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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8397 matches for " Muhammad Iqbal Zafar "
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Transmuted Exponentiated Moment Pareto Distribution  [PDF]
Muhammad Zeshan Arshad, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Munir Ahmad
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2018.86063
Abstract: In this work, the authors proposed a four parameter potentiated lifetime model named as Transmuted Exponentiated Moment Pareto (TEMP) distribution and discussed numerous characteristic measures of proposed model. Parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood and performance of these estimates is also assessed by simulations study. Four suitable lifetime datasets are modeled by the TEMP distribution and the results support that the proposed model provides much better results as compared to its sub-models.
FNAC OF THYROID NODULE; DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY (FNAC)
MUHAMMAD TARIQ,MUHAMMAD ZAFAR IQBAL
The Professional Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Clinically, solitary thyroid nodules are common, being present in up to 50% of the elderly population. The majorityare benign with thyroid cancer representing an uncommon clinical problem. If euthyroid, then fine needle biopsy provides direct specificinformation about the cytology of the nodule from which the histology can be inferred. Objectives: To determine the accuracy of fine needleaspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of solitary thyroid nodule and to avoid unnecessary surgery. Material and Method: Setting: Thisstudy was conducted in the Department of Surgery, Sheikh Zayed Medical College/ hospital Rahim Yar Khan. Duration of Study: September2008 to August 2009 (one year). Sample Size: Fifty patients were included in the study. Study design: Prospective analytical study. Results:The results obtained were compared with histopathology and efficacy of FNAC was checked by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positivepredictive value and negative predictive value. Out of 50 cases, FNAC showed 43 cases as benign and 7 cases as malignant lesions, whilehistopathological examination revealed 42 benign and 8 malignant lesions. FNAC was able to correctly pick 41 benign lesions, while 2 cases ofbenign lesion turned out to be malignant on histopathology (False negative).Out of total 8 cases which turned out to be malignant onhistopathology, FNAC was able to pick 6 cases, while one benign lesion was misdiagnosed as malignant (false positive). The analysis of studyshowed a sensitivity of 75% and specificity 97.6% of FNAC in detecting malignancy in solitary thyroid nodule. Conclusions: This studyconcluded that FNAC is highly effective in detecting thyroid malignancy in solitary thyroid nodule with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of97.6%.
Approximation of some minerals in soil and forage as a function of non-conventional compost: A case study  [PDF]
Kafeel Ahmad, Zafar Iqbal Khan, Sidra Umer, Farhad Mirzaei, Muhammad Sher, Zafar Hayat, Abrar Hussain
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.41002
Abstract: In present study concentration of some metals (Magnesium, Nickel and Calcium) were determined in soil and different parts of Avena sativa treated with poultry waste grown in the pots. Nine different treatments of poultry waste were used: 0 (control), 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha applied to soil as full doses before sowing, and 60, 90, 120, and 150 applied as two equal splits, 1st before sowing and the 2nd before flower instigation. The samples of soil were obtained after mixing the poultry waste with soil in each pot before sowing. Different parts (roots, leaves, and seeds) of plants were taken after 90 days of sowing and after grain filling. Samples of soil and forages were analyzed. Mg concentrations found both in soil and plants were non-significantly affected by treatments and were lower than the requirements of ruminants in forage crops, but above requirement of forages in soil. Soil and forage Ni was affected non-significantly from the treatments of poultry waste and soil and forage Ni levels were found to be lower than the toxic level for animals and forages. Soil Ca was affected non-significantly by treatments having far lower values than the requirements of both forage species and ruminants. The study showed that soil Mg was higher and Ca was lower than the requirements of forages, but forage Mg and Ca were not fulfilling the requirements of livestock indicating the non significant effect of poultry waste on their concentrations. From the results of this study it has been anticipated that various deficiency problems in livestock may be resulted as these elements play very important role in animals’ metabolic progression. Therefore, soil amendment with poultry manure along with other synthetic fertilizers for enhancing the levels of various minerals is acceptable. The soil amendment and specifically tailored mineral mixture with appropriate proportion of these elements is the dire needs for livestock consuming Avena sativa in pasture treated
Factors Related to Low Research Productivity at Higher Education Level
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal,Azhar Mahmood
Asian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v7n2p188
Abstract: Research is vital and necessary part of modern university education; universities are producers of new knowledge. Role of universities is different from the 19th century; demands of the 21st century are enormously higher. The purpose of study was to find out the causes of low research productivity at university level. Population of the study was faculty members working at University. Sample consisting of 232 male and female faculty members was selected through the stratified sampling technique. Quantitative research methodology was adopted; data were collected through questionnaire. Data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed by using the statistical methods. To describe the data at the initial stage percentages were calculated. At the second stage Mean score, SD and Chi-Square, the test of significance was applied. The level of significance selected for the study was 0.05. On the basis of findings, the conclusions were drawn that extra teaching load, performance of administrative duties along with academic duties, lack of funds, nonexistence of research leave, negative attitude of the faculty towards research, lack of research skills, non availability of latest books, absence of professional journals, less number of university own journals, are the major causes of low productivity and reduced the research productivity of the university faculty members.
Selenium profile in blood plasma of grazing sheep: A case study in specific ranch in Punjab, Pakistan  [PDF]
Zafar Iqbal Khan, Kafeel Ahmad, Muhammad Danish, Muhammad Aslam Mirza, Farhad Mirzaei
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.34055
Abstract: A survey was conducted in Southwestern, Punjab, Pakistan during two different seasons to assess the status of selenium of three different classes of grazing sheep. Blood plasma from lactating, non-lactating and male sheep were collected four times monthly in winter and summer seasons and analyzed for selenium concentration. Seasonal variations were found for plasma selenium concentration. Selenium concentration of plasma was higher in male sheep than those lactating and non lactating ewes during both the seasons as well as it were higher compared to the established critical value for blood plasma selenium for these ruminants. High incidence of deficiencies was found particularly for lactating ewes. These deficiencies in plasma selenium based on critical level were 35% to 15 % for lactating, 28% to 12% for non lactating ewes and 15% to 5% for male animals during winter and summer seasons, respectively. Although some differences among the three classes of sheep were found for selenium concentrations of blood plasma, but dramatic class differences could not be concluded based on this study. It was suggested based on the results obtained, pellets, glass bolus or mixture that contain selenium, should be used for supplementation for grazing sheep in the study area to maintain the plasma Se at optimum required level for the prevention of complication in livestock caused due to deficiency of this element.
Analysis of Metabolites of 4-methyl 2-sulfanilamido-oxazole (Sulfamethoxazole) Excreted in the Urine of Goats
Muhammad Iqbal Baig,Muhammad Nawaz,Muhammad Zafar Iqbal
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1998,
Abstract: The urinary excretion and metabolism of 4-Methyl 2-sulfanilamido-oxazole (sulfamethoxazole) were determined in goats following intravenous injection of a single dose 50 mg/kg body weight. The percentage of intravenous dose of 4-Methyl 2-sulfanilamido-oxazole (sulfamethoxazole) excreted in the urine until 24 hours as total amine was 61.0 ± 5.2 per cent, free amine 43.2 ± 4.6 per cent and acetyl amine was 17.8 ± 1.2 per cent. The mean ± SE values for relative percentage of Metabolite I identified as unchanged amine was 42.3 % Metabolite II acetyl amine was 15.67 per cent, Metabolite III hydroxy derivative 18.33 and as conjugated Metabolite were 23.33 per cent. In goats, the urinary excretion and Metabolism of 4-Methyl 2-sulfanilamido-oxazole (sulfamethoxazole) revealed differences apprising as adjustment dosage regimen in the indigenous goats.
Maturity of Cotton Cultivars in Multan as Determined by Nodes above White Flower
Muhammad Iqbal,Muhammad Ali Chang,Abid Mahmood,Muhammad Zafar Iqbal
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The node above white flower (NAWF) technique was used to monitor the growth, development and maturity of ten cotton varieties viz. Reshmi, CIM-443, MNH-93, MNH-329, MNH-395, MNH-439, S-12, FH-900, CIM-1100 and NIAB-78 during the years 1997, 1998 and 1999. The NAWF counts were made at weekly intervals. By regressing NAWF means over time, the number of days to reach NAWF of 5.0 (NAWF-5) was determined. Days to NAWF-5 were highly correlated with percent first pick of seed cotton yield. It was observed that NIAB-78 and CIM-443 achieved NAWF-5 earlier by 109.86 and 109.09 days (average of three years). Days to NAWF-5 provided a focal point for all management decisions. Therefore, it became evident that NAWF technique could be used for monitoring cotton plant after flowering, earliness determination of variety/strain and detecting fruiting problems during growth season.
Inheritance of Earliness and other Characters in Upland Cotton
Muhammad Iqbal,Muhammad Ali Chang,Abdul Jabbar,Muhammad Zafar Iqbal
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Certain features of gross morphology of the cotton plant furnish clues to earliness of crop production. Node of first fruiting branch (NFB), number of monopodial branch per plant (NMB), days taken to first flower, days taken to open first boll were used a morphological measures of earliness in the studies reported here. The estimation of component of variation for these characters suggested that the additive component was significant in all the traits and were greater than dominant components of variation except for seed cotton yield per plant, where the dominant components were higher in magnitude than additive. The ratio of H2/4H1 indicated asymmetry of positive and negative genes in parents for seed cotton yield and percent first pick, whereas symmetrical distribution of positive and negative genes in the parents was observed for node of first fruiting branch, number of monopodial branches per plant, days taken to first flower and days taken to open first boll. All of these traits were significantly correlated but because of its higher heritability and lower variability, node of first fruiting branch is considered the most reliable and the most practical one of these. NFB and NMB were significantly correlated phenotypically with percent first pick (earliness). From the estimates of heritability value (broad and narrow) sense it was concluded that cross Reshmi x NIAB-78, NIAB-78 x MNH-93 and S-14 x NIAB-78 are valuable crosses for improvement of early maturing traits (node of first fruiting branch, days taken to first flower, days taken to open first boll and percent first pick) with seed cotton yield.
Assessment of pasture and plasma minerals of cows: A case study in Pakistan  [PDF]
Zafar Iqbal Khan, Kafeel Ahmad, Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar, Farhad Mirzaei, Ghulam Hussain
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.42009
Abstract:

An investigation was conducted to evaluate the nutrient level of grazing livestock as influenced by the sampling periods in Punjab state districtSargodha,Pakistan. Twenty composite soil and pasture and twenty five blood samples were collected at two different sampling periods dur ing December 2010 to March, 2011, respectively. Higher soil content of all elements except iron was observed during December than those found in Mach at the 2nd harvest during this pe riod but all mean values were above the critical levels investigated for soil for the requirements of forage crops. Forage, potassium, magnesium and copper levels did not differ between samplings. Calcium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cobalt and selenium were higher during December, while reverse was true for forage iron reflecting the soil iron contents. The sodium, manganese, iron and selenium in forage were found to be deficient than the requirements of livestock during both sampling times in this investigation. From the four minerals assessed in the serum calcium, magnesium and zinc levels were high after the December in March. The macro mineral which were found to be moderately deficient at this animal farm are sodium and magnesium. Micro elements most likely to limit livestock production efficiency are copper, zinc, manganese and cobalt. Specific mineral supplementation should be supplied containing copper and zinc, as both pasture and blood plasma samples exhibited their deficiency. The present investigation suggests the requirement and provision of an appropriate specificity tailored mineral mixture to ruminants in this specific studied area. The objective of this study was to determine deficiency or excess of various minerals to have the knowledge of the status of different minerl elements for supplementation if necessary.

Optimization of Different Media for Plant Regeneration from Callus Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa) Genotype DM. 25
Zafar Iqbal Khan,Altaf Hussain,Muhammad Sadiq
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: Different Media were optimized for plant regeneration from callus initiated from mature embryos of Indica rice on media with various levels of 2,4-D alone and in combination with various concentrations of Benzyle adenine. Plant regeneration was achieved in both MS and N6 media with and without various levels of growth regulators. In addition to green plants, production of albino plants was also observed in all the media tested for regeneration. The composition of each Callus induction and regeneration media was found to be responsible for the recovery of higher number of plants.
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