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KUR’ N’DA B LG VE Dü üNCE üRET M / KNOWLADGE AND THINKING PRODUCING IN THE HOLY QUR’AN
Musa BLGZ
Journal of the Human and Social Science Researches (itobiad) , 2012,
Abstract: Kur’an, bilgi ger e ine zihnimizi veya g nlümüzü ge ici olarak doyuran bir tatmin arac olarak bakmaz. Aksine o, bilgiyi, insan n Allah ve evrenle ili kisini düzenleyen bir vas ta olarak de erlendirir. Kur’an a s ndan ilmin ve medeniyetin esas gayesi, evrende bulunan varl klar ve onlarla ilgili ger ekleri “okumak”; buradan hareketle Allah’ n varl n , birli ini ve yüceli ini O’nun istedi i ekilde tan ma gayreti i ine girmektir.Kur’an, “ger e in bilgisine” ula mak i in yap lan tüm zihn , kalb ve beden faaliyetleri, hi üphesiz “bilgi üretme” ve “dü ünme” eylemi olarak de erlendirir. Bunun yan s ra “hakikate ula ma abalar n da ibadet olarak g rür. Kur’an, insan n Allah taraf ndan bilgilendirildi i ayetlere yer verdi i kadar, onun bu ayetleri anlama, yorumlama ve bunlardan hareket ederek yeni bak a lar geli tirmesine de yer verir. Bu makalede, insan taraf ndan üretilebilecek bilgilere, bunlar n kullan m na ve bu eylemleri ger ekle tirirken sergileyebilece i dü ünme ile ilgili kavramlara yer verilecektir.The Holy Qur’an does not handle the fact of knowladge as a means of satisfaction feeding our minds and hearts temporarily. Unlike that, it evaluates knowladge as a means of arranging human’s relationship with universe and God. The main aim of science and civilization from the view of the Holy Qur’an is to “read” creatures in universe and realitiesabout them; from this point, to try to know God’s existance, solidarity and dignity as HE wants.The Holy Qur’an values all mental, emotional and physical actions done to reach “knowledge of facts undoubtly as “producing knowladge” and “ thinking” activities. In addition, it also sees the efforts to reach the facts as worship. The Holy Qur’an gives place not only to the verses that human is acknowladged by God but also the human’s understanding these verses, commenting them and developing new points of views from them. In this article, knowladge which can be produced by human, usage of them and the concepts about thinking which may be displayed while fulfilling these activities by human will be explained.
Lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma treated with intraarterial chemotherapy
Bülent KARAG?Z,O?uz BLG,Cengiz DUMAN,??nar BA?EK?M
Turkish Journal of Oncology , 2009,
Abstract: Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant tumor of glandular tissue and progresses with local relapse and distant metastasis. In this report, we present a case of lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma who treated by multimodal approach with intraarterial chemotherapy. A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma (solid variant) of the left lacrimal gland. Neoadjuvant intraarterial cisplatin, intravenous doxorubicin, and orbital exenteration were performed. The patient was followed for 32 months without relapse. Achievement of long-time survival for this disease supports studies that show benefit of intraarterial chemotherapy.
Comparison of the effects of two different types of suture material and two different suturing techniques on late postoperative stenosis in rabbit trachea
Mehmet BLG?N,Bekir TEZCAN,Kemal DEN?Z,Cemal KAHRAMAN
Erciyes Medical Journal , 2002,
Abstract: Purpose: The authors aimed at determining the most suitable surgical technique and suture material in order to increase the quality of life and to decrease the surgical granulation tissue that impairs pulmonary functions by postoperative tracheal stenosis .Material and Method: This experimental study was carried out on 24 New Zeland rabbits of both sexes. Effects of two different suture materials and two different surgical techniques on late recovery period were compared in the developing rabbit trachea .Results: Average tracheal area were calculated as 19.69±2.18 mm2 in the 1st group, 15.33±2.69 mm2 in the 2nd group, 16.95±2.93 mm2 in the 3rd group and 9.01±2.64 mm2 in the 4th group. A statistically significant difference was found (p<0.05). The proportion of the tracheal area measured at control surgery to the optimal tracheal area was found as follows: 0.78 in the 1st group, 0.61 in the 2nd group, 0.69 in the 3rd group, and 0.35 in the 4th group. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups with respect to tracheal area proportions (p<0.05).Conclusion: Our results suggest that absorbable sutures that are stitched intermittently are superior to other methods or materials for the tracheobronchial reconstruction operations carried out in the childhood period.
A Deadly Complication of Superficial Muscular Needle Electromyography: Bilateral Pneumothoraces
Erden Erol ünlüer,P?nar Ye?im Akyol,Arif Karag?z,Serkan Blg?n
Case Reports in Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/861787
Abstract: Needle electromyography (EMG) is an expression of the physiological or pathophysiological state of muscles. Selection of the type of electrode used during these measurements is based upon several factors, including the location of the muscle of interest, the need for specificity, and the requirement of minimization of cross-talk between adjacent muscles. Pneumothorax is a serious complication of needle EMG. Here, we present a 19-year-old patient who suffered bilateral pneumothoraces as a complication of needle EMG. She has a history of weakness and limitation of abduction on her right shoulder for three years. EMG was ordered by orthopedic surgeon to determine whether a dorsal scapular or long thoracic nerve paralysis caused these symptoms. She was brought to our emergency department (ED) with the complaints of diaphoresis and dyspnea which began after needle EMG was performed two hours ago. A chest X-ray revealed bilateral small pneumothoraces and was confirmed by computed thoracic tomography scan. Patient was admitted to observation unit in ED. Thoracic ultrasonography was preferred to follow up the patient. After five days, pneumothoraces were dissolved on bilaterally and the patient was discharged to home. Iatrogenic pneumothorax is a complication observed at various clinical fields. Emergency physician must consider this possibility in patients admitted with dyspnea after needle EMG. 1. Introduction Needle electromyography (EMG) is an expression of the physiological or pathophysiological state of muscles. The electrical potentials are observed after the needle electrode is inserted into the muscle. In patients with assumed peripheral nerve damage EMG is designated to differentiate damage located in muscle or nerve; if damage is present, it can be used to measure severity of damage. It is useful in pinpointing the exact location of damage [1]. Selection of the type of electrode used during these measurements is based upon several factors, including the location of the muscle of interest, the need for specificity, and the requirement of minimization of cross-talk between adjacent muscles. Deep muscles require the use of fine wire electrodes, while superficial muscle activity can be detected with surface electrodes [2]. Pneumothorax is a serious complication of needle EMG [3]. Here, we present a 19-year-old patient who suffered bilateral pneumothoraces as a complication of needle EMG and to our best knowledge this was the first case of bilateral iatrogenic pneumothoraces seen as a complication of superficial muscular needle EMG. 2. Case A 19-year-old
An Accurate Block Solver for Stiff Initial Value Problems
H. Musa,M. B. Suleiman,F. Ismail,N. Senu,Z. B. Ibrahim
ISRN Applied Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/567451
Abstract: New implicit block formulae that compute solution of stiff initial value problems at two points simultaneously are derived and implemented in a variable step size mode. The strategy for changing the step size for optimum performance involves halving, increasing by a multiple of 1.7, or maintaining the current step size. The stability analysis of the methods indicates their suitability for solving stiff problems. Numerical results are given and compared with some existing backward differentiation formula algorithms. The results indicate an improvement in terms of accuracy. 1. Introduction Stiff problems occur in many fields of engineering science and they represent coupled physical systems having components varying with very different time scales [1]. Some physical examples include chemical kinetics where reactions go at very different speeds and in circuit simulation where components respond at widely different time scales. A considerable research has been done on numerical methods for solving stiff initial value problems (IVPs) of the following form: The most successful ones are implicit in nature. Examples include single step methods like the diagonally implicit Runge Kutta (DIRK) methods, single diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (SDIRK), and singly implicit Runge-Kutta methods [2–4]. Also well known are methods based on Richardson extrapolation and deferred correction schemes [5–8]. Others are multistep methods like the backward differentiation formula (BDF) (see, e.g., [4]). Initially, the BDF methods are known to be -stable only up to order 2 [9]. However, Cash in [10] proved that the barrier in [9] can be circumvented by adding extra future point to produce higher order -stable methods. Methods of this type are known as extended backward differentiation formula [10–12]. Some block methods for stiff problems are also known to be A-stable and have order greater than two (see, e.g., [13–18]). One of the motivation of this paper is to develop a new block method based on the block backward differentiation formula [13, 14, 17]. The method is similar in fashion with that in [15] but differs greatly by the choice of the constant . Furthermore, our choice of gives rise to different formulae with better stability regions than in [15], even with the choice of the same step ratio . In the following sections of the paper, we will present the derivation of the method, its stability analysis, and implementation. Standard test problems will also be presented and a comparison of their numerical results with some known stiff solvers will be given. 2. Formulation of
Civil Society and Civic Consciousness = Sivil Toplum ve Sosyal Bilin
Mert BLG?N
Dogus University Journal , 2004,
Abstract: The meta-narratives of modern times are considered as the most significant factors impeding the development of the civil society' that coincided with the western definition of democracy. Nevertheless, this article suggests that the real problem was institutional inadequacy, which was produced by lack of civic consciousness. The best evidence for this argument is the search by theoreticians for a civic consciousness despite their different ideological orientations. Indeed, the demise of meta-narratives in post-modern times does not tend to lead to a more civil society because of the vicissitude of this extant institutional inadequacy, which appears to be created by the decline of cultural understanding of civic consciousness.
SON D NEM OSMANLI SL M HUKUK ULARINDAN EYHZADE AHMED Z YA EFEND N N HASAN KUDS EFEND DEN ALDI I LM CAZET / AHMED ZIYA EFENDI’S DIPLOMA RECIEVED FROM MUDERRIS (PROFFESOR) HASAN KUDSI EFENDI IN THE LAST PERIOD OF OTTOMAN STATE
?smail BLG?L?
Journal of the Human and Social Science Researches (itobiad) , 2012,
Abstract: zet cazet, ilmin aktar lmas nda nemli bir belgedir. rencinin belli bir ilmi yeterlili e sahip oldu unu g steren icazet, Hz. Peygamber (s.a.v)’e kadar ilim al nan hocalar g steren tarihi bir vesikad r. Makalede Osmanl Devletinin son d nemlerinde yeti erek slam Hukuk ulu u ile n plana kan Konya müderrislerinden eyhzade Ahmed Ziya Efendinin Müderris Hasan Kuds Efendiden ald ilmi icazet1 incelendi. Konu edindi imiz icazet, akli ve nakli tüm ilimleri kapsad ve hoca silsilesine ayr nt l yer verdi i i in ilmi icazetin ‘genel icazet/icazet-i amme’ k sm na bir rnektir. Makalenin birinci b lümü Ahmed Ziya Efendi ile hocas Hasan Kuds Efendinin k sa biyografilerine ayr ld . kinci b lümde icazet hakk nda genel bilgi sunulduktan sonra icazetin de erlendirmesi yap ld . ü üncü b lümde de icazetin Türk eye tercümesi sunuldu.Anahtar Kelimeler: cazet, F k h, lim, MedreseAbstractAuthorization is an important document the transfer of knowledge. Showing that the student has a specific scientific competence, This document is historical certificate and evidence from knowledge of the teachers to the Prophet. In this article, we studied eyhzade (dervish’s son) Ahmed Ziya Efendi’s diploma recieved from Muderris (proffesor) Hasan Kuds Efendi that was Islamic jurist and lived in the last period of Ottoman State. This sertificate is an example part of the general sertificate for mental and transplants covered by all the sciences and given in detail for the scientific diploma. Firstly in this article we mentioned Ahmed Ziya Efendi’s and Hasan Kuds Efendi’s short biographies. Secondly we presented information about authorization/icazet after that assessed this sertificate. Thirdly we translated this authorication to Turkish.
Factors Associated with Occupational Stress and Their Effects on Organizational Performance in a Sudanese University  [PDF]
Ahlam B. El Shikieri, Hassan A. Musa
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31022
Abstract: Occupational stress has a significant impact on student learning and thereby on the contribution that such institutions can make to society. This affects organizational performance by reducing productivity and efficiency which affect the organization negatively. The aim of the current study was to determine the factors associated with occupational stress and their relationship with organizational performance at one of the private universities in Sudan. A total of 150 male and female employees from different departments and with various educational levels in the main building of the university were randomly selected. Data was collected using a questionnaire with background questions, job stressors such as role conflict and ambiguity, lack of participation in decision making, lack of authority, workload, unsatisfactory working conditions and interpersonal relationships, and statements about the effect on organisational performance. Questions were based on three- and four-point scale. Responses were grouped in terms of scores to show the level of job stress. Descriptive statistics was carried out using SPSS programme. Results indicated that on average the employees experienced high degree of job stress. Job stressors affected the general physical health of employees, their job satisfaction and performance as well as their commitment negatively. Similar findings were reported in other studies. The study recommended that the university needs to elevate the situation and resolve all the factors affecting the employees by for example increasing the number of staff needed to perform the tasks and/or decreasing the number of students enrolled.
AN INVESTIGATION OF BULLYING ACCORDING TO CLASSROOM CLIMATE
Elif BLG??,Filiz YURTAL
Journal of Theory and Practice in Education , 2009,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate three types of students’ perceptions of classroom climate in primary schools: Bullies, victims, and students uninvolved in bullying. The sample of this research was based on three state schools in Avc lar, Istanbul. Out of all 4th and 5th grade students in these schools, 29 students uninvolved in bullying (18.5 %), 91 victims (58 %), and 37 bullies (23.5 %) participated in this study (N=157). For qualitative data, 15 students from each group as identified below –in total 45 students- were interviewed. The results of the study showed that students uninvolved in bullying had a more positive perception of classroom climate than victims and bullies. These students uninvolved in bullying perceived their classroom teacher as a partner who relaxed and supported them and who shared his own concerns with them. Also, they tended to establish more positive relationships with their teachers. As for students’ perceptions of classroom climate, students uninvolved in bullying and bullies stated that they were happy in their classrooms when compared to victims.
Identification and Localization of Prostate Cancer with Combined Use of T2-Weighted, Diffusion Weighted MRI and Proton MR Spectroscopy, Correlation with Histopathology  [PDF]
Baki Hekimo?lu, Hasan Aydin, Volkan K?zlgz, ?dil Güne? Tatar, Ali R?za Ugan, ?rem Paker
Advances in Molecular Imaging (AMI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ami.2013.33005
Abstract: Purpose: To predict the diagnostic performance of combined use of T2-weighted imaging (T2W)-diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-proton MR spectroscopy (H-MRS) for the detection of prostate cancer, correlated to histopathology as the reference standard. Method: After institutional review board approval, 40 patients with prostate cancer were included in this retrospective research. Two readers evaluated the results of T2W, DWI-ADC mapping and H-MRS independently for the depiction of prostate cancer. Reference standard was the TRUS-guided biopsy and the surgical histopathological results. Statistical analysis was assessed by Fisher’s exact t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, variance analysis test with Kappa (k) values and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for ADC values, Cho/Cit and Cho + Cre/Cit ratios for each observer. Results: Both readers declined 46% sensitivity and 68% specificity for T2W sequence, 29% sensitivity and 82% specificity for DWI-ADC mapping and 49% specificity for Cho/Cit and Cho + Cre/Cit ratios, 69% sensitivity for Cho/Cit 70% sensitivity for Cho + Cre/Cit ratios of H-MRS. T2W + DWI-ADC mapping + H-MRS (Cho/Cit and Cho + Cre/Cit ratios) regarded 81% sensitivity and 66% specificity, with significant statistical differences to the reference histopathology (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Combination of T2W, DWI and H-MRS were more sensitive and more accurate than either sequences alone, for prostate cancer localization and detection.
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