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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7409 matches for " Muhammad Safwan Akram "
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Iridescence in Meat Caused by Surface Gratings
Juan Leonardo Martinez-Hurtado,Muhammad Safwan Akram,Ali Kemal Yetisen
Foods , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/foods2040499
Abstract: The photonic structure of cut muscle tissues reveals that the well-ordered gratings diffract light, producing iridescent colours. Cut fibrils protruding from the muscle surface create a two-dimensional periodic array, which diffract light at specific wavelengths upon illumination. However, this photonic effect misleads consumers in a negative way to relate the optical phenomenon with the quality of the product. Here we discuss the fundamentals of this optical phenomenon and demonstrate a methodology for quantitatively measuring iridescence caused by diffraction gratings of muscle tissue surface of pork ( Sus scrofa domesticus) using reflection spectrophotometry. Iridescence was discussed theoretically as a light phenomenon and spectral measurements were taken from the gratings and monitored in real time during controlled drying. The findings show that the intensity of diffraction diminishes as the surface grating was dried with an air flow at 50 °C for 2 min while the diffracted light wavelength was at 585 ± 9 nm. Our findings indicate that the diffraction may be caused by a blazed surface grating. The implications of the study include providing guidelines to minimise the iridescence by altering the surface microstructure, and in consequence, removing the optical effect.
On -Fuzzy Ideals in Nearrings
Muhammad Akram
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/73514
Abstract: We introduce the notion of fuzzy ideals in nearrings with respect to a t-norm T and investigate some of their properties. Using T-fuzzy ideals, characterizations of Artinian and Noetherian nearrings are established. Some properties of T-fuzzy ideals of the quotient nearrings are also considered.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Objectives: To compare the quality of postoperative analgesia with singledose Bupivacaine and that of Tramadol in caudal epidural block for circumcision in children. Study design:Interventional experimental study. Settings: This study was carried out in the department of anaesthesia and painmanagement at Combined Military Hospital Peshawar. Duration: Jun 30, 2004 to Mar 2005 & then from Dec 2006 toFeb 2007. Subjects and Methods: Sixty (60) children between the ages of 2-6 year were included in study. They weredivided into two groups by convenience non-probability technique and each group had 30 children. Group A (n=30)was given 1.25mg/kg Bupivacaine, 0.25% solution, whereas Group B (n=30) received 2mg/kg of Tramadol. The volumeof drug in each group was 0.5ml/kg. Standard monitoring was done perioperatively. The analgesic effects wereevaluated by using Hannallah pain score scale6, which had maximum score of 10 and minimum of 0 (zero). The scoreof 3 or <3 was considered as adequate analgesia. Sedation was assessed by using 5-point sedation test. 0 - Awake,1 - mild sedation, 2 - feeling sleepy, 3-sleepy but able to wake, 4 - Deep sleep difficult to wake. Results: Both thegroups were comparable with respect to age, sex and duration of surgery. Insufficient pain control was observed in 4patient’s in-group B (Tramadol group), 13% and 7 patient’s in-group A (Bupivacaine group), 23%, 30 minutes aftercaudal administration of drug. Adequate postoperative analgesia was maintained in all other patients for 12 hrs. Only6 patients in Tramadol group had light sedation (p=0.0l2). Weakness of lower limbs was found in 4 patient's in-groupA. there was no difference in vital signs and there was no complication related to technique in both groups.Conclusion: Caudal administration of Tramadol in the dose of 2mg/kg when compared with 0.25% Bupivacaine inchildren under going circumcision provided similar quality of analgesia for 12 hours with out any requirement of rescueanalgesic.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: To determine the frequency of bleeding, surgical site infection and common bile duct injury after laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in patients with co-morbidity. Study design: Descriptive study. (Case series). Setting: Department of Allied & D.H.Q hospital Faisalabad. Period: July 2006 to December 2007. Patients and Methods: It comprised of 30 consecutive patients of cholelithiasis with co-morbidity presenting in surgical department. Patients having uncontrolled hypertension, chronic obstructive airway disease and malignancy were excluded. Detailed history and physical examination was carried out as per protocol. It was followed up by relevant investigations. All the cases underwent laparoscopic cholecstectomy. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 23-68 y, with mean age of 40-56 y. Among these 14 cases were having D.M (46.66 %), 06 patients were cirrhotic (20%), 06 patients had acute cholecystitis (20%), 02 patients were having H.T.N (6.6%), and 02 patients were >70 years (6.6%). All the patients were females. Out of diabetic patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, SSI was noted in 02 ( 6.66%) patients. While mild postoperative bleeding was noted in 01 (16.6%) of cirrhotic patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No untoward event was noted in patients with H.T.N ac. Cholecystitis & advanced age. Conclusion: In high risk patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, very few complications were noted. Postoperatively. Morbidity following above procedure was quite low as compared to conventional one. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be the preferred option in high risk patients for better outcome.
Characterizing T-Semigroups by Intuitionistic Fuzzy Points
Muhammad Akram
ARPN Journal of Systems and Software , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the intuitionistic fuzzy sets in a T-semigroup and the corresponding sets of intuitionistic fuzzy points. We analyze some relations between the intuitionistic fuzzy T-ideals and the sets of intuitionistic fuzzy points of these T-ideals of a T-semigroup S.
Nonholonomic Mobile Robot Trajectory Tracking using Hybrid Controller
Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology , 2016,
Abstract: A control scheme is being presented for the trajectory tracking of a nonholonomic kinematic model of mobile robots. As a kinematic model of mobile robots is nonlinear in nature, therefore, it is controlling is always being a difficult task. Thus, a control hybrid scheme comprises of fuzzy logic and PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) is being proposed, in which adaptive gains of PID controller is being tuned by a fuzzy logic controller. Moreover, the effectiveness of this innovative technique is also proved using the simulations by adding model uncertainties and external disturbances in the system. Besides, the fuzzy logic control system is also being compared by the proposed control system. Resultsattained shows that the fuzzy based PID controller drivesimproved results than fuzzy logic controller.
Assessment of Rock Mass Quality and Deformation Modulus by Empirical Methods along Kandiah River, KPK, Pakistan  [PDF]
Mian Sohail Akram, Kamran Mirza, Muhammad Zeeshan, Muhammad Asad Jabbar
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2018.810057
Abstract: The pivotal aim of this study is to evaluate the rock mass characterization and deformation modulus. It is vital for rock mass classification to investigate important parameters of discontinuities. Therefore, Rock Mass Rating (RMR) and Tunneling quality index (Q) classification systems are applied to analyze 22 segments along proposed tunnel routes for hydropower in Kandiah valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. RMR revealed the range of fair to good quality rocks, whereas Q yielded poor to fair quality rocks for investigated segments of the rock mass. Besides, Em values were acquired by empirical equations and computer-aided program RocLab, and both methods presented almost similar variation trend of their results. Hence, the correlations of Em with Q and RMR were carried out with higher values of the regression coefficient. This study has scientific significance to initially understand the rock mass conditions of Kandiah valley.
Muhammad Akram,Mamuna Ghani
Academic Research International , 2013,
Abstract: Motivation is an important factor in learning a foreign language. Gender is also an important element in learning as the females tend to demonstrate a more positive attitude and motivation towards learning a language. The present study highlights the importance of gender and motivation in language learning. The data have been collected from intermediate level students and analysed with statistical measures. The results have revealed interesting findings.
Soil Fertility Problems in Cetnral Rechna Doab
Muhammad Arshad,Abida Akram
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the fertility status of soil in the central Rechna Doab area. Fertility of the whole Central Rechna Doab area was low, Phosphorus in particular was low in all soils, and some soil samples were Potassium deficient while few were low in nitrogen. The situation can be brought to medium fertility level by using proper amount of NPK on the basis of soil test evaluation. However, a high fertility level can only be achieved by all round efforts on scientific basis.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Objectives: (1) To audit experience of cystectomy andureterosigmoidostomy as treatment of carcinoma bladder. (2) To assess the complications ofureterosigmoidostomy. (3) To assess the quality of life after the procedure. Design: Prospective. Setting:Department of Urology Allied Hospital Faisalabad. Period: December 2000 to January 2004. Material& Methods: Twenty two cases were included in the study. All patients had muscle invasive transitionalcell carcinoma, demonstrated histopathologically by TUR biopsies. CT abdomen & pelvis and sphincterassessment was performed besides other routine investigations. All patents were treated by cystectomyand ureterosigmoidostomy Prophylactic alkalinization of urine was done by Na citrate tablets. Results:All patients presented with total painless haematuria. 19 patients were male and 03 females. Age rangedfrom 38-75 years. 18 (82%) had T2 and 04 (18%) had T3, transitional cell carcinoma. Two patients hadrectal injury. One repaired Primarily and 2 patient was nd managed by colostomy and delayed repair.Immediate post-operative complications were urine leak wound (13.6%), wound infections in 8 patients(36%), pyelonephritis in 04 patients (18%). No patients suffered metabolic acidosis. 03(13%) patientsexpired. Conclusion: We consider that cystectomy & ureterosigmoidostomy is the right option forpatients with localized carcinoma urinary bladder.
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