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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7215 matches for " Muhammad Siddique Awan "
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Distribution Range and Population Status of Common Leopard (Panthera Pardus) in and Around Machiara National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Muhammad KABIR,Muhammad Siddique AWAN,Maqsood ANWAR
International Journal of Conservation Science , 2013,
Abstract: The present study was conducted to estimate the status of common leopard (Panthera pardus) in and around Machiara National Park (MNP) Azad Jammu and Kashmir between May 2007 and July 2008. Fifteen fixed transects were monitored on regular basis. Indirect signs of leopard such as pugmarks and scats were recorded along the transects in addition to people and livestock which were counted as an index of disturbance and mean encounter rate for leopard scats, footprints, livestock and people was calculated. Mean encounter rate for leopard pugmarks was 1.6, for scats 2.11, for livestock 25.03, and for people 22.48. Linear measurements of front and hind pugmarks and strides were classified which indicated that at least six to nine (06-09) individuals are present in the study area (13,532 ha). Questionnaire survey revealed that Leopards were sighted by the locals at 23 locations during the study period including; in the morning (35%), evening (29%), night (21%) and daytime (15%). Maximum sightings were recorded between 4765ft to 9634ft elevation presenting moist temperate zone with Pinus wallichiana as a dominant tree species. As a result of increasing biotic pressures, the leopard has become rare with growing threat of further degradation and fragmentation of its habitat. It may cause the species to depend more on the domestic livestock available in and around the area giving way to the problem of human-leopard conflict. The information generated from the study will be helpful for the conservation and management of this critically endangered species.
Current Distribution and Status of Himalayan ibex in Upper Neelum Valley, District Neelum Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan
Usman Ali,Khawaja Bashrat Ahmed,Muhammad Siddique Awan,Shaid Asraf
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Nine months field survey was conducted from July 2004 to August 2005 to take the data on the distribution and population status of Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica) in the upper Neelum valley of Azad Kashmir. Survey was carried out using direct (senses) as well as indirect (sampling) methods. 122 animals of different categories were recorded in the study area. Total average population was composed of 31.79% male, 32.79% female, 25.41% young and 9.84% yearling animals. Various threats to the population of ibex in the area were also studied.
Habitat Utilization and Feeding Biology of Himalayan Grey Langur (Semnopithecus entellus ajex) in Machiara National Park, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
喜马拉雅灰叶猴栖息地利用和食性生物学研究(英文)

Riaz Aziz Minhas,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed,Muhammad Siddique Awan,Naeem Iftikhar Dar
动物学研究 , 2010,
Abstract: Habitat utilization and feeding biology of Himalayan Grey Langur (Semnopithecus entellus ajex) were studied from April, 2006 to April, 2007 in Machiara National Park, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). The results showed that in the winter season the most preferred habitat of the langurs was the moist temperate coniferous forests interspersed with deciduous trees, while in the summer season they preferred to migrate into the subalpine scrub forests at higher altitudes. Langurs were folivorous in feeding habit, recorded as consuming more than 49 plant species (27 in summer and 22 in winter) in the study area. The mature leaves (36.12%) were preferred over the young leaves (27.27%) while other food components comprised of fruits (17.00%), roots (9.45%), barks (6.69%), flowers (2.19%) and stems (1.28%) of various plant species.
Population Dynamics of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii) in Jhelum Valley, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed,Masood Ahmed Qureshi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: A sum of 28 surveys were conducted from June 2002 to June 2003 in three main zones (Pir Chinasi, Lowasi-Ghari Dopatta and Chinari-Qazinag) of Jhelum valley Muzaffarabad to collect data on distribution and population status of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii). The three main zones were divided into 8 main localities, each main locality was further divided into sub-localities or calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. A cumulative total of 194 adults in 2002 and 126 in 2003 were estimated in two breeding seasons. The density indices show one calling site in Low Gali (0.05 km2), three in Kavashan (0.75 km2), four in Pir Chinasi (1.33 km2), four in Garang (1.6 km2), four in Cheetah, seven in Sangar Bari (1.75 km2), three in Shinger (1.5 km2) and two in Khatir Nar (0.80 km2). During present study the no. of calling sites and density indices at various areas showed that maximum value of density index i.e. 1.75 km-2 recorded at Sangar Bari and minimum value of 0.50 km-2 at Low Gali. By documenting the direct and indirect evidences i.e. Call Counts, fresh ground clutching, feathers, foot prints, shepherds (n=10), locals (n=8), hunters (n=5) and wildlife staff (n=5) the total adult population in these two localities is 36 and 8 birds, respectively. T-test shows that there is no significant difference (0.71790) between the means of adults Cheer population estimated in 2002 and 2003 breeding season. The major threats to the cheer pheasant population were determined to be hunting and habitat degradation due to human related activities.
Habitat Utilization of Cheer Pheasant (Catereus wallichii) in Jhelum Valley, Muzaffaraabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Masood Ahmed Qureshi,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Sum of 28 surveys were conducted from June 2002 to June 2003 in three main zones (Pir Chinasi, Lowasi-Ghari Dopatta and Chinari-Qazinag) of Jhelum valley Muzaffarabad to collect data on Phytosociological habitat analysis of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii). Three zones were divided into 8 main localities, each of which was further divided into sub-localities or calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. The Phytosociological analysis of five localities was carried out at calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. The importance value (dominant and co-dominant vegetation by Quadrate Method) of each plant species was calculated in order to find out the relationship of Cheer Pheasant population with various variables of habitat. Phytosociological habitat comparison of dominant and co-dominant vegetation of five main localities showed that the following plant species are common and characteristic of each habitat. These species are Pinus walliachiana, Plactranthus rugosus, Indigofera heterantha, Berberis lycium, Fragaria indica, Oenothera rosea, cynoglossum lanceolatum, Saccharum rufipilum and onychium japonicum. Correlation analysis between Cheer Pheasant density indices at various sites and habitat variables showed non-significant results with ground cover (r = 0.24, p>0.5), with shrubs (r = 0.44, p>0.5) and with tree cover (r = 0.36, p>0.5). However the higher value of r with shrubs showed some relationship of Cheer population. Similarly, correlation analysis between Cheer Pheasant population and with canopy cover showed non-significant results i.e. with ground canopy cover (r =-0.08, p>0.5), with shrub canopy cover (r = 0.33, p>0.5) and with tree canopy cover (r =-0.05, p>0.5). Again the higher value of r with shrub canopy cover indicates some affinity of Cheer Pheasant population.
Distribution of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Neelum Valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Baseer ud Din Qureshi,Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Naheem Iftikhar Dar
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: To study the present and past distribution of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) Survey in Neelum valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir was conducted from April to November 2002, Findings show that Musk deer is distributed throughout the Neelum valley. Poaching, deforestation and trans human grazing resulted in scattering of population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) into separate pockets. Population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) recorded from the area is 120 animals. Investigation indicates Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) resides at low altitude as compared to other areas reported from Pakistan. Seasonal migration of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) was also noted as a result of Trans-human grazing in summer in summer. To conserve the dwindling population of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) from Neelum Valley there must be expansion of Salkhla game reserve up to palri and Gail along with the law enforcement and awareness campaign.
First Breeding and Nidification Record of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii) in Jhelum Valley, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed,Masood Ahmed Qureshi
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Surveys were conducted from June 2002 to June 2003 in three main zones (Pir Chinasi, Lowasi-Ghari Dopatta and Chinari-Qazinag) of Jhelum valley Muzaffarabad to collect data on the breeding and nidification of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii). Three main zones were divided into 8 main localities, each main locality was further divided into sub-localities or calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. Two nests were found during survey i.e. one at sub-locality Nar Ka Daman at an attitude of 2500 m and other at Batal Ka Daman of Sangar Bari at 2600 m on July 11, 2002 and June 8, 2003, respectively. A female, hatching eggs (n=8) was flushed from first nest at sub-locality, Nar Ka Daman. The second nest was an old and inactive. The composition and measurements of both the nests were almost same. Both nests were constructed on ground under the bushes of Plactranthus rugosus and made up of 65-70% dry grasses i.e. saccharum rufipilum, Eriophorum sp. Poa angustifolia, with 10-12% twigs of Plactranthus rugosus, Indigofera heterantha and 20-26% needles of Pinus wallichiana The average size of eggs was 53x40 mm. In present study 2 pairs of adults with 13 juveniles were observed at cheetah location at elevation of 1900 m in July 10, 2002. Similarly in Kavashan (2500 m) a pair with 10 newly hatched chicks were observed in July 9, 2002.
Simulation of Diode-Pumped Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser Generating Eye-Safe Signal in IOPO Environment  [PDF]
Mian M. Ashraf, Muhammad Siddique
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2012.23025
Abstract: Numerical simulation of diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser leading to the generation of eye-safe signal in singly resonant Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator (IOPO) is presented. Starting from rate equations, the time dependent laser equations have been solved numerically, whereas the space-dependent OPO equations analytically. Our results show that 1.4 J diode laser (810 nm) pulse with 200 msec width, delivers 30 mJ Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) pulse with 5 n-second width. This Nd:YAG laser further generates 9 mJ eye safe signal (1570 nm) pulse with 2.5 n-second width.
THROMBOCYTOPENIA IN CRITICALLY ILL SURGICAL PATIENTS
MUHAMMAD SIDDIQUE
The Professional Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Thrombocytopenia is a well known complication in the surgical intensivecare unit (ICU) patients. The influence of thrombocytopenia on patient’s mortality is difficult to assess.Thrombocytopenia results in increased mortality and transfusion requirement of platelets and other blood products, hasnot been confirmed by previous studies. We performed a case control study in surgical intensive care unit of CombinedMilitary Hospital Rawalpindi in which 119 critically ill surgical patients developed thrombocytopenia of less than 50x109platelets/L. These patients were carefully matched with control patients for the severity of underlying disease andimportant variables. Purpose of study was to evaluate attributable mortality and transfusion requirement inthrombocytopenic patients at that unit.. Fifty-two (44%) cases died versus forty (33%) control patients. Eighty one (76%)matched pairs had a concordant outcome and in 25% of those pairs, the cases died (exact binomial probabilities0.036). The estimated attributable mortality rate was 18.4% (95% confidence interval 3.12-11.8) and the estimated oddsratio was 2.6 (95% confidence interval 1.02-7.10). The estimated attributable transfusion requirement was 23% (95%confidence interval 5.3-43.5) and the estimated odds ratio was 1.51.This study suggests that thrombocytopenia of lessthan 50x10 /L seems to be a marker 9 of severity the illness and increases risk of death. Thrombocytopenia also leadsto more blood product consumption.
Hydro and Wind Power Integration: A Case Study of Dargai Station in Pakistan  [PDF]
Shahbaz Awan, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Asif, Amjad Ullah
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2012.44028
Abstract: Pakistan is facing acute energy crises since last few years. Due to shortage of fuel oil and its sky touching prices, it seems very uneconomical to generate electricity from fuel oil. In order to generate cheap electricity we have to rely on renewable energy resources. To address these challenges, wind power generation is among the popular options in the world which is now being considered in Pakistan as well. However unremitting change in wind speed from calm to stormy introduces real challenges. Storing wind energy in batteries during the periods of low demand seems an expensive option, especially when dealing with large scale power generation. Due to incessantly varying nature of wind speed, it is not feasible to rely only on wind power for cheap power production. Also, it is not thriftily possible to construct separate transmission line. However if we integrate wind power with hydro power, we can utilize the maximum possible transmission capacity. Existing hydro power station operating in that area or pumped storage scheme can be used. This paper is an attempt to analyze coordination of wind generation with hydro power in those areas of Pakistan where both wind and hydro power sources exist. In this paper, different issues have been analyzed taking case study of Dargai. This paper is first attempt in Pakistan about integration of wind and hydro power to draw some general conclusions and to point out some areas in which further research can be done.
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