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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20590 matches for " Munzhedzi James Mafela "
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Kinship Terminology: Problems in Some English-Tshiven a Bilingual Dictionaries
Munzhedzi James Mafela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/17--536
Abstract: : With the introduction of a new political dispensation in South Africa; bilingual dictionaries have become a necessary part of daily life. The main function of a bilingual dictionary is to provide one or more equivalents in the target language for the entry words in the source language. Not all bilingual dictionaries realize this objective satisfactorily; Tshiven a bilingual dictionaries included. Some bilingual dictionaries in Tshiven a provide one equivalent instead of all equivalents associated with the entry word of the source language; especially if Tshiven a is the target language. Not providing all equivalents renders a bilingual dictionary inadequate; because users do not always find what they look for. By focusing on kinship terms in some English–Tshiven a bilingual dictionaries; this article discusses examples of inadequate treatment. The article further advocates the inclusion of all possible equivalents under such entry words. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY; CROSS-RELATIONSHIP; DICTIONARY USER; EQUIVALENT; INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE; KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY; ORTHO-RELATION-SHIP; SOURCE LANGUAGE; LEXICAL UNIT; LEXICOGRAPHER; RELATIVES; TARGET LANGUAGE; TRANSLATION Opsomming: Verwantskapsterminologie: Probleme in sommige Engels–Tshiven a tweetalige woordeboeke. Met die invoering van 'n nuwe politieke bedeling in Suid-Afrika het tweetalige woordeboeke 'n noodsaaklike deel van die daaglikse lewe geword. Die hooffunksie van 'n tweetalige woordeboek is om een of meer ekwivalente in die doeltaal vir die trefwoorde in die brontaal te verskaf. Nie alle tweetalige woordeboeke verwesenlik hierdie doel bevredigend nie; Tshiven a tweetalige woordeboeke ingesluit. Sommige tweetalige woordeboeke in Tshiven a verskaf een ekwivalent in plaas van al die ekwivalente wat in verband staan met die trefwoord van die brontaal; veral as Tshiven a die doeltaal is. Deur nie alle ekwivalente te verskaf nie maak 'n tweetalige woordeboek ontoereikend omdat gebruikers nie altyd kry wat hulle soek nie. Deur op verwantskapsterme in sommige Engels–Tshiven a tweetalige woordeboeke te fokus; bespreek hierdie artikel voorbeelde van onvoldoende behandeling. Verder bepleit die artikel die insluiting van alle moontlike ekwivalente onder sulke trefwoorde. Sleutelwoorde: BRONTAAL; DOELTAAL; EKWIVALENT; INHEEMSE TAAL; KRUIS-VERWANTSKAP; LEKSIKALE EENHEID; LEKSIKOGRAAF; ORTOVERWANTSKAP; TWEE-TALIGE WOORDEBOEK; VERTALING; VERWANTE; VERWANTSKAPSTERMINOLOGIE; WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIKER
Meaning Discrimination in Bilingual Venda Dictionaries
Munzhedzi James Mafela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/15-0-18
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Venda, one of the minority languages in South Africa, has few dictionaries. All are translational bilingual dictionaries meant for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with equivalents which they cannot distinguish. In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not helpful for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Devices such as giving illustrative examples, indicating parts of speech and adding etymology could be used to solve the problem of meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries. This article highlights the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination and suggests solutions to future Venda lexico-graphers in this regard. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, MEANING DISCRIMINATION, EQUIVALENCE, ENTRY-WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, CULTURE, TRANSLATION, SOURCE LANGUAGE, TAR-GET LANGUAGE, SYNONYM, POLYSEMY ***** OPSOMMING: Betekenisonderskeiding in tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke. Venda, een van die minderheidstale in Suid-Afrika, het min woordeboeke. Almal is vertalende tweetalige woordeboeke bedoel vir woordeboekgebruikers wat nie moedertaalsprekers van die taal is nie. Woordeboekgebruikers vind dit moeilik om tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke te gebruik om-dat hulle gekonfronteer word met ekwivalente wat hulle nie kan onderskei nie. In die meeste gevalle word die ekwivalente van die trefwoorde verskaf sonder om betekenisonderskeiding aan te dui. Sonder 'n goeie beheersing van Venda en die aanduiding van betekenisonderskeiding, sal gebruikers dit moeilik vind om die regte keuse van die ekwivalent waarvoor hule soek, te maak. Tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke is dus nie van hulp vir woordeboekgebruikers wat nie moedertaal-sprekers van die taal is nie. Middele soos die gee van ophelderende voorbeelde, die aantoon van rededele en die byvoeging van etimologie kan gebruik word om die probleem van betekenisonder-skeiding in tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke op te los. Hierdie artikel beklemtoon die probleem van die afwesigheid van betekenisonderskeiding en dien oplossings in dié verband aan die hand vir toekomstige Vendaleksikograwe. Sleutelwoorde: TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, BETEKENISONDERSKEIDING, EKWI-VALENSIE, TREFWOORD, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, KULTUUR, V
L.T. Marole: A Forgotten Pioneer in Tshiven a Lexicography *
Munzhedzi James Mafela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/18--492
Abstract: : L.T. Marole is a pioneer in Tshiven a lexicography. He is especially known for the compilation of word lists and phrase books. Through his production of these lexicographic works, Marole has preserved some Tshiven a terminology which is now regarded as obsolete; for example, terminology regarding names of animals, parts of the body, kinship relations and sicknesses. This type of terminology could be useful to the present younger generation. Readers may learn much about Tshiven a culture from Marole's works. However, his works have not received recognition from Vhaven a dictionary users and compilers. The public is largely unaware of his works. This article aims at making the public aware of Marole's contribution to the development of Tshiven a lexicography, emphasising that this contribution should not be ignored as being insignificant. Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, TRANSLATING DICTIONARY, BILINGUAL DICTIONARY,LINGUISTICS, TERMINOLOGY, LEXICAL ENTRY, EQUIVALENT, TRANSLATOR, CULTURE,KINSHIP TERMS, ORTHOGRAPHY, CONTEXT, DATABASE, DIALECT Opsomming: L.T. Marole: 'n Vergete pionier in Tshiven aleksikografie.L.T. Marole is 'n baanbreker op die gebied van Tshiven aleksikografie. Hy is veral bekend vir diesamestelling van woordelyste en taalgidse. Deur sy produksie van hierdie leksikografiese werke,het Marole sekere Tshiven aterme wat nou as verouderd beskou word, bewaar; byvoorbeeld, terminologiebetreffende die name van diere, liggaamsdele, verwantskapsbetrekkinge en siektes.Hierdie soort terminologie sou nuttig kon wees vir die huidige jonger geslag. Lesers kan baieomtrent die Tshiven akultuur uit Marole se werke leer. Sy werke het egter nie erkenning gekry vanVhaven awoordeboekgebruikers en -samestellers nie. Die publiek is grootliks onbewus van sywerke. Hierdie artikel beoog om die publiek bewus te maak van Marole se bydrae tot die ontwikkelingvan Tshiven aleksikografie deur te beklemtoon dat hierdie bydrae nie as onbelangrikge gnoreer behoort te word nie. Sleutelwoorde: LEKSIKOGRAFIE, VERTALENDE WOORDEBOEK, TWEETALIGEWOORDEBOEK, LINGUISTIEK, TERMINOLOGIE, LEKSIKALE INSKRYWING, EKWIVALENT,VERTALER, KULTUUR, VERWANTSKAPSTERME, ORTOGRAFIE, KONTEKS, DATABASIS,DIALEK
Borrowing and Dictionary Compilation: The Case of the Indigenous South African Languages
Munzhedzi James Mafela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/20-0-162
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Borrowing occurs when a language adds a word from another language to its own lexicon. Languages in neighbouring regions often borrow from each other. In South Africa, there are over nine indigenous languages, in addition to Afrikaans and English, all of which coexist. In their coexistence they borrow from one another. African language dictionaries reveal that these languages have borrowed a great deal from Afrikaans and English. However, one would expect these dictionaries to reflect some borrowing from other indigenous languages; on the contrary, they include very few such words. Although, one encounters many words from indigenous languages being used by other African languages in their spoken language and literary works, these are not included in dictionaries. This article seeks to highlight factors contributing to the failure to include words borrowed from other indigenous languages in African language dictionaries. OPSOMMING: Ontlening en woordeboeksamestelling: Die geval van inheemse Suid-Afrikaanse tale. Ontlening vind plaas wanneer 'n taal 'n woord uit 'n ander taal by sy eie leksikon voeg. Tale in aangrensende streke leen dikwels van mekaar. Daar is meer as nege inheemse tale in Suid-Afrika, bo en behalwe Afrikaans en Engels, wat saam bestaan. In hulle naasbestaan leen hulle van mekaar. Afrikataal-woordeboeke getuig daarvan dat hierdie tale heelwat uit Afrikaans en Engels geleen het. Daar sou egter verwag kon word dat hierdie woordeboeke sal getuig van ontlening uit ander inheemse tale; in teendeel, hulle sluit baie min van sulke woorde in. Alhoewel baie woorde van inheemse tale in ander Afrikatale gebruik word in die gesproke taal en letterkundige werke, is hierdie woorde nie in die woordeboeke opgeneem nie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die faktore uit te lig wat bydra tot die versuim om leenwoorde van ander inheemse tale in die Afrikataal-woordeboeke op te neem. Sleutelwoorde: ONTLENING, WOORDEBOEKSAMESTELLING, INHEEMSE TALE, LEKSIKON, MORFEEM, WOORDESKAT, ONTWIKKELENDE TALE, LEENWOORDE, TERMINOLOGIE, ETIMOLOGIE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE
Meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries
M Mafela
Lexikos , 2005,
Abstract: Venda, one of the minority languages in South Africa, has few dictionaries. All are translational bilingual dictionaries meant for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with equivalents which they cannot distinguish. In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not helpful for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Devices such as giving illustrative examples, indicating parts of speech and adding etymology could be used to solve the problem of meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries. This article highlights the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination and suggests solutions to future Venda lexico-graphers in this regard.
Borrowing and Dictionary Compilation: The Case of the Indigenous South African Languages
MJ Mafela
Lexikos , 2010,
Abstract: Borrowing occurs when a language adds a word from another language to its own lexicon. Languages in neighbouring regions often borrow from each other. In South Africa, there are over nine indigenous languages, in addition to Afrikaans and English, all of which coexist. In their coexistence they borrow from one another. African language dictionaries reveal that these languages have borrowed a great deal from Afrikaans and English. However, one would expect these dictionaries to reflect some borrowing from other indigenous languages; on the contrary, they include very few such words. Although, one encounters many words from indigenous languages being used by other African languages in their spoken language and literary works, these are not included in dictionaries. This article seeks to highlight factors contributing to the failure to include words borrowed from other indigenous languages in African language dictionaries.
Kinship Terminology: Problems in Some English–Tshivend√a Bilingual Dictionaries
M Mafela
Lexikos , 2007,
Abstract: With the introduction of a new political dispensation in South Africa, bilingual dic-tionaries have become a necessary part of daily life. The main function of a bilingual dictionary is to provide one or more equivalents in the target language for the entry words in the source lan-guage. Not all bilingual dictionaries realize this objective satisfactorily, Tshivend√a bilingual dic-tionaries included. Some bilingual dictionaries in Tshivend√a provide one equivalent instead of all equivalents associated with the entry word of the source language, especially if Tshivend√a is the target language. Not providing all equivalents renders a bilingual dictionary inadequate, because users do not always find what they look for. By focusing on kinship terms in some English–Tshi-vend√a bilingual dictionaries, this article discusses examples of inadequate treatment. The article further advocates the inclusion of all possible equivalents under such entry words.
L.T. Marole: A Forgotten Pioneer in Tshivend√a Lexicography
M J Mafela
Lexikos , 2008,
Abstract: Abstract: L.T. Marole is a pioneer in Tshivend√a lexicography. He is especially known for the compilation of word lists and phrase books. Through his production of these lexicographic works, Marole has preserved some Tshivend√a terminology which is now regarded as obsolete; for example, terminology regarding names of animals, parts of the body, kinship relations and sicknesses. This type of terminology could be useful to the present younger generation. Readers may learn much about Tshivend√a culture from Marole's works. However, his works have not received recognition from Vhavend√a dictionary users and compilers. The public is largely unaware of his works. This article aims at making the public aware of Marole's contribution to the development of Tshivend√a lexicography, emphasising that this contribution should not be ignored as being insignificant.
Beijing’s Policies for Managing Han and Ethnic-Minority Chinese Communities Abroad
James To
Journal of Current Chinese Affairs , 2012,
Abstract: The overseas Chinese (OC) form a vast network of powerful interest groups and important political actors capable of shaping the future of China from abroad by transmitting values back to their ancestral homeland (Tu 1991). While the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) welcomes and actively seeks to foster relations with the OC in order to advance China’s national interests, some cohorts may be hostile to the regime. In accordance with their distinct demographic and ethnic pro-files, the CCP’s qiaowu (侨务, OC affairs) infrastructure serves to entice, co-opt, or isolate various OC groupings. This article summarises the policies for managing different subsets of OC over the past three dec-ades, and argues that through qiaowu, the CCP has successfully unified cooperative groups for China’s benefit, while preventing discordant ones from eroding its grip on power.
The Program Assessment and Improvement Cycle Today: A New and Simple Taxonomy of General Types and Levels of Program Evaluation  [PDF]
James Carifio
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326145
Abstract: There has been strong pressure from just about every quarter in the last twenty years for higher education institutions to evaluate and improve their programs. This pressure is being exerted by several different stake holder groups simultaneously, and also represents the growing cumulative impact of four somewhat contradictory but powerful evaluation and improvement movements, models and advocacy groups. Consequently, the program assessment, evaluation and improvement cycle today is much different and far more complex than it was fifty years ago, or even two decades ago, and it is actually a highly diversified and confusing landscape from both the practitioner’s and consumer’s view of such evaluative and improvement information relative to seemingly different and competing advocacies, standards, foci, findings and asserted claims. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present and begin to elucidate a relatively simple general taxonomy that helps practitioners, consumers, and professionals to make better sense of competing evaluation and improvement models, methodologies and results today, which should help to improve communication and understanding and to have a broad, simple and useful framework or schema to help guide their more detailed learning.
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