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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2300 matches for " Mun Mun Mukherjee "
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Modulation of Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps of the Major Facilitator Superfamily
Sanath Kumar,Mun Mun Mukherjee,Manuel F. Varela
International Journal of Bacteriology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/204141
Abstract: Bacterial infections pose a serious public health concern, especially when an infectious disease has a multidrug resistant causative agent. Such multidrug resistant bacteria can compromise the clinical utility of major chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents. Drug and multidrug resistant bacteria harbor several distinct molecular mechanisms for resistance. Bacterial antimicrobial agent efflux pumps represent a major mechanism of clinical resistance. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is one of the largest groups of solute transporters to date and includes a significant number of bacterial drug and multidrug efflux pumps. We review recent work on the modulation of multidrug efflux pumps, paying special attention to those transporters belonging primarily to the MFS. 1. Introduction Drug and multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens that are causative agents of infectious disease constitute a serious public health concern. Bacterial multidrug efflux pump systems of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily represent common mechanisms for bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. As such these bacterial transporters make suitable targets for modulation in order to restore the clinical efficacy of relevant chemotherapeutic antibacterial agents. Here, we briefly review the drug transporter systems of the MFS (and to a lesser extent the RND superfamily) and discuss their modulation via regulation of expression and efflux pump transport inhibition. 2. Bacteria and Pathogenesis Bacteria are unicellular, microscopic living organisms that are rod shaped, ball shaped, or spiral shaped when observed under the microscope. Most bacteria are not harmful; rather, they aid in food preparation and digestion, compete with pathogens, provide vitamins to the body, are useful for basic and applied research purposes, and are important in biotechnology. However, less than one percent of the bacteria of different types are responsible for causing bacterial infections. Bacterial cells are capable of quickly reproducing and releasing chemicals and toxins; pathogenic bacteria can cause damage to cells and tissues in the body and cause clinical disease. Some of the common diseases and infections caused by pathogenic strains of bacteria include food poisoning caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella [1–6], gastritis and ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori [7], the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae [8], meningitis caused by N. meningitides [9], skin infections like boils, cellulitis,
Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens
Jody L. Andersen,Gui-Xin He,Prathusha Kakarla,Ranjana KC,Sanath Kumar,Wazir Singh Lakra,Mun Mun Mukherjee,Indrika Ranaweera,Ugina Shrestha,Thuy Tran,Manuel F. Varela
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph120201487
Abstract: Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations.
PEMFC Application in a Gliding Arc Plasam-Catalysis Reforming System using Biogas  [PDF]
Mun Sup Lim, Young Nam Chun
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2011.32020
Abstract: In this study, bio-waste gas is converted to sustainable hydrogen energy in good quality and low pollution. In addition, generated highly concentrated hydrogen is applied to fuel cell (PEMFC) to resolve environmental and energy crisis issue via gliding arc plasma system. Parameters that can affect the reforming performance of bio-gas in gliding arc plasma system were studied. Especially, the optimal operating condition in water gas shift reactor and preferential oxidation reactor for CO removal was proposed. For the parametric re-searches, change in steam feed amount and temperature change in catalyst bed in water gas shift reactor were studied. For the preferential oxidation reactor, air input flow rate change and temperature variation in catalyst bed were evaluated. The optimal operating conditions for gliding arc plasma reforming system are proposed as 6:4 of biogas component ratio (i.e., CHR4R:CO), 3 of steam/carbon ratio, 16 L/min of total gas flow rate, and 2.4 kW of input electric power. Where, the concentration of biogas that passed each reactor shows 57.5% of HR2R, 7 ppm of CO, 9.2% of COR2R, and 3.4% of CHR4R. Therefore, less than 10 ppm of CO is achieved, and this system can be applicable for PEMFC.
Properties of Cement Mortar with Phosphogpysum under Steam Curing Condition
Kyoungju Mun,Seungyoung So
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/382490
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to utilize waste PG as an admixture for concrete products cured by steam. For the study, waste PG was classified into 4 forms (dehydrate, -hemihydrate, III-anhydrite, and II-anhydrite), which were calcined at various temperatures. Also, various admixtures were prepared with PG, fly-ash (FA), and granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS). The basic properties of cement mortars containing these admixtures were analyzed and examined through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, compressive strength, and acid corrosion resistance. According to the results, cement mortars made with III-anhydrite of waste PG and BFS exhibited strength similar to that of cement mortars made with II-anhydrite. Therefore, III-anhydrite PG calcined at lower temperature can be used as a steam curing admixture for concrete second production.
Fautes de prononciation des Coréens apprenant le fran ais et correction phonétique
HAN Mun Hi
Synergies Corée , 2011,
Abstract: Dans l’enseignement du fran ais, nous avons constaté des fautes de prononciation chez des apprenants coréens. Le Coréen a tendance à prononcer le [y] comme [wi] ou [i], [ ] comme [a ], [b], [v] comme [p], [R] comme [l], par exemple. La cause en est la différence entre les deux systèmes de langues. Pour expliquer ces fautes constatées, les systèmes du coréen et du fran ais sont comparés et commentés sur le plan de l’opposition phonétique et phonologique. Pour la suggestion de la correction de ces phonèmes, nous avons proposé divers procédés de méthode articulatoire, d’opposition phonologique, et de méthode verbo-tonale.
The Comparison of the Cantonese Sentence Final Particles bo (?) and wo (?): From the 1940s to the 1970s
Wai-Mun Leung
Asian Culture and History , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ach.v2n2p86
Abstract: In the past decades, researchers of Cantonese treated the frequently used sentence-final particles (hereafter SFPs) wo3 (?, mid level tone) and bo3 (?, mid level tone) as variant forms, the former being the result of sound change from the latter (Kwok 1984, Luke 1990, Li 1995, Fang 2003). However, Leung (2010) argues that wo3 in the late 20th century performs the functions of realization, reminder, hearsay and contrast while the main function of bo3 is only to show contrast, thus they are not entirely interchangeable. To explore the development of the two particles from the historical prospective, this paper attempts to examine them in Hong Kong Cantonese diachronically based on the spoken data of old Cantonese movies of 1940s and 1970s.
The Case Management Workbook: defining the role of physicians, nurses and case managers
Loong Mun Wong
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2012,
Abstract:
Weight Loss and Nutrient Dynamics during Leaf Litter Decomposition of Quercus mongolica in Mt. Worak National Park
Mun, Hyeong-Tae
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology , 2009,
Abstract: Weight loss and nutrient dynamics of Quercus mongolica leaf litter during decomposition wereinvestigated from December 2005 through August 2008 in Mt. Worak National Park as a part of NationalLong-Term Ecological Research Program in Korea. The decay constant (k) of Q. mongolica litter was 0.26. After33 months decomposition, remaining weight of Q. mongolica litter was 49.3 ± 4.4%. Initial C/N and C/P ratiosof Q. mongolica litter were 43.3 and 2,032, respectively. C/N ratio in decomposing litter decreased rapidly fromthe beginning to nine months decomposition, and then showed more or less constant. C/P ratio increased to2,407 after three months decomposition, and then decreased steadily thereafter. N and P concentration increasedsignificantly during decomposition. N immobilization occurred from the beginning through 18 monthsdecomposition, and mineralization occurred afterwards in decomposing litter. P immobilized significantly fromfifteen months during decomposition. K concentration decreased rapidly from the beginning to six months decomposition.However it showed an increasing pattern during later stage of decomposition. Remaining K decreasedrapidly during early stage of decomposition. There was no net K immobilization. Ca concentration increased fromthe beginning to twelve months decomposition, and then decreased rapidly till twenty one months elapsed.However, it increased again thereafter. Ca mineralization occurred from fifteen months. Mg concentrationincreased during decomposition. There was no Mg immobilization during litter decomposition. After 33 monthsdecomposition, remaining N, P, K, Ca and Mg in Q. mongolica litter were 79.2, 110.9, 36.2, 52.7 and 74.4%,respectively.
Francesc de Borja Moll i la lingüística nord-americana i hispànica a la llum dels epistolaris mollians
Joan Julià i Muné
Llengua & Literatura , 2007, DOI: 10.2436/l&l.vi.1208
Abstract:
La Tasca gramatical d'Antoni M. Alcover
Joan Julià i Muné
Llengua & Literatura , 2005, DOI: 10.2436/l&l.vi.1161
Abstract:
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