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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7384 matches for " Muhammad Arshad "
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Analyzing History Quality for Routing Purposes in Opportunistic Network Using Max-Flow  [PDF]
Muhammad Arshad Islam, Marcel Waldvogel
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2012.33020
Abstract: Most of the existing opportunistic network routing protocols are based on some type of utility function that is directly or indirectly dependent on the past behavior of devices. The past behavior or history of a device is usually referred to as contacts that the device had in the past. Whatever may be the metric of history, most of these routing protocols work on the realistic premise that node mobility is not truly random. In contrast, there are several oracles based methods where such oracles assist these methods to gain access to information that is unrealistic in the real world. Although, such oracles are unrealistic, they can help to understand the nature and behavior of underlying networks. In this paper, we have analyzed the gap between these two extremes. We have performed max-flow computations on three different opportunistic networks and then compared the results by performing max-flow computations on history generated by the respective networks. We have found that the correctness of the history based prediction of history is dependent on the dense nature of the underlying network. Moreover, the history based prediction can deliver correct paths but cannot guarantee their absolute reliability.
Analysis of Cognitive Radio Enabled Flooding in Opportunistic Networks  [PDF]
Muhammad Arshad Islam, Marcel Waldvogel
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.77023

Epidemic routing (Flooding) is considered as a simple routing protocol for opportunistic networks where the participants attempt to transmit whatever information they have to everyone who does not already have that information. However, it is plagued with disadvantages of resource scarcity as it exerts stress on available bandwidth as well as storage capacity of the devices in the network. Cognitive radio (CR) is one of the emerging technologies that can improve the bandwidth utilization by smart allocation of spectrum radio bands. Ideally speaking, a spectrum-aware cognitive radio is able to sense the local spectrum usage and adapt its own radio parameters accordingly. In this study, we have performed experiments to analyze the gains achieved by flooding protocol using cognitive radios of varying capabilities in opportunistic networks. We have performed experiments on three opportunistic networks obtained from real-life traces from different environments and presented results showing variance in delivery efficiency as well as cost incurred on those scenarios. Our results show that performance of flooding can be significantly improved using CRs in bandwidth-scarce environments; however, the improvement is not uniform with the increase in a number of available bands.

Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Trade and Economic Growth of Pakistan: A Co-integration Analysis
International Journal of Economics and Research , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to the long run relationship among Foreign Direct Investment, Trade (Imports & Exports) and Economic growth for Pakistan. The co-integrating VAR framework is used to find the relationship over the period of 1965 to 2005. The results show that there are two long run relationships exist between GDP, Imports and Exports and FDI. First long run relationship shows that both imports and exports affect GDP but FDI has insignificant effect on GDP. In second long run relationship shows that both imports and exports affect FDI but GDP is not significantly affecting FDI. It means that FDI and GDP have no effect on the each other in long run. Ganger causality test shows that FDI does not cause the GDP, but GDP cause FDI but GDP cause FDI. Exports and FDI does not ganger cause each other in the short run. The insignificant effect of FDI on GDP suggests us to check the nature of relationship between FDI and Domestic investment. The results show that FDI has no effect on domestic investment.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Design: A retrospective study of 40 cases of Trigeminal Neuralgia who were treated surgically ( by MVD, micro-vascular decompression). Place & Duration: Department of Neurosurgery Quaid-I-Azam Medical College / Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur during four (4) year period from January 2003 to December 2006.These patients were resistant to medical treatment so MVD was performed. Methods Total number of patients is (40) forty. In 10 patients CT scan brain and especially for posterior fossa was performed before surgery to rule out any suspected tumour pathology. In the remaining 30 cases no MRI or CT scanning of brain was done before surgery and diagnosis of Trigeminal Neuralgia was made on clinical grounds. Results: Posterior fossa was opened by standard right or left retro-mastoid approach depending upon the side of pain. In 27 out of 40 cases the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) was the offending vessel. In 5 cases, only the vein was the cause of pain. In 2 cases, vein and artery, both were the offending vessels. In 2 cases, only arachnoidal adhesions were the cause of pain. And in 4 cases, after opening the posterior fossa it was found that cause of pain is a tumour of trigeminal nerve (3 cases) or meningioma (1 case) of cerebellopontine angle. Conclusion: From these operative findings of tumours in the posterior fossa in cases of Trigeminal Neuralgia, it is concluded that all the patients suffering from Trigeminal Neuralgia should be screened with MRI prior to surgery to rule out any tumour pathology as a cause of Trigeminal Neuralgia, so that proper preparations be made before surgical intervention.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2002,
Abstract: Intracerebral hemorrhage is a condition in which there is bleeding within the brain parenchyma without trauma. Themost common causes for this type of hemorrhage are hypertension, aneurysmal rupture, AVM rupture, coagulopathies andmetabolic disorders etc. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to find out the out come of surgical treatment in casesof spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage especially due to hypertension and metabolic disorders. SETTING: Departmentof Neurosurgery Quaid-e-Azam Medical College/ Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur. PERIOD: June 1998 toMay 2000. PATIENTS & METHODS: Detailed history and examination was followed by plain CT scan of brain.Most of these patients with hemorrhagic strokes were initially admitted in Medical ward of the same hospital and fromthere they were shifted to Neurosurgery ward after initial work up and CT scanning. In majority i.e. 25 (75%) of thesepatients the cause of hemorrhage was hypertension. The second most common cause in 6 (18%) patients for hemorrhagewas metabolic disorder especially renal and liver malfunction. RESULTS: Total number of the patients were 33. Outof which 23 were males and 10 females. Mean age was 55 years (ranging from 22 to 80 years). Sudden headache followedby loss of consciousness, loss of speech and hemiplegia or hemiparesis were the commonest presenting complaints. Mostof the haematoma (75%) were found to be on left side of brain with focal neurological deficits on right side along withaphasia or dysphasia. Common sites for hemorrhage were basal ganglia, internal capsule and thalamic regions of the brain25 (75%). A few 3 (9%) of these clots were found in the cerebellum. After investigations and initial resuscitation, variousprocedures performed were, burr hole aspiration 3 (9.3%), craniectomy 5 (15.3%) and craniotomy 25 (75%). In 25patients, free flap craniotomy was done with craniotome to remove the clot. 20 (60%) out of 33 patients improved regardingtheir hemiparesis and dysphasia. 5 (15%) patients expired even after surgery. 8 (24%) patients remained in the same statusas were before surgery. Patients with GCS 5 or above with sizeable focal clot, were subjected to surgery. Patients withGCS below 5, deeply comatosed, with extensor response or no response to painful stimuli and with blood in the ventricularsystem were excluded from the study. CONCLUSION: Surgery is a good option, though controversial for the treatmentof ICH. It gives satisfactory results when a patient is young, without any other illness and with good GCS score i.e. morethan 8. Its prognosis is bad in older patien
Xilinx System Generator® Based Implementation of a Novel Method of Extraction of Nonstationary Sinusoids  [PDF]
Muhammad Abubakar, Arshad Aziz, Pervez Akhtar
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.43B002

Model based implementation of a novel nonlinear adaptive filter for extraction of time varying sinusoids using Xilinx system generator has been presented in this work. The practicality of this filter model along with its performance makes it one of the foremost candidates to be applied on nonlinear systems for the purpose of estimation and extraction using reconfigurable hardware like FPGA. A design implementation and verification approach has been discussed for more efficient implementation. Timing and power analysis has been performed and the architecture has been optimized for speed and power to perform at higher frequency when integrated on a Xilinx FPGA. The proposed hardware oriented architecture has been successfully implemented and simulated. The simulation results to track a noisy input have also been shown to demonstrate the exceptional performance of the hardware based architecture developed.

Transmuted Exponentiated Moment Pareto Distribution  [PDF]
Muhammad Zeshan Arshad, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Munir Ahmad
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2018.86063
Abstract: In this work, the authors proposed a four parameter potentiated lifetime model named as Transmuted Exponentiated Moment Pareto (TEMP) distribution and discussed numerous characteristic measures of proposed model. Parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood and performance of these estimates is also assessed by simulations study. Four suitable lifetime datasets are modeled by the TEMP distribution and the results support that the proposed model provides much better results as compared to its sub-models.
Impact of Environment on the Combining Ability of Bread Wheat Genotypes
Muhammad Arshad,Muhammad Aslam Chowdhry
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: To determine the impact of environment on the combining ability of bread wheat eight genotypes were crossed in a diallel fashion and the resulting material was grown under irrigated as well as drought stress conditions. Data collected on yield and related traits revealed highly significant differences among genotypes under both sowing conditions. Combining ability analysis revealed that GCA mean squares were significant for flag leaf area, plant height, grains per spike and 1000-grains weight under irrigated condition while GCA mean squares were significant for flag leaf area, plant height, tillers per plant and 1000-grains weight under drought stress condition. Mean squares due to SCA were highly significant for all the traits under both sowing conditions. It was revealed that additive effects were more important than the dominant for almost all the characters under both sowing conditions which indicated the importance of additive variation for the inheritance of these characters. The presence of both additive and non-additive variability suggested the utilization of certain genotypes and crosses to evolve new wheat genotypes for irrigated as well as drought environments e.g., parental genotypes like Parula, MH.97 and 87094 and specific crosses like 85205 H MH.97, Parula H MH.97, Parula H 87094, Crow H MH.97 and Chak.97 H Kohis.97.
Genetic Behaviour of Wheat under Irrigated and Drought Stress Environment
Muhammad Arshad,Muhammad Aslam Chowdhry
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: A diallel cross involving eight bread wheat genotypes were evaluated to determine the genetic behaviour of wheat genotypes across the environments. The experimental material was planted under irrigated as well as drought stress conditions. Data collected on yield and related traits revealed highly significant differences among genotypes under both sowing conditions. Graphical analysis revealed that additive action of genes for plant height and grains per spike under irrigated conditions changed to over dominance under drought. However, it was also found that gene action for flag leaf area, 1000-grains weight and grain yield per plant remained the same over environments. It was also observed that parental genotypes shifted their positions in the graphs from recessive to dominant or the midway or vice versa, showing different genetic constitution for the same trait in response to environmental change. Genotypes displaying similar constitution under both sowing conditions showed that they contain stable genes for those particular characters and may prove useful in future breeding strategies.
Testing of money multiplier model for Pakistan: does monetary base carry any information?
Muhammad Arshad Khan
Economic Analysis Working Papers , 2010,
Abstract: This paper tests the constancy and stationarity of mechanic version of the money multiplier model for Pakistan using monthly data over the period 1972M1-2009M2. We split the data into pre-liberalization (1972M1-1990M12) and post-liberalization (1991M1-2009M2) periods to examine the impact of financial sector reforms. We first examine the constancy and stationarity of the money multiplier and the results suggest the money multiplier remains non-stationary for the entire sample period and sub-periods. We then tested cointegration between money supply and monetary base and find the evidence of cointegration between two variables for the entire period and two sub-periods. The coefficient restrictions are satisfied only for the post-liberalization period. Two-way long-run causality between money supply and monetary base is found for the entire period and post-liberalization. For the post-liberalization period the evidence of short-run causality running from monetary base to money supply is also identified. On the whole, the results suggest that money multiplier model can serve as framework for conducting short-run monetary policy in Pakistan. However, the monetary authority may consider the co-movements between money supply and reserve money at the time of conducting monetary policy.
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