value at which the minimum is achieved is investigated. Flash training schemes are analyzed and shown to improve the energy efficiency in the low-snr regime. Energy efficiency analysis is also carried out when peak power constraints are imposed on pilot signals.

Abstract:
In this paper, the performance of signaling strategies with high peak-to-average power ratio is analyzed in both coherent and noncoherent fading channels. Two recently proposed modulation schemes, namely on-off binary phase-shift keying and on-off quaternary phase-shift keying, are considered. For these modulation formats, the optimal decision rules used at the detector are identified and analytical expressions for the error probabilities are obtained. Numerical techniques are employed to compute the error probabilities. It is concluded that increasing the peakedness of the signals results in reduced error rates for a given power level and hence improve the energy efficiency.

Abstract:
In this paper, the capacity and energy efficiency of training-based communication schemes employed for transmission over a-priori unknown Rayleigh block fading channels are studied. In these schemes, periodically transmitted training symbols are used at the receiver to obtain the minimum mean-square-error (MMSE) estimate of the channel fading coefficients. Initially, the case in which the product of the estimate error and transmitted signal is assumed to be Gaussian noise is considered. In this case, it is shown that bit energy requirements grow without bound as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) goes to zero, and the minimum bit energy is achieved at a nonzero SNR value below which one should not operate. The effect of the block length on both the minimum bit energy and the SNR value at which the minimum is achieved is investigated. Flash training and transmission schemes are analyzed and shown to improve the energy efficiency in the low-SNR regime. In the second part of the paper, the capacity and energy efficiency of training-based schemes are investigated when the channel input is subject to peak power constraints. The capacity-achieving input structure is characterized and the magnitude distribution of the optimal input is shown to be discrete with a finite number of mass points. The capacity, bit energy requirements, and optimal resource allocation strategies are obtained through numerical analysis. The bit energy is again shown to grow without bound as SNR decreases to zero due to the presence of peakedness constraints. The improvements in energy efficiency when on-off keying with fixed peak power and vanishing duty cycle is employed are studied. Comparisons of the performances of training-based and noncoherent transmission schemes are provided.

Abstract:
The central design challenge in next generation wireless systems is to have these systems operate at high bandwidths and provide high data rates while being cognizant of the energy consumption levels especially in mobile applications. Since communicating at very high data rates prohibits obtaining high bit resolutions from the analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, analysis of the energy efficiency under the assumption of hard-decision detection is called for to accurately predict the performance levels. In this paper, transmission over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, and coherent and noncoherent fading channels is considered, and the impact of hard-decision detection on the energy efficiency of phase and frequency modulations is investigated. Energy efficiency is analyzed by studying the capacity of these modulation schemes and the energy required to send one bit of information reliably in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. The capacity of hard-decision-detected phase and frequency modulations is characterized at low SNR levels through closed-form expressions for the first and second derivatives of the capacity at zero SNR. Subsequently, bit energy requirements in the low-SNR regime are identified. The increases in the bit energy incurred by hard-decision detection and channel fading are quantified. Moreover, practical design guidelines for the selection of the constellation size are drawn from the analysis of the spectral efficiency--bit energy tradeoff.

Abstract:
In this paper, the performance of signaling strategies with high peak-to-average power ratio is analyzed over both coherent and noncoherent fading channels. Two modulation schemes, namely on-off phase-shift keying (OOPSK) and on-off frequency-shift keying (OOFSK), are considered. Initially, uncoded systems are analyzed. For OOPSK and OOFSK, the optimal detector structures are identified and analytical expressions for the error probabilities are obtained for arbitrary constellation sizes. Numerical techniques are employed to compute the error probabilities. It is concluded that increasing the peakedness of the signals results in reduced error rates for a given power level and hence equivalently improves the energy efficiency for fixed error probabilities. The coded performance is also studied by analyzing the random coding error exponents achieved by OOPSK and OOFSK signaling.

Abstract:
In this paper, transmission over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, and coherent and noncoherent fading channels using M-ary orthogonal frequency-shift keying (FSK) or on-off frequency-shift keying (OOFSK) is considered. The receiver is assumed to perform hard-decision detection. In this setting, energy required to reliably send one bit of information is investigated. It is shown that for fixed M and duty cycle, bit energy requirements grow without bound as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) vanishes. The minimum bit energy values are numerically obtained for different values of M and the duty cycle. The impact of fading on the energy efficiency is identified. Requirements to approach the minimum bit energy of -1.59 dB are determined.

Abstract:
Secrecy capacity of a multiple-antenna wiretap channel is studied in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. Expressions for the first and second derivatives of the secrecy capacity with respect to SNR at SNR = 0 are derived. Transmission strategies required to achieve these derivatives are identified. In particular, it is shown that it is optimal in the low-SNR regime to transmit in the maximum-eigenvalue eigenspace of H_m* H_m - N_m/N_e H_e* H_e where H_m and H_e denote the channel matrices associated with the legitimate receiver and eavesdropper, respectively, and N_m and N_e are the noise variances at the receiver and eavesdropper, respectively. Energy efficiency is analyzed by finding the minimum bit energy required for secure and reliable communications, and the wideband slope. Increased bit energy requirements under secrecy constraints are quantified. Finally, the impact of fading is investigated.

Abstract:
In this paper, wireless systems operating under queueing constraints in the form of limitations on the buffer violation probabilities are considered. The throughput under such constraints is captured by the effective capacity formulation. It is assumed that finite blocklength codes are employed for transmission. Under this assumption, a recent result on the channel coding rate in the finite blocklength regime is incorporated into the analysis and the throughput achieved with such codes in the presence of queueing constraints and decoding errors is identified. Performance of different transmission strategies (e.g., variable-rate, variable-power, and fixed-rate transmissions) is studied. Interactions between the throughput, queueing constraints, coding blocklength, decoding error probabilities, and signal-to-noise ratio are investigated and several conclusions with important practical implications are drawn.