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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15720 matches for " Muhammad Ahmed "
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Acute Toxicity (Lethal Dose 50 Calculation) of Herbal Drug Somina in Rats and Mice  [PDF]
Muhammad Ahmed
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2015.63019
Abstract: Somina (herbal preparation) prepared by Hamdard Laboratories (Waqf) Pakistan is a mixture of five different medicinal plants, widely prescribed for the treatment of mental illness. For acute toxicity, the Karber arithmetic method for the calculation of LD50 and Hodge and Sterner toxicity scale was used. In this study, different doses (10, 100, 285, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 mg/kg) of the extract was administered orally to the different groups of rats and mice. Signs of toxicity and possible death of animals were monitored for 24 hrs to calculate the median lethal dose (LD50) of somina. At the end of the study, all the animals in all the dose groups were sacrificed and the internal organ-body was compared with values from the control group. The LD50 was found to be >10,000 mg/kg body weight upon oral administration in mice and rats as no mortality was observed after single dose administration. According to Hodge and Sterner toxicity scale, the obtained value of LD 50 > 10,000 mg/kg classified the Somina as Practically non-toxic herbal medicine.
Synchronization in Wireless Networks for Practical MIMO-OFDM Systems  [PDF]
Muhammad Khurram Kiyani, Muhammad Usman Ahmed, Asim Loan
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.35065
Abstract: In this paper a frequency offset estimation technique for Wireless Local Area and Wireless Metropolitan Ar- ea Networks is presented. For frequency offset estimation, we have applied a low-complexity frequency offset estimator for simple AWGN channels to fading channels for MIMO-OFDM systems. Simulation results have shown that the performance of the proposed estimator is better than the low complexity frequency offset estimator designed for AWGN channels.
Identification of microRNAs in ecological model plant Mimulus  [PDF]
Muhammad Younas Khan Barozai, Muhammad Din, Iftikhar Ahmed Baloch
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2011.23037
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding and regulatory RNAs about 20 to 24 nucleotides long. Their conserved nature among the various organisms makes them a good source of new miRNAs discovery by comparative genomics approach. This study resulted in 34 miRNAs belonging to 21 families in ecological model plant Mimulus. All the miRNA families (mir 156, 157, 159, 160, 164, 172, 319, 393, 395, 397, 399, 400, 403, 417, 419, 472, 782, 854, 858, 867 and 2112) are found for the first time in Mimulus. The MIR-399 is found as precursor miRNA cluster with 4 mature sequences. All 34 miRNA precursors form stable minimum free energy stem loop structure as their orthologues form and the mature miRNAs reside in the stem portion of the stem loop structure. Twenty eight are from Mimulus guttatus and six miRNAs belong to Mimulus lewisii. Their targets consist of dihy-droflavonol-4-reductase, cycloidea-like protein, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, maturase (matR) and transcription factors like; squamosa-promoter binding, MYB, palmate-like pentafoliata 1.
New Modification of Fixed Point Iterative Method for Solving Nonlinear Equations  [PDF]
Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Iqbal, Shahzad Ahmed, Shahid Ali, Tariq Ismaeel
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.611163
Abstract: In this paper, we have modified fixed point method and have established two new iterative methods of order two and three. We have discussed their convergence analysis and comparison with some other existing iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations.
Age and Gender’s Association with Information & Communication Technology (ICT) Usage into Educational Institutions of Pakistan  [PDF]
Adnan Adil, Muhammad Masood, Matloob Ahmed
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.34044

Information & Communication Technology (ICT) usage in Pakistan is growing trend. However, while there is expanded concern of knowledge about how ICT is in usage in low income countries, there is information lacking on how ICT is used by the university teachers in low income countries. This research studied perception of university teachers about use of ICT, in Pakistani universities. The research through purposive sampling was drawn on 57 teachers, belonging to the public sector universities of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. This survey consisted of 29 males and 28 females. Their ages vary from 26 to 50 years. Open-ended questionnaire was used for this survey. It also showed that respondents have availability of internet at office. The association between different variables was calculated from chi-square test, and the strength of association was measured by gamma. The result showed the moderate negative association between level of age and quantity of daily time spent on computer. It also showed that no association exists between category of teacher’s gender and quantity of daily time spent on computer. For enhancement of ICT integration into education, it was recommended that teachers must have access to infrastructure relating ICT and there should be provision of sufficient training to teachers.

Exploiting Simulation for Product Returns in SMEs
Muhammad Ejaz Ahmed,Muhammad Latif
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2010,
Purification and characterization of the kinetic parameters of cellulase produced from wheat straw by Trichoderma viride under SSF and its detergent compatibility  [PDF]
Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Muhammad Anjum Zia, Muhammad Irfan
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.23024
Abstract: This paper reports the purification and characterization of kinetic parameters of cellulase produced from Trichoderma viride under still culture solid state fermentation technique using cheap and an easily available agricultural waste material, wheat straw as growth supported substrate. Trichoderma viride was cultured in fermentation medium of wheat straw under some previously optimized growth conditions and maximum activity of 398±2.43U/mL obtained after stipulated fermentation time period. Cellulase was purified 2.33 fold with specific activity of 105U/mg in comparison to crude enzyme extract using ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and Sephadex-G-100 column chromatography. The enzyme was shown to have a relative low molecular weight of 58kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme displayed 6.5 and 55oC as an optimum pH and temperature respectively. Using carboxymethyl cellulose as substrate, the enzyme showed maximum activity (Vmax) of 148U/mL with its corresponding KM value of 68µM. Among activators/inhibitors SDS, EDTA, and Hg2+ showed inhibitory effect on purified cellulase whereas, the enzyme activated by Co2+ and Mn2+ at a concentration of 1mM. The purified cellulase was compatible with four local detergent brands with up to 20 days of shelf life at room temperature suggesting its potential as a detergent additive for improved washing therefore, it is concluded that it may be potentially useful for industrial purposes especially for detergent and laundry industry.
Integrating Requirements with SLI Layer for Cloud Computing Services to Meet SLA and QoS  [PDF]
Muhammad Irfan, Zhu Hong, Muhammad Irfan Sharif, Ahmed Junaid Haq Qureshi, Rakhshanda Kanwal, Muhammad Imran
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.63018

Cloud computing is high technology, which fulfills needs of common as well as enterprise level to meet their information and communication technology requirements and so on. Cloud computing extends existing information technology capabilities and requirements. Many technologies are being merged with cloud computing, same as that orchestrations can boost cloud service provisioning process. The usage of orchestrations can play vital role to provision cloud services. Cloud service providers can create scalable cloud services at low cost by organizing cloud infrastructure by using cloud orchestrations. Dynamic orchestration flows can generate required cloud computing services to meet service level agreements and quality of services. There is a need to understand issues and barriers involved to integrate cloud orchestrations with cloud service provisioning process. There is also need to understand business related problems bordering cloud computing technology. There is much capacity to do targeted research work for cloud orchestrations and its integration with service level agreements as well as with SLI (service level integration) layer. In this article we have elaborated detailed analysis and identified a number of issues that will affect the cloud service users as well as cloud service providers and cloud service provisioning system. We are defining an approach to orchestrate cloud infrastructure by using orchestration flows, to generate cloud services in order to meet service level agreements and quality of standard.

Influence of environmental factors on rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosaeiformis das (Homoptera:aphididae) attacking rose (Rosa indica var. Iceburg, Rosaceeae)
Shakeel Ahmed,Muhammad Aslam
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Study on the influence of environmental factor on rose aphid(Macrosiphum rosaeiformis Das (Homopetra:Aphididae) was conducted in the campus lawns of University of Aarid Agriculture Rawalpindi. The aphid population was found from March to May and peaked in the 2nd week of April, 2000. The greater aphid densities were recorded on the top portion of plant. High temperature (over 30 °C) associated with relative humidity, rainfall and windstorm substantially reduced the number if aphids on rose. Deformation of stems, leaves and flowers resulted in case of strong infestation by the aphid.
A Generalization of the Poincaré-Cartan Integral Invariant for a Nonlinear Nonholonomic Dynamical System
Naseer Ahmed,Muhammad Usman
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Based on the d'Alembert-Lagrange-Poincar\'{e} variational principle, we formulate general equations of motion for mechanical systems subject to nonlinear nonholonomic constraints, that do not involve Lagrangian undetermined multipliers. We write these equations in a canonical form called the Poincar\'{e}-Hamilton equations, and study a version of corresponding Poincar\'{e}-Cartan integral invariant which are derived by means of a type of asynchronous variation of the Poincar\'{e} variables of the problem that involve the variation of the time. As a consequence, it is shown that the invariance of a certain line integral under the motion of a mechanical system of the type considered characterizes the Poincar\'{e}-Hamilton equations as underlying equations of the motion. As a special case, an invariant analogous to Poincar\'{e} linear integral invariant is obtained.
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