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OALib Journal期刊

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Marx’s Religious Dilemma: An Islamic Reply  [PDF]
Muhammad Rizwan Junaid, Khadija Naz
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104448
Abstract:
Religious concepts of Karl Marx were reactionary and he considered religion as a tool in the hands of oppressors and further captions it as an essence of no individual and social value. His influence travelled with him and socialist philosophy took a new turn and started abolishing religious norms in order to build an all atheist culture. Marx linked religion with economy and financial prosperity and made it responsible for societal failure. This research initiative is based upon Marx’s writings and his sole contribution in the very right perspective of how he took the notion of religion? and strives to establish true position of religion as social phenomenon. The researcher focused to establish the fact that Marx’s criticism of religion was not the criticism of religion but the existing world where it is being implemented and practiced. This paper attempts to counter Marx’s religious confusions in the light of Islamic fundamentals and further tries to prove that Islam in its own capacity counters all the observations posed by Marx while referencing the word “religion”.
Behavior of Electromagnetic Waves at Dielectric Fractal-Fractal Interface in Fractional Spaces
Muhammad Omar;Muhammad Junaid Mughal
PIER M , 2013, DOI: 10.2528/PIERM12121903
Abstract: In this paper, reflection and transmission coefficients at dielectric fractal-fractal interface are discussed. The ratio of permittivity of the two dielectric fractal media is kept constant, while the dimension is varied in order to get the desired results. Conventional results are recovered for the integer dimensions. The proposed expressions are useful to study the behavior of electromagnetic waves for non-integer dimensions, multiple fractal interfaces and waveguides. Moreover, it is also helpful to understand the variation in the magnitudes of reflection and transmission coefficients with the difference in dimensionality at interface of the two fractal media.
GRANDULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS
Qazi Muhammad Rizwan
The Professional Medical Journal , 1999,
Abstract: As lymphadenopathy is probably the most common finding in the acquired toxoplasmosis, OBJECTIVES:To analyze the site and character of enlarged lymph nodes in seropositive cases of toxoplasmosisSETTING: Department of microbiology, BMSI, MPMC, Karachi. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A totalof 100 individuals of different age and sex groups having lymphadenop at hy were included in the study forantitoxoplasma IgG and IgM antibody levels. Relevant information was recorded on a proforma.RESULTS: Lmyph nodes of he neck region were maximally involved i.e. 88.34%. Majority of the involvednoes were discrete, mobile, smooth in texture and firm in consistency. Half of the patients had tender lymphnodes. Amon the other clinical features, fever was the most common presenting symptom (61.11%).t20(55.56%) of 36 positive cases were having contact with animals, contact with cats was maximum i.e. 75%.
Factors Influencing Corporate Social and Environmental Disclosure (CSED) Practices in the Developing Countries: An Institutional Theoretical Perspective
Waris Ali,Muhammad Rizwan
International Journal of Asian Social Science , 2013,
Abstract: This study contributes to the literature on Corporate Social and Environmental Disclosure (CSED hereafter) in the developing countries by exploring various influential factors for CSED and grouping them into three categories: normative, interest, and company groups (Solomon and Lewis 2002). These categories can create normative, coercive, and mimetic pressure respectively for a company to adapt CSED practices. Numerous theories such as: legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory, and institutional theory have been used to explain the underlying reasons for CSED in both the developed and the developing countries. However, this study uses only institutional theoretical perspective to provide explanation for underlying reasons for CSED in the developing countries.
Privacy Preserving Enforcement of Sensitive Policies in Outsourced and Distributed Environments
Muhammad Rizwan Asghar
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The enforcement of sensitive policies in untrusted environments is still an open challenge for policy-based systems. On the one hand, taking any appropriate security decision requires access to these policies. On the other hand, if such access is allowed in an untrusted environment then confidential information might be leaked by the policies. The key challenge is how to enforce sensitive policies and protect content in untrusted environments. In the context of untrusted environments, we mainly distinguish between outsourced and distributed environments. The most attractive paradigms concerning outsourced and distributed environments are cloud computing and opportunistic networks, respectively. In this dissertation, we present the design, technical and implementation details of our proposed policy-based access control mechanisms for untrusted environments. First of all, we provide full confidentiality of access policies in outsourced environments, where service providers do not learn private information about policies. We support expressive policies and take into account contextual information. The system entities do not share any encryption keys. For complex user management, we offer the full-fledged Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) policies. In opportunistic networks, we protect content by specifying expressive policies. In our proposed approach, brokers match subscriptions against policies associated with content without compromising privacy of subscribers. As a result, unauthorised brokers neither gain access to content nor learn policies and authorised nodes gain access only if they satisfy policies specified by publishers. Our proposed system provides scalable key management in which loosely-coupled publishers and subscribers communicate without any prior contact. Finally, we have developed a prototype of the system that runs on real smartphones and analysed its performance.
Performance of Short-Commit in Extreme Database Environment
Muhammad Tayyab Shahzad,Muhammad Rizwan
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Atomic commit protocols are used where data integrity is more important than data availability. Two-Phase commit (2PC) is a standard commit protocol for commercial database management systems. To reduce certain drawbacks in 2PC protocol people have suggested different variance of this protocol. Short-Commit protocol is developed with an objective to achieve low cost transaction commitment cost with non-blocking capability. In this paper we have briefly explained short-commit protocol executing pattern. Experimental analysis and results are presented to support the claim that short-commit can work efficiently in extreme database environment.
Integrating Requirements with SLI Layer for Cloud Computing Services to Meet SLA and QoS  [PDF]
Muhammad Irfan, Zhu Hong, Muhammad Irfan Sharif, Ahmed Junaid Haq Qureshi, Rakhshanda Kanwal, Muhammad Imran
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.63018
Abstract:

Cloud computing is high technology, which fulfills needs of common as well as enterprise level to meet their information and communication technology requirements and so on. Cloud computing extends existing information technology capabilities and requirements. Many technologies are being merged with cloud computing, same as that orchestrations can boost cloud service provisioning process. The usage of orchestrations can play vital role to provision cloud services. Cloud service providers can create scalable cloud services at low cost by organizing cloud infrastructure by using cloud orchestrations. Dynamic orchestration flows can generate required cloud computing services to meet service level agreements and quality of services. There is a need to understand issues and barriers involved to integrate cloud orchestrations with cloud service provisioning process. There is also need to understand business related problems bordering cloud computing technology. There is much capacity to do targeted research work for cloud orchestrations and its integration with service level agreements as well as with SLI (service level integration) layer. In this article we have elaborated detailed analysis and identified a number of issues that will affect the cloud service users as well as cloud service providers and cloud service provisioning system. We are defining an approach to orchestrate cloud infrastructure by using orchestration flows, to generate cloud services in order to meet service level agreements and quality of standard.

Nonlinear Control of Bioprocess Using Feedback Linearization, Backstepping, and Luenberger Observers  [PDF]
Muhammad Rizwan S. Khan, Robert N. K. Loh
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2014.34017
Abstract: This paper addresses the analysis, design, and application of observer-based nonlinear controls by combining feedback linearization (FBL) and backstepping (BS) techniques with Luenberger observers. Complete development of observer-based controls is presented for a bioprocess. Controllers using input-output feedback linearization and backstepping techniques are designed first, assuming that all states are available for feedback. Next, the construction of observer in the transformed domain is presented based on input-output feedback linearization. This approach is then extended to observer design based on backstepping approach using the error equation resulted from the backstepping design procedure. Simulation results demonstrating the effectiveness of the techniques developed are presented and compared.
Banks Dividend Policy and Investment Decision as Determinants of Financing Decision: Evidence from Pakistan  [PDF]
Safdar Husain Tahir, Muhammad Rizwan Ullah, Sajid Mahmood
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2015.55032
Abstract: This study investigates empirically the effect of dividend policy and investment decision on financing decision. To obtain the objectives, the data required, ranging from 2004 to 2013, were collected from the financial statements of all the banking firms listed in Karachi Stock exchange. Investment opportunity and actual investment were used as proxies of investment decision. Profitability and firm size were used as control variables. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the variables of interest. It was concluded that investment opportunity had significant effect on financing decision; however, the effects had no particular pattern. Furthermore, actual in-vestment and dividend policy had no impact on financing decision.
Impact of Bank Lending on Economics Growth in Pakistan: An Empirical Study of Lending to Private Sector  [PDF]
Safdar Husain Tahir, Iqra Shehzadi, Ishfaq Ali, Muhammad Rizwan Ullah
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2015.58056
Abstract: Bank credit plays an important role in the economy of any nation. The current study examined the association among bank credit to private sector and economic growth in Pakistan. Economic growth was taken as dependent variable, while bank credit to private sector, interest rate, inflation, investment to GDP and government consumptions were taken as independent variables. Secondary data were collected from World Bank Indicator, ranging for the period 1973 to 2013. Descriptive research and correlation were used to check the normality of data. Unit root test was used to check the stationarity of variables. Co-integration VECUM and Granger Casuality test were statistically used to test the variable relationship and casuality effect of the variable. Regression analysis was used to analyze the impact of bank credit on economic growth. The findings of the study showed that bank credit had extensive relationship with economic progression; in short term the relationship was also significant. Regression analysis showed that there was adverse impact of bank credit on economic growth in Pakistan. However, problem associated with bank credit facility is the constraint and regulation imposed by SBP on the percentage of credit to be given to the Entrepreneurs. For solitary in the meantime bank lending has a casual influence on economic growth, there is a policy need to give devotion to liberalization the monetary sector.
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