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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7209 matches for " Muhammad Afzal "
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The Professional Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction: Exploratory laparotomy is a common procedure performed at the surgical floor, mainly in emergency. The need for exploration ranges from cases of abdominal trauma to those of preexisting abdominal ailments. Wound dehiscence, either partial or complete does occur after laparotomy and a number of studies have been performed to find out its frequency after laparotomy and to pin point the factors responsible for this complication. This study is designed to find out the frequency of wound dehiscence after exploratory laparotomy. Also it will compare frequency of wound dehiscence in trauma cases verses cases of abdominal pathology. Objectives: (1) To work out frequency of wound dehiscence after exploratory laparotomy. (2) To know the differential frequency of wound dehiscence after acute abdominal trauma compared with those having preceding underlying pathology and were explored. Study Design: It was a prospective observational study. Settings: Surgical units Allied Hospital , Faisalabad department of surgery. Sample Size: 200 patients operated in emergency and elective lists for abdominal exploration. Sampling technique: Non probability (convenience). Exclusion criteria: (1) Children less than 10 years (2) Sub costal incision (3) Pfennensteil incision (4) Morrison’s’ incision (5) Grid iron incision and; (6) Incisions to explore the kidney were excluded. (7) Those patients who expired in emergency just after exploration. Inclusion criteria: All patients above 10 years opened by midline laparotomy incision. Results: Out of 200 patients, 20 got wound dehiscence. It included 7 from Group I and 13 from Group 2. Conclusion: Improved surgical technique, early arrival in hospital and control of infection can bring the incidence of wound dehiscence after exploratory laparotomy down to a level comparable to international figures.
Muhammad Afzal
The Professional Medical Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Objective: To describe the effects of Fexofenadine HC1180 mg administered once daily for two weeks in patients in Karachi suffering fromChronic idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). Design: Open, non-comparative study conducted at PNSRahat (Naval Hospital) Karachi. FexofenadineHC1180 mg once daily was prescribed for a two weeks period to patients aged 12 years and above with history of six or more weeks ofidiopathic urticaria. Clinical symptoms and signs were evaluated before treatment and two weeks following treatment with Fexofenadine HCI.Results: 66 Patients completed a two weeks treatment period. 94 % patients reported reduction in severity of itching whereas 53% reportedcomplete relief from itching. There was reduction in the number of wheals in 91 % of patients with complete disappearance of wheals in54.5% patients. Erythema was present in 97% patients before treatment but was not detectable in 62% patients following treatment. While63/66 (95%) patients complained that the condition interfered with their normal daily activity prior to treatment; after two weeks treatmentwith Fexofenadine HCI (53/66) 80% responded that it no longer interfered with normal activity. There was a statistically significant reductionin the mean Total Symptom Score from 13.3 (± 5.2) to 3.1 (± 3.5) with mean reduction of 10.2 (95% Cl, 8.9-11.4). 15 (23%) patients reporteda single side effect each, the most common being fatigue (eight), headache (six), and nausea (three). Conclusion: This study suggeststhat Fexofenadine HCI is effective and safe in relieving symptoms and signs of patients suffering from Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria.
Maritime Trade History of Sindh: From Ancient Time till Second CE
Nasreen Afzal,Muhammad Azeem
International Journal of Independent Research Studies , 2013,
Abstract: There is an ample evidence available in the ancient literatures which inform us about the maritime trade activities of Sindh in ancient times which has been confirmed by archaeological discoveries in Sindh as well as in other parts of the world. The physical setting of Sindh has played a vital role during ancient time in the progress of international trade and commerce, as Sindh lies on the route between the west and the extreme East of the world. The ports of Sindh occupy the strategic location in the Indian Ocean. Therefore, being an important entity of this Ocean, this region has been playing an active role in navigation and maritime trade since the time immemorial. Moreover, the contribution of river Indus would also be worth mentioning with regard to the significance of Sindh as a crucial trading centre of the region. This paper aims to discuss trade activities carried out by the people of ancient Sindh. The classical works of Skylax, Strabo’s Geography, Pliny the Elder’s Natural History, a un known Greek merchant’s Periplus of Erythracean Sea, Ptolemy’s Geography and many other classical writings has been utilized in this study which enlighten us that the cities of Mohen-jo-Daro and Barbaricon (Modern day Banmbhor) were the main port cities of Sindh. The local and international trade improved the financial stability of the cities which turned into full-size urban centres, evident from the archaeological sites of these cities.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Reduced septal uptake of myocardial perfusion agents is frequently observed in patientshaving left bundle branch block (LBBB) without any significant coronary artery disease. Objective: Toevaluate the incremental value of gated SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MRS) on apparentregional perfusion and wall thickening, in order to standardize the protocol for reporting myocardialperfusion scintigraphy in LBBB patients with the aim of avoiding false positive reports. Material &Methods: Resting gated SPECT MPS was performed in 8 frames mode with intravenous injection of 740MBq 99mTc-MIBI in 10 normal controls and 19 LBBB patients having low probability of coronary arterydisease (CAD). Visual analyses and quantitative analyses on non gated (NG), end diastolic (ED), endsystolic (ES), peak septal and peak lateral wall count frame images was carried out which include calculationof septal to lateral wall ratio (SLR), end systolic myocardial thickening index (MTI) and peak MTI. Results:Septal hypo perfusion was noted in 15 patients in NG and 19 in ES images, whereas only 1 patient showedabnormalities on ED images. Fourteen patients demonstrated worsening of apparent perfusion on ES imagesthan that of NG. In NG study of LBBB group SLR (0.69 ± 0.08) was lower than that of control (0.89 ± 0.07)group. Further worsening was observed in ES (0.61 ± 0.06), which markedly improved in ED (0.87 ± 0.07)to reach near that of control (0.89 ± 0.08). End systolic MTI for septum was markedly lower in LBBB group(22.821 ± 11.78) than that of control (65.02 ± 21.45). Lateral wall in LBBB group demonstrated values(68.14 ± 15.8) similar to those of control (71.61 ± 22.06). Within the LBBB group septum demonstratedmuch lower values than that of lateral wall. In all control subjects, frames showing peak lateral and peak septal wall counts were the same as their respective ES frame. Similar trend was noted for lateral wall ofLBBB patients. However time bin showing peak septal wall counts were different from ES frame in allLBBB subjects. In controls, same value of SLR (0.86 ± 0.04) was found for ES frame and at peakmyocardial thickening. In LBBB patients, peak SLR ratio (0.73 ± 0.09) is significantly higher than thatobserved in ES frame (0.61 ± 0.06), relatively higher than that in NG study, but still lower than that observedin controls. Comparison of end systolic MTI with peak MTI shows same value for lateral wall (71.61 ±22.06) and IVS (65.02 + 21.45) of control group and lateral wall (68.14 ± 15.8) of LBB group respectively.However significantly higher value of septal
Evaluation of Developmental and Reproductive Potential of Lysiphebus ambiguus (Braconidae: Hymenoptera)
Humayun Javed,Muhammad Afzal
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: This study was conducted to find out the developmental and reproductive potential of Lysiphebus ambiguus. None of the aphid species supported complete development of L. ambiguus despite oviposition by the parasitoid except sipha maydis. Maximum number of aphids were parasitized on the consecutive days. Percent emergence from S. maydis parasitized was decreasing from first towards the last day. Being a very specific strain with restricted host range, a stable sex ratio provides significant advantages in survival under less favorable conditions.
Evaluation of Soaked Wooden Killer Blocks for Male Annihilation (MA) on Fruit Fly Bactrocera Spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Muhammad Afzal,Humayun Javed
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: The replacement of plastic traps with wooden blocks soaked in lure mixed with insecticide was assessed. Blocks are cheaper, simple and less likely to be blown down or stolen compared with plastic traps. Square and oblong are more effective against round and hexagonal. Plywood is best for block construction. About 92 % flies caught were Bactrocera zonata Saunders and the remaining was B. dorsalis Hendel. Incase of mixture composition, 6:4:1 is more important than other ratios. Spacing of 20 m between blocks appeared to be optimal, so it could be recommended 10-blocks / acre.
Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm
Muhammad Bashir,Muhammad Tanveer Afzal,Muhammad Azeem
Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operation Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1234/pjsor.v4i1.59
Abstract: Both qualitative and quantitative paradigms try to find the same result; the truth. Qualitative studies are tools used in understanding and describing the world of human experience. Since we maintain our humanity throughout the research process, it is largely impossible to escape the subjective experience, even for the most experienced of researchers. Reliability and Validity are the issue that has been described in great deal by advocates of quantitative researchers. The validity and the norms of rigor that are applied to quantitative research are not entirely applicable to qualitative research. Validity in qualitative research means the extent to which the data is plausible, credible and trustworthy; and thus can be defended when challenged. Reliability and validity remain appropriate concepts for attaining rigor in qualitative research. Qualitative researchers have to salvage responsibility for reliability and validity by implementing verification strategies integral and self-correcting during the conduct of inquiry itself. This ensures the attainment of rigor using strategies inherent within each qualitative design, and moves the responsibility for incorporating and maintaining reliability and validity from external reviewers’ judgments to the investigators themselves. There have different opinions on validity with some suggesting that the concepts of validity is incompatible with qualitative research and should be abandoned while others argue efforts should be made to ensure validity so as to lend credibility to the results. This paper is an attempt to clarify the meaning and use of reliability and validity in the qualitative research paradigm.
Effect of Various Soil Management Practices on the Vigour Yield and Quality of Sky Spur Apple Cultivar
Muhammad Akram Nasir,Muhammad Afzal,Shakil Ahmad
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Not Available
Non-traditional Insecticides: A New Approach for the Control of Okra Jassid
Khalid Mehmood,Muhammad Afzal,Muhammad Amjad
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Experiment was laid out for evaluating one traditional insecticide (monocrotophos) and four non-traditional insecticides (decarafluron, Bacillus thuringiensis, monocrotophos + surfactant and chlorfenapyr) against okra jassid Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida). All the test insecticides were found to be effective in controlling okra jassid. However, on numerical basis, the lowest mean value of jassid population (3.75 individuals per leaf) was observed in the test area treated with (monocrotophos + surfactant).
New Synthetic and Bio insecticides Against Maize Stem Borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) on Golden Maize
Muhammad Amjad,Muhammad Afzal,Khalid Mehmood
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Experiment was laid out for evaluating some new synthetic and bio-insecticides viz., Imicon 25WP + Neem seed kernel extract (imidacloprid + Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), Agree 50WP (Bacillus thuringiensis), Pride 25WP (buprofezin), Taofos 25EC (quinalphos), and Digital 20EC (fenpropathrin) against maize borer Chilo partellus Swinhoe. All the test insecticides were found to have significant effect on borer infestation, but lower per cent infestation (15.55%) of maize borer with Taofos 25EC (quinalphos) @ 1000 ml/ac would suggest this insecticide to be more toxic to the pest compared with the others.
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