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Islamic eco-cosmology in Ikhwan al-Safa’s view
Muhammad Abdullah Darras
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies , 2012,
Abstract: This research aims to describe the root cause of ecological crisis happening at the moment in terms of the cosmological-metaphysical views, by doing research on the thoughts of a classical Muslim philosophical scientist group in 10th century AD called Ikhwan al-Safa’. To the author, Ikhwan al-Safa’ has a clear idea in viewing the universe holistically and intact as it is. Actually, this non-reductive view was the typical main feature of medieval Islamic classical thought. However, the main reason of choosing the works of Ikhwan al-Safa’, especially their magnum opus Rasa’il Ikhwan al-Safa ’,in the research is that Ikhwan al-Safa’ has put a lot of attention on the “wisdom of universe” in the ontological and epistemological structure of knowledge that were developed in their work. With the main concepts such Love of Universe and Soul of Universe, Ikhwan al-Safa’ have given a holistic vision about the wisdom of the universe and the wisdom of the environment itself.
Studies on Acute Toxicity of Metals to the Fish, Catla catla
Sajid Abdullah,Muhammad Javed
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Acute toxicity of metals viz., iron, zinc, lead, nickel and manganese to the fish, Catla catla has been studied. These tests included the determination of 96 h LC50 and lethal toxicity of heavy metals to the fish. These tests were performed, separately, at constant temperature, pH and hardness of 30°C, and 100 mg L-1 respectively. Three fish age groups viz. 30, 0 and 90 day were tested for their sensitivity to metals toxicity. The impacts of physico-chemical variables were also studied towards sensitivity of fish to metals toxicity. The 96 h LC50 and lethal concentrations of all metals varied significantly in fish. This fish showed significantly highest tolerance (determined as LC50) against iron, followed by that of manganese, lead, zinc and nickel. However, non-significant differences for 96 h LC50 tolerance limits towards zinc and lead were found. Among the three fish age groups, 0 day fish were more sensitive to metals toxicity, followed by that of 60 and 90 day respectively. The responses of three fish age groups and five metals were statistically significant. Among the three age groups, 0 day fish showed significantly higher tolerance against all metals than that of 60 and 30 day fish. The ammonia excretion by the fish increased, significantly, with concomitant increase in metal concentrations of the mediums while dissolved oxygen content of the test medium decreased at higher metal concentrations. Sodium had slight protective effect against metals toxicity.
Studies on Acute and Lethal Toxicities of Iron and Nickel to the Fish
Muhammad Javed,Sajid Abdullah
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Laboratory tests were conducted on three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala to determine their sensitivity to iron and nickel for 96-hr LC50 and lethal toxicity. These tests were performed with three age groups of each fish species at water temperature of 30°C with pH 7 and total hardness of 100 mg L-1. The 96-hr LC50 concentrations of both iron and nickel varied significantly among the three fish species with age. 30-day fish were more sensitive to metals toxicity, followed by that of 60 and 90 day fish, respectively. Among the three fish species, Catla catla were more sensitive to nickel while Cirrhina mrigala showed highest sensitivity to iron. Lethal iron concentrations for all the three fish species ranged between 72.20 mg L-1 (for 30 day Labeo rohita) and 164.65 mg L-1 (for 90-day Catla catla). However, nickel concentrations fluctuated between 20.20 and 50.11 mg L-1 for 30-day Catla catla and 60 day Cirrhina mrigala, respectively. The 96-hr LC50 nickel concentrations in three fish species varied significantly within age groups. However, the difference between 60 and 90 day old fish was statistically non-significant. Among the three fish species, Catla catla appeared significantly more sensitive than that of Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala to nickel contaminations. The 96-h LC50 concentrations of both metals for all the three fish species were positively and significantly dependent upon fish age. The regressions of water temperature on 96-hr LC50 concentrations of both the metals were negatively significant. However, water pH, hardness, ammonia, sodium and potassium showed significantly direct relationships with 96-hr LC50 concentrations of fish. The ammonia concentrations of test medium increased while dissolved oxygen decreased at high levels of toxicants. At higher 96-hr LC50 values of iron, dissolved oxygen decreased significantly in the test medium.
Fixed Points of a Multivalued Mappings in Fuzzy Metric Spaces
Muhammad Arshad,Abdullah Shoaib
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract:
ANTECEDENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF BANKING SECTOR EMPLOYEES IN PAKISTAN
Abdullah,Muhammad Ismail Ramay
Serbian Journal of Management , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to check the association of factors like work environment, job security,pay satisfaction and participation in decision making; with organizational commitment of theemployees, working in the banking sector of Pakistan. Two hundred and fifteen (215) responses toquestionnaire-based survey were collected from managerial and non-managerial employees, andanalyzed. The analysis showed positive correlations between the dependent and independentvariables. The relation between job security and organizational commitment was the most significant,indicating that a secure job can yield higher level of commitment. Work environment also had asignificant relation with organizational commitment, showing that a healthy and friendly workenvironment may enhance an employee’s commitment towards his work and organization. Paysatisfaction and participation in decision-making had low correlations with organizationalcommitment. Age and tenure seemed to affect the commitment of employees, with highercommitment shown for higher age and tenure; whereas gender did not show significant change incommitment level of employees.
An Energy Efficient Color Based Topology Control Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Muhammad Asghar Khan, Asfandyar Khan, Said Khalid Shah, Azween Abdullah
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2013.51001
Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are universally being used and deployed to monitor the surrounding physical environments and detail events of interest. In wireless Sensor Networks energy is one of the primary issues and requires energy conservation of the sensor nodes, so that network lifetime can be maximized. To minimize the energy loss in dense WSNs a Color Based Topology Control (CBTC) algorithm is introduced and implemented in Visual Studio 6.0. The results are compared with Traditional dense WSNs. In the evaluation process it was observed that the numbers of CPU ticks required in traditional WSNs are much more than that’s of CBTC Algorithm, both in Normal and Random deployments. So by using CBTC, delay in network can be minimized. Using CBTC algorithm, the energy conservation and removal of coverage holes was also achieved in the present study.

Management and Planning for Primary Eye Care of the Elderly: the Need to Create Public Awareness of Age-related Cataract in Pakistan
Khadija Nowaira Abdullah,Muhammad Tanweer Abdullah
Community Eye Health Journal , 2002,
Abstract: This article focuses on the significance of management and planning for primary eye care for the population aged 60 and over, in Pakistan. It takes the case of age-related cataract and highlights the importance of creating public awareness about cataract in terms of the respective roles of health planners, policy makers and service providers.
Reaching out: a strategy to provide primary eye care through the indigenous educational system in Pakistan
Khadija Nowaira Abdullah,Muhammad Tanweer Abdullah
Community Eye Health Journal , 2006,
Abstract: IntroductionIn Pakistan, there is a unique and indigenously established system of education called the madaris . It is the plural of madrassa, which is an Arabic word for a school system. In the context of Pakistan, it refers to an institutional set-up that runs in parallel to the conventional schooling system and is community-based. It is perhaps the oldest and the largest educational system of its kind whereby the students are provided with free religious education. Some institutions offer a combination of religious learning and regular schooling.The facilities and the curricula vary from one madrassa to another. Since a majority of the students studying here belong to the poor and neglected socio-economic level of society, many offer free accommodation and food to the students in hostels, and most of these provide free education. These institutions are mostly funded by philanthropists; the standard of living of the students, however, is not always satisfactory.A few madaris provide basic health care services to their students, but most are neglected both by the government and the voluntary sectors. It is difficult to find data on the health status of these students.This article reports a study on these madaris that was carried out in 2002 in the district of Peshawar, the capital of the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan which has a population of 2.5 million. It aimed to determine the prevalence of blindness and low vision among students in the age group of five to 15 years. It offers an agenda for primary eye care and highlights the importance of integrated health care reforms at the national level for this large non-government community education system that caters to an estimated half a million children throughout Pakistan.
Stock Prices’ Variability around Earnings Announcement Dates at Karachi Stock Exchange
Muhammad Azeem Qureshi,Ali Abdullah,Muhammad Imdadullah
Economics Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/463627
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate how earnings announcement event affects stock returns at Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE). For this purpose we use the KSE-100 Index as our sample. We use the CAR Analysis to analyze the impact of earnings announcement over the stock returns around announcement dates. Our results suggest that KSE experiences abnormal stock returns around earnings announcement dates for the overall market and for different categories which indicate that efficient market hypothesis does not hold in Pakistani market and point out the presence of informational dissemination inefficiencies in the market.
Dynamic Panel Data Model for Investment, Real Value and Capital Stock Data
G. R. Pasha,Muhammad Aslam,Muhammad Abdullah
Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operation Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1234/pjsor.v3i1.71
Abstract: Panel data modeling is being used increasingly as a versatile tool to study various economic relationships. In such studies, sometimes, the dependent variable depends not only on the pure exogenous variables, but also on its own lag values. This intervention leads us to use dynamic panel data models. While using least squares dummy variable estimator, we show the attractive performance of such models as compared to that of simple panel data models. The choice of dynamic panel data model brings salient results in terms of lower standard error of regression, improvement in R2 and right specification of the model.
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