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Dancing with the Electrons: Time-Domain and CW In Vivo EPR Imaging
Sankaran Subramanian and Murali C. Krishna
Magnetic Resonance Insights , 2012,
Abstract: The progress in the development of imaging the distribution of unpaired electrons in living systems and the functional and the potential diagnostic dimensions of such an imaging process, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging (EPRI), is traced from its origins with emphasis on our own work. The importance of EPR imaging stems from the fact that many paramagnetic probes show oxygen dependent spectral broadening. Assessment of in vivo oxygen concentration is an important factor in radiation oncology in treatment-planning and monitoring treatment-outcome. The emergence of narrow-line trairylmethyl based, bio-compatible spin probes has enabled the development of radiofrequency time-domain EPRI. Spectral information in time-domain EPRI can be achieved by generating a time sequence of T2* or T2 weighted images. Progress in CW imaging has led to the use of rotating gradients, more recently rapid scan with direct detection, and a combination of all the three. Very low field MRI employing Dynamic Nuclear polarization (Overhauser effect) is also employed for monitoring tumor hypoxia, and re-oxygenation in vivo. We have also been working on the co-registration of MRI and time domain EPRI on mouse tumor models at 300 MHz using a specially designed resonator assembly. The mapping of the unpaired electron distribution and unraveling the spectral characteristics by using magnetic resonance in presence of stationary and rotating gradients in indeed ‘dancing with the (unpaired) electrons’, metaphorically speaking.
Dancing with the Electrons: Time-Domain and CW In Vivo EPR Imaging
Sankaran Subramanian,Murali C. Krishna
Magnetic Resonance Insights , 2008,
Abstract: The progress in the development of imaging the distribution of unpaired electrons in living systems and the functional and the potential diagnostic dimensions of such an imaging process, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging (EPRI), is traced from its origins with emphasis on our own work. The importance of EPR imaging stems from the fact that many paramagnetic probes show oxygen dependent spectral broadening. Assessment of in vivo oxygen concentration is an important factor in radiation oncology in treatment-planning and monitoring treatment-outcome. The emergence of narrow-line trairylmethyl based, bio-compatible spin probes has enabled the development of radiofrequency time-domain EPRI. Spectral information in time-domain EPRI can be achieved by generating a time sequence of T2* or T2 weighted images. Progress in CW imaging has led to the use of rotating gradients, more recently rapid scan with direct detection, and a combination of all the three. Very low field MRI employing Dynamic Nuclear polarization (Overhauser effect) is also employed for monitoring tumor hypoxia, and re-oxygenation in vivo. We have also been working on the co-registration of MRI and time domain EPRI on mouse tumor models at 300 MHz using a specially designed resonator assembly. The mapping of the unpaired electron distribution and unraveling the spectral characteristics by using magnetic resonance in presence of stationary and rotating gradients in indeed ‘dancing with the (unpaired) electrons’, metaphorically speaking.
Dancing with the Electrons: Time-Domain and CW In Vivo EPR Imaging
Sankaran Subramanian,Murali C. Krishna
Magnetic Resonance Insights , 2008,
Abstract:
Raman Spectroscopic Methods for Classification of Normal and Malignant Hypopharyngeal Tissues: An Exploratory Study
Parul Pujary,K. Maheedhar,C. Murali Krishna,Kailesh Pujary
Pathology Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/632493
Abstract: Laryngeal cancer is more common in males. The present study is aimed at exploration of potential of conventional Raman spectroscopy in classifying normal from a malignant laryngopharyngeal tissue. We have recorded Raman spectra of twenty tissues (aryepiglottic fold) using an in-house built Raman setup. The spectral features of mean malignant spectrum suggests abundance proteins whereas spectral features of mean normal spectrum indicate redundancy of lipids. PCA was employed as discriminating algorithm. Both, unsupervised and supervised modes of analysis as well as match/mismatch “limit test” methodology yielded clear classification among tissue types. The findings of this study demonstrate the efficacy of conventional Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and malignant laryngopharyngeal tissues. A rigorous evaluation of the models with development of suitable fibreoptic probe may enable real-time Raman spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal cancers in future. 1. Introduction “Hypopharyngeal,” also known as “laryngopharyngeal,” cancers are tumors of a subsite of the upper aerodigestive tract within the group of head and neck malignancies. The hypopharynx is the region between the oropharynx and the esophageal inlet. Approximately 7% of all cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract are of hypopharyngeal origin [1]. Incidence of these cancers seems to be four to five times less common compared to laryngeal cancers. All pharyngeal subsites accounted for approximately 1,24,000 cancer cases worldwide in 2002 [1]. India has the second largest population in the world with predominant oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal cancers among females and laryngeal cancers among males [2, 3]. This is attributed to intake of various tobacco products like “paan.” Smoked tobacco and slaked lime in paan are said to have synergistic carcinogenic effect in the upper aerodigestive tract [4]. Hypopharyngeal cancers are usually squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and are notorious as they usually present in advanced primary disease with or without nodal metastasis. The reconstruction after wide surgical resection in such cases is challenging and may increase morbidity and mortality. Hence early diagnosis is essential. A Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and neck is the mainstay initial radiological evaluation of these cancers [5]. PET scan is the latest imaging technique emerged to detect residual, recurrent tumors or secondaries. Due to occasional false positive results in cases of active inflammation or
REVIEW ON PLANTS MAINLY USED FOR THE PREPARATION OF KSHAR SUTRA
Murali Krishna C,Vikas Gupta,Parveen Bansal,Sanjiv Kumar
International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Many herbal remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different diseases. Ksharsutra- an Ayurvedic para-surgical measure is used the treatment of Nadi Vrana (sinus), Bhagandara (fistula- in - ano), arbuda (excision of small benign tumour) etc. by using different medicinal plants. The standard kshar sutra is prepared by using snuhi ksheera (latex of Euphorbia nerrifolia), apamarg kshar (water extract of ashes of Achyranthus aspera plant) and haridra powder (powder of Curcuma longa). This review mainly focuses on the plants that are used in preparation of Ksharsutra so that more research work is carried out in the direction of standardization, therapeutic level determination of Ksharsutra plants.
AN ENLIGHTENMENT ON RASAKRIYA KALPANA
Murali Krishna C,Pavan Kumar S,Venkata Ravikrishna Deevi
International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: There has been a great change in the drug dosage forms from the ancient to the modern texts of Ayurveda to increase palatability and also to help for the easy absorption of the drug. Rasakriya is one such dosage form which can be administered in very meager doses when compared to the whole plant drug. Preparation of the Rasakriya requires a skillful technique to get the maximum output. Hence the practical aspects of the preparation of the Rasakriya along with the standardization techniques have been enumerated in this article.
Impact of road widening on wildlife in Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, India: a conservation issue
Murali Krishna C,Awadhesh Kumar,Parimal Chandra Ray,Kuladip Sarma
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2013,
Abstract:
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SEXAGLIPTIN AND PIOGLITAZONE IN TABLETS
M.Sarat,P. Murali krishna,C Rambabu
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: A simple, selective, accurate high Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the analysis of Sexagliptin and Pioglitazone. Chromatographic separation achieved isocratically on a C18 column [Use Inertsil C18, 5m , 150 mm x 4.6 mm] utilizing a mobile phase of acetonitrile/phosphate buffer (60:40, v/v, pH 7.0) at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min with UV detection at 260nm.Aceclofenac was used as an internal standard. The retention time of Sexagliptin, pioglitazone and aceclofenac was 2.48, 4.45 and 6.34 min respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation.This study aimed at developing and validating an HPLC method, being simple, accurate and selective, and the proposed method can be used for the estimation of these drugs in combined dosage forms.
Serum Based Diagnosis of Asthma Using Raman Spectroscopy: An Early Phase Pilot Study
Aditi Sahu, Krishna Dalal, Sarla Naglot, Parveen Aggarwal, C. Murali Krishna
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078921
Abstract: The currently prescribed tests for asthma diagnosis require compulsory patient compliance, and are usually not sensitive to mild asthma. Development of an objective test using minimally invasive samples for diagnosing and monitoring of the response of asthma may help better management of the disease. Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in several biomedical applications, including pharmacology and forensics. In this study, we have explored the feasibility of detecting asthma and determining treatment response in asthma patients, through RS of serum. Serum samples from 44 asthma subjects of different grades (mild, moderate, treated severe and untreated severe) and from 15 reference subjects were subjected to Raman spectroscopic analysis and YKL-40 measurements. The force expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) values were used as gold standard and the serum YKL-40 levels were used as an additional parameter for diagnosing the different grades of asthma. For spectral acquisition, serum was placed on a calcium fluoride (CaF2) window and spectra were recorded using Raman microprobe. Mean and difference spectra comparisons indicated significant differences between asthma and reference spectra. Differences like changes in protein structure, increase in DNA specific bands and increased glycosaminoglycans-like features were more prominent with increase in asthma severity. Multivariate tools using Principal-component-analysis (PCA) and Principal-component based-linear-discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) followed by Leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV), were employed for data analyses. PCA and PC-LDA results indicate separation of all asthma groups from the reference group, with minor overlap (19.4%) between reference and mild groups. No overlap was observed between the treated severe and untreated severe groups, indicating that patient response to treatment could be determined. Overall promising results were obtained, and a large scale validation study on random subjects is warranted before the routine clinical usage of this technique.
Optical, Spectroscopic, and Doppler Evaluation of “Normal” and “Abnormal” Reflexology Areas in Lumbar Vertebral Pathology: A Case Study
Krishna Dalal,D. Elanchezhiyan,V. B. Maran,Raunak Kumar Das,Piyush Kumar,S. P. Singh,C. Murali Krishna,Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
Case Reports in Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/904729
Abstract: Scientific validation of reflexology requires an in-depth and noninvasive evaluation of “reflexology/reflex areas” in health and disease. The present paper reports the differential properties of “normal” and “abnormal” reflexology areas related to the lumbar vertebrae in a subject suffering from low back pain. The pathology is supported by radiological evidence. The reflexology target regions were clinically assessed with respect to colour and tenderness in response to finger pressure. Grey scale luminosity and pain intensity, as assessed by visual analogue scale scores, differentiated “normal” from “abnormal” skin. Skin swept source-optical coherence tomography recorded their structural differences. Infrared thermography revealed temperature variations. A laser Doppler study using a combined microcirculation and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring system indicated alterations in blood flow and oxygen perfusion. Raman spectroscopy showed differences in chemical signatures between these areas. The present findings may indicate a potential correlation between the reflexology areas and subsurface pathological changes, showing an association with the healthy or unhealthy status of the lumbar vertebrae. 1. Introduction In the last decade, research to develop ecofriendly technological solutions for numerous problems has been intensified. The latest medical research aims at identifying diagnostic and remedial means that not only are less energy intensive and noninvasive but also have higher specificity. In this context, ancient healing practices may meet modern medical needs across many dimensions [1–3]. However, the modus operandi of these practices needs to be investigated scientifically to reveal their potential applications. One such practice is “reflexology,” which is a traditional, ecofriendly, therapeutic, and diagnostic practice [4]. Numerous reports indicate the therapeutic effectiveness of reflexology [5–7], and thus this study aimed to explore the fundamentals of this healing science using the latest analytical techniques. The present paper reports on the crucial features of reflexology in health and pathology, recorded through noninvasive optical, spectroscopic, and thermography techniques [8, 9]. In diagnosis and therapy, reflexology exploits potentiality of specific areas of the skin surface, called “reflexology/reflex” areas (RAs), which represent the structural and functional dimensions of various parts of the body [10]. It is assumed that the RAs provide specific cutaneous windows for noninvasive therapeutic intervention through external
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