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From Csr To Mcsr : The Journey Towards Mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility In India
Arup Mukherjee and Ratnesh Chaturvedi
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Corporate social responsibility earlier applied as corporate philanthropy has been in practice in Indiasince ages. Also, it has been well complimented by the role of the Tata's, Birla's and other large companies since along time. However, philanthropy in the globalised and modern India, does not solve the purpose in quality andquantity. The Lok Sabha of India on 18th December'2012 approved the mandatory CSR bill amending theCompanies Act'1956. The corporate sector of India has been up in arms and the proposed bill was kept hanging sinceAugust'2008. The parliamentary bill of 2009 put up to ensure mandatory CSR spending for companies has facedsevere criticism from the corporate world of India. The article aims at analysing the motive of the bill itself and theoutstanding reasons for the echo of opposition of the bill across industries in India. The article also attempts to lookin to the history of CSR in India along with the need of the hour.
Financial Inclusion of the Poor and Marginalised in Jharkhand : Analysis of the Existing Model
Arup Mukherjee,Sabyasachi Chakraborty
International Journal on Research and Development : A Management Review , 2012,
Abstract: Promotion of financial inclusion has been an important social and financial need across countries. In India, the primary responsibility of ensuring financial inclusion lies with the commercial banks subject to guidelines of the central bank (RBI). However, due to the huge size and diversity of population the commercial banks have been taking the assistance of various social and financial entities like co-operative banks, regional rural banks (RRBs), self-help groups (SHGs ), joint liability groups, and other non-banking finance companies (NBFCs). The objective of the article is to critically examine and highlight the role and efficacy of the commercial banks doing business in the state of Jharkhand in connection with their responsibility towards promoting financial inclusion. The article also aims at examining the capacity and role of other institutions mentioned above for the purpose of promoting financial inclusion in the state.
Effects of Macroion Geometry and Charge Discretization in Charge Reversal
Arup K. Mukherjee
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: The effects of discrete macroion surface charge distribution and valences of these surface charges and counterions on charge reversal have been studied for macroions of three different geometries and compared with those of continuous surface charge distributions. The geometry of the macroion has been observed to play an important role in overcharging in these cases. The interplay of valences of discrete microions and counterions have noticeable effects on overcharging efficiency. For some valence combinations overcharging the macroion with discrete surface charge is seen to be more efficient than those with continuous charge distribution. The calculations have been performed using a previously developed energy minimization simulation technique. For comparison purposes the corresponding continuous charge distribution cases together with an analytical model derived from modified Scatchard approach (for continuous charge distribution) have been evaluated.
Electrostatic contribution to DNA condensation - application of 'energy minimization' in a simple model in strong Coulomb coupling regime
Arup K. Mukherjee
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/23/32/325102
Abstract: Bending of DNA from a straight rod to a circular form in presence of any of the mono-, di-, tri- or tetravalent counterions has been simulated in strong Coulomb coupling environment employing a previously developed energy minimization simulation technique. The inherent characteristics of the simulation technique allow monitoring the required electrostatic contribution to the bending. The curvature of the bending has been found to play crucial roles in facilitating electrostatic attractive potential energy. The total electrostatic potential energy has been found to decrease with bending which indicates that bending a straight DNA to a circular form or to a toroidal form in presence of neutralizing counterions is energetically favorable and practically is a spontaneous phenomenon.
Increase of cationic concentration due to bending of overcharged DNA in strong Coulomb coupling regime
Arup K Mukherjee
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: This study reveals that, in strong coulomb coupling regime, bending a straight and fully overcharged DNA (up to its maximal acceptance by multivalent counterions) to a circle releases some of the adsorbed (correlated)counterions but still remains fully overcharged. This phenomenon seems to be inherent to the minimum energy state of a DNA. By definition, the total electrostatic potential energy of a macroion-counterion system reaches to its lowest point at maximal acceptance of overcharging counterions that ensures the most stable conformation. This intermediate phenomenon of release of cations from DNA surface due to bending can be taken into account in theoretical modeling of some ionic concentration dependent physico-chemical aspects of DNA solutions in strong Coulomb coupling regimes.
Bulk behaviour of Schur-Hadamard products of symmetric random matrices
Arup Bose,Soumendu Sundar Mukherjee
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We develop a general method for establishing the existence of the Limiting Spectral Distributions (LSD) of Schur-Hadamard products of independent symmetric patterned random matrices. We apply this method to show that the LSDs of Schur-Hadamard products of some common patterned matrices exist and identify the limits. In particular, the Schur-Hadamard product of independent Toeplitz and Hankel matrices has the semi-circular LSD. We also prove an invariance theorem that may be used to find the LSD in many examples.
Bulk behaviour of skew-symmetric patterned random matrices
Arup Bose,Soumendu Sundar Mukherjee
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Limiting Spectral Distributions (LSD) of real symmetric patterned matrices have been well-studied. In this article, we consider skew-symmetric/anti-symmetric patterned random matrices and establish the LSDs of several common matrices. For the skew-symmetric Wigner, skew-symmetric Toeplitz and the skew-symmetric Circulant, the LSDs (on the imaginary axis) are the same as those in the symmetric cases. For the skew-symmetric Hankel and the skew-symmetric Reverse Circulant however, we obtain new LSDs. We also show the existence of the LSDs for the triangular versions of these matrices. We then introduce a related modification of the symmetric matrices by changing the sign of the lower triangle part of the matrices. In this case, the modified Wigner, modified Hankel and the modified Reverse Circulants have the same LSDs as their usual symmetric counterparts while new LSDs are obtained for the modified Toeplitz and the modified Symmetric Circulant.
STUDIES OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY, ANTIPYRETIC AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TRADITIONAL HERBAL DRUG ON RODENTS
Gupta Mradu,Banerjee Dalia,Mukherjee Arup
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013, DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.04321
Abstract: Aqueous extract of combination of stems of Tinospora cordifolia, fruits of Emblica officinalis and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus has been used as traditional herbal drug in Indian medicine system for treatment of fever, body ache, joint pain and inflammation. The collected botanicals were subject to physiochemical, pharmacognostical & phytochemical screening before animal experiments. After acute toxicity studies, anti-inflammatory effect was assessed using carrageen induced paw oedema test and antipyretic effect using yeast induced pyrexia method. Tail immersion, hot plate and writhings test were used for determining the analgesic properties. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenolic flavonoids, tannin and saponins. Significant anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties were noticed in dose dependant manner after aqueous extract administration especially at 600 mg/kg dose. These test drug activities were sustained and comparable to the standard drugs while exhibiting no acute toxicity. Aqueous extract of test drug possesses significantly high anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties without any acute toxicity possibly due to presence of flavonoids.
Therapeutic Effects of Acetone Extract of Saraca asoca Seeds on Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Attenuating Inflammatory Responses
Mradu Gupta,Saumyakanti Sasmal,Arup Mukherjee
ISRN Rheumatology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/959687
Abstract: Saraca asoca has been traditionally used in Indian system for treatment of uterine, genital, and other reproductive disorders in women, fever, pain, and inflammation. The hypothesis of this study is that acetone extract of Saraca asoca seeds is an effective anti-inflammatory treatment for arthritis in animal experiments. The antiarthritic effect of its oral administration on Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis has been studied in Wistar albino rats after acute and subacute toxicities. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of high concentrations of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins, while no mortality or morbidity was observed up to 1000?mg/kg dose during acute and subacute toxicity assessments. Regular treatment up to 21 days of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats with Saraca asoca acetone extract (at 300 and 500?mg/kg doses) increases RBC and Hb, decreases WBC, ESR, and prostaglandin levels in blood, and restores body weight when compared with control (normal saline) and standard (Indomethacin) groups. Significant ( ) inhibitory effect was observed especially at higher dose on paw edema, ankle joint inflammation, and hydroxyproline and glucosamine concentrations in urine. Normal radiological images of joint and histopathological analysis of joint, liver, stomach, and kidney also confirmed its significant nontoxic, antiarthritic, and anti-inflammatory effect. 1. Introduction Arthritis affects around 0.5–1% of the world population with more women being affected than men. The immune system is a well-organized and well-regulated structure. The deregulation of the immune system may lead to the development of autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is a prototype of the groups of illnesses with chronic systemic disorders with destructive inflammatory polyarticular joint potentially resulting in progressive destruction of articular and periarticular structure. Persistent inflammation produces swollen joints with severe synovitis, decreased nociceptive threshold, and massive subsynovial infiltration of mononuclear cells, which along with angiogenesis leads to pannus formation. Expansion of the pannus induces bone erosion and cartilage thinning, leading to the loss of joint function in due course. This results in a high degree of morbidity and disturbed daily life of the patient. Corticosteroids have not been able to fully control the incidence because of its limitations and risk of side effects. Many patients and practitioners are seeking alternative approach to provide an effective cure in the treatment of arthritis and to
Adaptive Finite Elements and Colliding Black Holes
Douglas N. Arnold,Arup Mukherjee,Luc Pouly
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: According to the theory of general relativity, the relative acceleration of masses generates gravitational radiation. Although gravitational radiation has not yet been detected, it is believed that extremely violent cosmic events, such as the collision of black holes, should generate gravity waves of sufficient amplitude to detect on earth. The massive Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, or LIGO, is now being constructed to detect gravity waves. Consequently there is great interest in the computer simulation of black hole collisions and similar events, based on the numerical solution of the Einstein field equations. In this note we introduce the scientific, mathematical, and computational problems and discuss the development of a computer code to solve the initial data problem for colliding black holes, a nonlinear elliptic boundary value problem posed in an unbounded three dimensional domain which is a key step in solving the full field equations. The code is based on finite elements, adaptive meshes, and a multigrid solution process. Here we will particularly emphasize the mathematical and algorithmic issues arising in the generation of adaptive tetrahedral meshes.
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