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Implementing GIS-Based Cadastral and Land Information System in Pakistan
Zahir ALI,Muhammad SHAKIR
Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning , 2012,
Abstract: The need for information, which is the basic necessity for carrying out any planning, development and management activity, can hardly be over-emphasized. With regard to the developing nations with inadequate resources, the need for having a reliable information base is even more important. The absence of the proper land records in the real land market is another difficulty being faced by many developing countries. The reason may be unclear delimitation of individual or group rights, insecure ownership etc. The necessity for a functioning land market opens the way not only for private development but also for public land acquisition and other means of ensuring that land is available for dwelling and other urban needs. In this way the development and implementation of country-wide digital cadastral information system is an area that needs urgent attention. It is felt that there is a need to at least initiate efforts towards achieving this formidable task in an organised manner. These initial efforts would pave the way to achieve the desired goals in the years to come and would take us out of this status quo situation. With the above background, this paper highlights all the constraints and limitations that will be encountered in the process of integrating legal and geometric cadastral information to develop a new digital cadastral system.
Genetic Algorithm Sequential Monte Carlo Methods For Stochastic Volatility And Parameter Estimation
Robert Smith,Muhammad Shakir Hussain
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract:
Why Medical Students Are Crucial to the Future of Research in South Asia
Fawad Aslam ,Murtaza Shakir,Muhammad Ahad Qayyum
PLOS Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020322
Abstract:
Surveying tubewell water suitability for irrigation in four tehsils of district Kasur
Ijaz Mehboob, Muhammad Siddique Shakir,Asrar Mahboob
Soil & Environment , 2011,
Abstract: Four tehsils of district Kasur (Chunian, Pattoki, Kot Radha Kishan and Kasur) were surveyed and five villages were selected in each tehsil at random. Two water samples were collected from each village and were analyzed for various irrigation water quality parameters. The results indicated that 60% tubewell were unfit from Chunian, 90% from Pattoki, 90% from Kot Radha Kishan and 80% from Kasur tehsil. Overall, 20% of total tubewells water sampled had quality parameters within the acceptable limits whereas 80% were unfit for irrigation. About 97% waters were unfit due to high salinity (EC > 1250 S cm -1), 63% were due to high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR > 10 mmol L-1)1/2 and 97% were due to high residual sodium carbonate (RSC > 2.5 me L-1). It may be inferred that use of poor quality irrigation water will cause deterioration in soil health, which consequently will result in poor crop production. Hence, it is emphasized that tubewell discharging unfit water should be used by following sound management practices like precision land leveling, inclusion of high salt tolerant crops in traditional cropping system, occasional deep ploughing in heavy textured soil, occasional flushing of the soil profile with heavy irrigation to reduce the salt concentration in the root zone and application of organic and inorganic amendments like pressmud, poultry manure, farm yard manure and gypsum or acid/acid formers etc, however the management options must be on the basis of analysis of water quality parameters.
Short Communication: Rhizosphere bacteria containing ACC-deaminase conferred drought tolerance in wheat grown under semi-arid climate
Masood Ahmad Shakir,Asghari Bano,and Muhammad Arshad
Soil & Environment , 2012,
Abstract: Certain rhizobacteria have the potential of lowering endogenous ethylene levels in plants because of their 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase activity and promoting root growth. This mechanism is of great agronomic significance under stress environments, which are known to induce accelerated production of ethylene. Thirty rhizobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing in the Southern Punjab, a semi-arid region of Pakistan. Rhizobacteria were screened for ACC-deaminase activity and their potential to confer drought tolerance in wheat crop. Results of laboratory study revealed that selected rhizobacteria lowered endogenous ethylene levels in the rhizosphere as measured by Gas Chromatograph. Axenic studies showed that inoculation increased root-shoot length, root-shoot mass and lateral root number of the inoculated plants by 141, 44, 196, 52 and 30%, respectively, over control. Better-developed roots because of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) helped plants, a better crop stand that enhanced moisture and nutrient feeding volume resulting-in improved growth and yields of wheat crop. Two-year multi-location field trials inferred optimum yields with low delta water in semi-arid climate by PGPR containing ACC-deaminase. The enzyme ACC-deaminase probably lowered harmful ethylene levels which partially eliminated drought stress consequently utilizing soil moisture from lower profiles through proliferated roots.
Why medical students are crucial to the future of research in South Asia.
Aslam Fawad,Shakir Murtaza,Qayyum Muhammad Ahad
PLOS Medicine , 2005,
Abstract:
Irrigational Quality of Under Ground Water in Kasur District
Muhammad Siddique Shakir,Mumtaz Ahmed,Muhammad Aslam Khan
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: New tubewell bores`s water samples were collected from various locations of District Kasur for chemical analysis. The aim was to check the quality of under ground water for irrigation purposes. Electrical conductivity (EC) of the water samples collected from 64 locations varied from 524 to 5700. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of the samples ranged from 0.49 to 26.00 while residual sodium carbonate (RSC) from zero to 17.00. Twenty- six samples out of 64 have EC, SAR and RSC < 1000, 6 and 1.25, respectively. These are considered desirable characters for irrigation water. Only 8 samples`s EC, SAR and RSC ranges are as 1000-1250, 6-10 and 1.25 to 2.50. Thirty samples have EC, SAR and RSC > 1250, 10 and 2.50, respectively.
Effect of Individual and Combined Application of Organic and Inorganic Manures on the Productivity of Guava (Psidium guajava L.)
Faqir Muhammad,M. Amin Shakir,M. Raza Salik
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: The experiment was conducted to study the effect of farm yard manure and inorganic fertilizers applied alone or in combination on the productivity of Winter crop of guava. It has been observed that combined application of farmyard manure and NPK proved best to increase the fruit size, weight and total yield. Alone application of manure was found better than alone application of NPK. The effect of combined application of manure with NP, NK and PK was found in descending order to improve the production. Total soluble solids were not affected with any of the treatment and almost same level of TSS was noted in all cases. However, the yield was significantly increased when all the three major elements (NPK) were applied along with rottened farm yard manure.
Comparative Studies on the Performance of Some Grape Fruit Varieties under Soil and Climatic Conditions of Dera Ghazi Khan
M. Amin Shakir,M. Raza Salik,Faqir Muhammad
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Present research studies were carried out to compare four varieties of grape fruit i.e., Shamber, Marsh seedless, Foster and red Maxican for their vegetative and reproductive characters. It has been found that all the varieties behaved similarly in both the years for height and spread of plant and for TSS contents. With regard to yield, juice contents and juice percentage, Marsh seedless was found superior variety. Stem girth was nearly similar in all cultivars except red Maxican which produced least stem girth. Red maxican was better for giving more fruit size and average weight of single fruit. Generally, all the four cultivars behaved similarly for various vegetative and reproductive characters in both the years.
Effect of Time of Fertilizer Application on the Productivity of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata Blanko)
M. Raza Salik,Faqir Muhammad,M. Amin Shakir
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Present studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizer application at different times of the year on the productivity of kinnow. 40 kg rottened farm yard manure, 1 kg urea, 4 kg single supper phosphate and 1 kg sulphate of potash per plant was applied at three different times i.e., in January, April and July. Application in January improved the number of fruits, fruit size, weight of fruit and juice contents during 1997-98. TSS and juice percentage was not affected by any treatment. The same trend for effect of fertilizers was also observed during 1998-99 with a difference only that juice percentage was also affected with fertilizer treatment and increased when the fertilizer was applied in January. When the fertilizers were applied in April or July, no improvement was noted and the results were similar to or worse than control.
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