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OALib Journal期刊

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Coagulation Changes in Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia during Painful Crises and Steady State at Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Mukhtar Babajide Adebola, Durotoye Michael Olanrewaju, Morufat Mojisola Ogundeyi, Khadijah Bolanle Shonde-Adebola
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105081
Abstract:
Background: The pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is multifactorial and hypercoagulability is believed to play a role. The association between hypercoagulabilty and vaso-occlusive disease has been extensively studied in adult SCA patients, there is however paucity of data on the subject regarding paediatric SCA. Objective: This study set out to determine the presence of hypercoagulable states specifically in paediatric SCA subjects through quantification of specific coagulation markers during painful crises and steady state. Methodology: The study was a hospital- based longitudinal study carried out between May and October 2015 at Federal Medical Center, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Fifty SCA subjects were consecutively recruited during painful crises and followed up into their respective steady states. Twenty-five subjects with HbAA phenotype served as controls. Assays of coagulation markers, D-dimer and prothrombin fragment (F1 2) were carried out by sandwich ELISA method using MyBiosource? D-dimer and F1 2 ELISA kits. Results: Mean D-dimer level was 7358 ± 4354.33 ng/ml in the SCA subjects during painful crises, 5509 ± 3506.2 ng/ml during steady state, and 800 ± 1874.14 ng/ml in HbAA controls. Mean (F1 2) level was 0.84 ± 0.43 nmol/l in the SCA subjects during painful crises, 0.64 ± 0.25 nmol/l during steady state, and 0.41 ± 0.28 nmol/l, in HbAA controls. The mean values of both coagulation markers assayed were significantly higher during painful crises than at steady state (P = 0.002), while steady state values were also significantly higher than that of haemoglobin AA individuals (P = 0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests the presence of hypercoagulable states in paediatric SCA during steady state which is exacerbated during painful crises. The clinical imports of this finding require further elucidation.
Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of Selected Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) LAM) Accessions for Drought Tolerance in South Africa  [PDF]
Babajide Olusegun Omotobora, Patrick Olusanmi Adebola, David Mxolisi Modise, Sunette Marlize Laurie, Abe Shegro Gerrano
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.521348
Abstract: Sweetpotato is a major staple food in the world. It is a good source of carbohydrates, vitamin A, vitamin C and protein. The maximum production potential of the crop is being hampered by severe drought which ravages most parts of Africa. The main aim of this study therefore was to screen accessions of sweetpotato for drought tolerance in a quick screening method, followed by field screening with a view to identify accessions that can perform well under water stress conditions. Fifty sweetpotato accessions consisting of cultivars and breeding lines collected from the ARC-VOPI gene bank were planted for drought screening in the glass house for six weeks during which water was withheld to induce stress. Observations were made on number of dead plants and days to wilting point. The results were analyzed and 12 best performing accessions were selected for field trials. The field trial was carried out in Lwamondo, Limpopo province, a drought prone area in South Africa, under rain-fed conditions. The best performing accessions were Zapallo, Tacna, Ejumula, 2004-9-2 and Ndou.
Impact of Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendors Training on the Delivery of Malaria, Diarrhoea, and Family Planning Services in Nigeria  [PDF]
Chukwunonso Iheoma, Babajide Daini, Suliatu Lawal, Mukhtar Ijaiya, Wole Fajemisin
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102404
Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the impact of PPMV training on their expertise to deliver quality healthcare services to the Nigerian public. The participants were trained on counseling and dispensing of family planning products diarrhea, and malaria products. The study adopted a multistage sampling method and selected a random sample of 1133 PPMVs trained by SFH between 2011 and 2014 who were interviewed between May and June 2015. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression methods. Results reveal that training attendance was significantly associated with adequate knowledge of diarrhea treatment and knowledge of family planning counseling services. PPMVs who attended training twice, and those who attended more than twice over the four years preceding the study were more likely to have adequate knowledge of diarrhea treatment than those who attended only once. Similarly, within the same four-year period, PPMVs who attended training twice and those who attended more than twice were more likely to have adequate knowledge of family planning counseling services than those attending once. Significant association between training attendance and knowledge of malaria treatment was not found. Adequate PPMV training program should be streamlined into the national primary healthcare development program.

Impact Analysis of Microfinance in Nigeria
Babajide Abiola
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v3n4p217
Abstract: This paper applies the financing constraints approach to study whether microfinance institutions improved access to credit for microenterprises in Nigeria or not. According to this approach, microenterprises with improved access to credit rely less on internal funds for their investments. Thus, investment sensitivity to internal funds of micro enterprises in Lagos State (a municipal with significant presence of Microfinance Banks (MFBs) was compared to that of micro enterprises in Ekiti State (a municipal with no (or limited) presence of MFBs) using a cross sectional survey method and Microfinance Institutions (MFI) branch location data. Results indicate that MFBs alleviated micro businesses’ financing constraints. This approach is applicable to evaluating microfinance impact in other countries.
Effects of Microfinance on Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) Growth in Nigeria
Abiola Babajide
Asian Economic and Financial Review , 2012,
Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of microfinance on micro and small business growth in Nigeria. The objectives are: one, to examine the effects of different loan administration practices (in terms of loan size and tenor) on small business growth criteria. Second, to examine the ability of Microfinance-Banks (MFBs) (given its loan-size and rates of interest charged) towards transforming micro-businesses to formal small scale enterprises. The paper employed panel data and multiple regression analysis to analyze a survey of 502 randomly selected enterprises finance by microfinance banks in Nigeria. We find strong evidence that access to microfinance does not enhance growth of micro and small enterprises in Nigeria. However, other firm level characteristics such as business size and business location, are found to have positive effect on enterprise growth. The paper recommends a recapitalization of the Microfinance banks to enhance their capacity to support small business growth and expansion.
Sustaining Biodiesel Production via Value-Added Applications of Glycerol
Omotola Babajide
Journal of Energy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/178356
Abstract: The production of biofuels worldwide has been significant lately due to the shift from obtaining energy from nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels) to renewable sources (biofuels). This energy shift arose as a result of the disturbing crude petroleum price fluctuations, uncertainties about fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG) concerns. With the production of biofuels increasing considerably and the current global biodiesel production from different feedstock, reaching about 6 billion liters per year, biodiesel production costs have been highly dependent on feedstock prices, ranging from 70 to 25; of total production costs, and in comparison with the conventional diesel fuel, the biodiesel is currently noncompetitive. An efficient production process is, therefore, crucial to lowering biodiesel production costs. The question of sustainability, however, arises, taking into account the African diverse conditions and how vital concerns need to be addressed. The major concern about biodiesel production costs can be reduced by finding value-added applications for its glycerol byproduct. This paper, thus, provides an overview of current research trends that could overcome the major hurdles towards profitable commercialization of biodiesel and also proposes areas of opportunity probable to capitalize the surplus glycerol obtained, for numerous applications. 1. Introduction Energy plays a vital role in the economic development and social/national security of any nation, as access to secure, sustainable, and affordable energy is a prerequisite for sustainable development [1]. Current patterns of energy supply and energy use are unsustainable because of environmental issues such as global warming strongly associated with increased energy consumption. Energy sufficiency and security is a key factor in development since it provides essential inputs for socioeconomic development that provide vital services which improve the quality of life at regional, national, and subnational levels [2, 3]. Several countries on the African continent continue to face great challenges of energy security and the negative effects of climate change. The strong tie between energy, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and widespread poverty makes it important to tackle the challenges and prospects for energy services provision in the continent [4]. The inability of many African countries to provide good and adequate energy services has been a major constraint to their development. The continent remains friable with widespread poverty that is due to several factors [2], and about half
Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) Polymers Prior to Electrospinning  [PDF]
Adebola A. Oketola, Nelson Torto
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.22015
Abstract:

Electrospun nanofibers present a new and rapidly growing research area due to their pronounced micro and nano characteristics associated with high surface area to volume ratio. Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) and polystyrene polymers were synthesized by boiling temperature soap free emulsion polymerization in aqueous medium with potassium peroxosulphate as the initiator. The resulting polymers were dissolved in dimethylformamide and teterahydrofuran (DMF: THF) (4:1) to form polymer solutions that were electrospun into fiber mats with diameters ranging from 1.84 - 2.53 μm and 5.01 μm, respectively. The fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) equipped with universal ATR sampling accessory (4000 - 400 cm-1). The morphology and size were examined by a scanning electron miscroscope (SEM) and the thermal properties by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FTIR spectra of the poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) revealed the presence of acrylamide on the polystyrene chain. Thus, surface modification of polystyrene with acrylamide is possible in a single step polymerization reaction prior to electrospinning.

Using Database Management System to Generate, Manage and Secure Personal Identification Numbers (PIN)  [PDF]
Dipo Theophilus Akomolafe, Babajide Olakunle Afeni
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.75043
Abstract:

A number of problems are associated with the generation, management and security of PINs, a subset of password. The PINs may be recharge card used by GSM operators or for authentication in ATM. The problems associated with the use of these PINs range from scratching off any of the recharge PIN numbers in recharge card to loss of PIN number or entering invalid number in the case of authentication. It usually takes time for the customer service of the service provider or system administrator to provide convincing solution to these problems promptly when it occurred. PINs generation could seem like simply arranging ranges of number and feeding it into the telecommunication systems such as mobile handsets or ATM to grant access but it requires a specialized and secured way to generate, store and manage it in order to achieve prompt access. This paper

Socio-Cultural and Attitudinal Study of Selected Yoruba Taboos in South West Nigeria
Adebola Adebileje
Studies in Literature and Language , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2262
Abstract: This study presents a socio-cultural description of some Yoruba taboos which are an integral part of culture and youths’ attitude towards these taboos. The theoretical frame work for the study is based on Vygotskian’s sociocultural approach which holds that higher order functions develop out of social interaction. In other words, cultural development of an individual, especially the young ones, depends largely on social interactions with elders. Some socio-cultural factors like age, sex and education are the variables employed in the analysis. Data is gathered from interviewing students and staff of Redeemer’s University, Mowe, Ogun state and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun state in the South Western part of Nigeria. Books and documents are also consulted. In the process of describing some selected Yoruba taboos, it is discovered that: (a) the language of a particular society is an integral part of its culture, (b) many of the taboos have been taken over by Christianity and technology (c) youths have a laissez-faire attitude as their belief in taboos is fast disappearing because parents and guardians do not educate children in these acts any more. It is concluded that for the Yoruba culture to be saved from imminent extinction, parents must expose the young ones to cultural beliefs and ensure that they speak the language. This is necessary because internalized culture allows people to respond in appropriate ways to the norms of the society or community in which they live. Key words: Socio-cultural; Yoruba taboos; Society’s attitude
High-Level Nuclear Wastes and the Environment: Analyses of Challenges and Engineering Strategies  [PDF]
Mukhtar Ahmed Rana
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2012.23015
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the current status of high-level nuclear waste disposal along with presentation of practical perspectives about the environmental issues involved. Present disposal designs and concepts are analyzed on a scientific basis and modifications to existing designs are proposed from the perspective of environmental safety. A new concept of a chemical heat sink is introduced for the removal of heat emitted due to radioactive decay in the spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste, and thermal spikes produced by radiation in containment materials. Mainly, UO2 and metallic U are used as fuels in nuclear reactors. Spent nuclear fuel contains fission products and transuranium elements which would remain radioactive for 104 to 108years. Essential concepts and engineering strategies for spent nuclear fuel disposal are described. Conceptual designs are described and discussed considering the long-term radiation and thermal activity of spent nuclear fuel. Notions of physical and chemical barriers to contain nuclear waste are highlighted. A timeframe for nuclear waste disposal is proposed and time-line nuclear waste disposal plan or policy is described and discussed.
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