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Ameliorative Effect of Vitamin C on Alterations in Thyroid Hormones Concentrations Induced by Subchronic Coadministration of Chlorpyrifos and Lead in Wistar Rats
Suleiman F. Ambali,Chinedu Orieji,Woziri O. Abubakar,Muftau Shittu,Mohammed U. Kawu
Journal of Thyroid Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/214924
Abstract: The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of vitamin C on alteration in thyroid hormones induced by low-dose subchronic coadministration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and lead (Pb). Forty Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each. Groups I and II were administered soya oil (2?mL/kg) and vitamin C (100?mg/kg), respectively. Group III was coadministered CPF (4.25?mg/kg ~1/20th LD50) and Pb (250?mg/kg ~1/20th LD50), respectively. Group IV was pretreated with vitamin C (100?mg/kg) and then coadministered with CPF (4.25?mg/kg) and Pb (250?mg/kg), 30?min later. The regimens were administered by gavage for a period of 9 weeks. The marginal decrease in serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine and the significant increase in the concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone and malonaldehyde in the group coadministered with CPF and Pb were ameliorated by vitamin C partly due to its antioxidant properties. 1. Introduction Man and animals are exposed to a “soup” of chemical contaminants in the environment, which directly or indirectly affect their health and well-being. Pesticides and heavy metals are the most common environmental contaminants because of their respective widespread use in agriculture and industries. Hitherto, most studies on these chemical contaminants have centered on the examination of one single agent and therefore, current understanding of the toxicity of many environmental toxicants/pollutants is based primarily on toxicity studies performed on laboratory animals exposed to a single toxic agent [1, 2]. However, the environment is heavily contaminated with many chemicals, which interact with each other in such a way that modify their toxic response in humans and animals. Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used insecticides accounting for 50% of global insecticidal use [3] while Pb is the most widespread heavy metal contaminants with wide applications [4]. Occupational and environmental Pb exposure continues to be among the most significant public health problems [4–7]. Due to their persistent nature in the environment and their toxicodynamics, CPF and Pb have resulted in deleterious effects in man and animals [8]. The toxicity of Pb remains a matter of public health concern [9] due to its pervasiveness in the environment and the awareness about its toxic effects [10] at exposure levels lower than what was previously considered harmful [11]. Reproductive consequences of Pb exposure are widespread [12], affecting almost all aspects of reproduction [13]. Pb induces decreased sperm count and motility and increased
Evaluation of chronic chlorpyrifos-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rat: protective effects of vitamin C
Muftau Shittu,Suleiman F. Ambali,Joseph O. Ayo,Mohammed Y. Fatihu
Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/jeim.041012.or.047
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on reproductive toxicity, induced by chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group I received soya oil (2 ml/kg); group II was given vitamin C only (100 mg/kg); group III was administered CPF only (10.6 mg/kg; ~1/8th LD50), while group IV was pretreated with vitamin C and then exposed to CPF, 30 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for 15 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed by jugular venesection after light chloroform anesthesia, and sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentrations. Pituitary gland and the testicular tissues of each rat were quickly dissected, removed and assayed for the levels of glycogen and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The right caudal epididymis was evaluated for spermatozoa concentrations. The results showed that decrease in concentrations of spermatozoa, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, testosterone, testicular glycogen, and inhibition of pituitary gland and testicular AChE activities caused by CPF were ameliorated by vitamin C. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(1): 23-30]
Management of ectopia vesica in Ibadan: an 8-year review
OB Shittu
West African Journal of Medicine , 2005,
Urethroplasty for strictures in Nigerian children
OB Shittu
Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research , 2002,
Abstract: Background/Objective: To review the outcome of urethroplasty performed for urethral strictures in children at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, highlighting the difficulties that may hamper successful outcome of reconstruction and suggesting factors that may enhance successful reconstruction. Method: A retrospective study of 16 children who had urethroplasty performed for urethral strictures over a 5-year period. Results: All the strictures were post- traumatic. There were no post-inflammatory strictures. Fourteen of the patients had patent anastomosis as demonstrated by the pericatheter urethrogram, and they were able to void satisfactorily thereafter. Two patients developed recurrent strictures that required surgical intervention. Conclusion: Urethroplasty should be performed for urethral strictures in children as soon as they present in order to prevent complications such as urinary tract infections, urinary calculi and epididymoorchitis, which may complicate prolonged catheterization. The outcome of urethroplasty in children can be satisfactory if appropriate fine instruments and fine sutures are used.
Determination of Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency in Crop Production  [PDF]
Kazeem O. Rauff, Saheed A. Shittu
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.69101
Abstract: The main concern in cultivating crops has always been water availability. To increase food production, water plays a major role after securing a large portion of land area. Knowledge of the factors influencing crop water use efficiency and hope to increase the efficiency has continued to be an objective in many modern studies. The gap between irrigation supply and demand is increasing from year to year as a result of an increase in population growing rate and people moving from place to place. Searching for new water may be a too difficult and very expensive process, so the shortest and easiest way is to maximize the water use efficiency throughout optimizing water use efficiency and the first step on that is determination of the actual crop water requirements.
Modelling of Potential Pipeline Impact Radius and High Consequence Area in a Wetland Sub-Region of Nigeria  [PDF]
Shittu Whanda, Yahaya Sani, Gadiga Bulus
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2015.76056
Abstract: Crude oil transportation through pipelines presents danger to communities along its path. In the Niger Delta region of Nigeria for instance, pipeline vandalism occurs indiscriminately and regularly, such that every segment of a pipeline network becomes a potential target and possibly source of oil spill hazard. In terms of pipeline hazard and risk distribution, the oil plume’s ability to migrate freely in wetlands and encroachment on pipeline right of ways by people increases chances of wider contact and exposure opportunities to inhabitants and the environment. Despite several efforts to mitigate pipeline hazards in the oil and gas sector, none has been effective in Nigeria partly due to paucity of data in public domain and poor public participation. Therefore considering the environmental and human health challenges associated with oil spills, an alternative method was developed using multi-criteria decision analysis to model 1) pipeline hazard zones, 2) potential pipeline impact radius, and 3) high consequence areas with four attribute layers, i.e. land cover, population, river and pipeline to encourage public participation. The model identified land use areas, communities and rivers likely to be susceptible to pipeline hazards and areas requiring regular monitoring and possible intervention. Meanwhile the model sensitivity test indicated that the river layer was most sensitive, while transferability was limited to similar criteria variables. The model can stimulate public participation in pipeline hazard management while policy makers and regulators would find it relevant in oil spill impact mitigation.
African Journal of Urology , 2001,
Abstract: Objectives To evaluate the role of internal optical urethrotomy in the management of patients with urethral strictures seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Patients and Methods The study was carried out over a five year period. The details of the technique used, including measures taken to ensure that the stricture tract is not lost during urethrotomy are described. A total of 40 patients with urethral strictures were treated by internal optical urethrotomy during the study period with an age range of 26-80 years (mean 42.2 years). The aetiology of the stricture was post-infective in 80% of the cases. Results Seventy-five percent of the patients have maintained a satisfactory flow rate of between 15 ml/sec and 28 ml/sec with a mean flow rate of 23 ml/sec after a single attempt at urethrotomy and over a period of follow-up of between 6 months and 5 years. Conclusion Internal optical urethrotomy can be effective in the management of patients with post-infective urethral strictures that do not involve the membranous urethra, and should be attempted in the first instance where the facility exists, particularly as a failed urethrotomy does not jeopardize the management of the stricture by other techniques. African Journal of Urology Vol. 7 No. 2 (May 2001): pp 62-65 Uréthrotomie Optique Interne dans le Traitement du Rétrécissement Uréthral chez les Nigerians: Techniques et Résultats Objectif Evaluer le r le de l'uréthrotomie optique interne dans le traitement des patients avec rétrécissment uréthral vus au Centre Hospitalier d'Ibadan au Nigéria. Patients et Méthodes L'étude a été menée pendant une période de 5 ans. Les détails des techniques utilisées, incluant les mesures prises pour s'assurer que la voie rétrécie n'est pas perdue pendant l'uréthrotomie sont décrites. Un total de 40 patients avec rétrécissement uréthral ont été traités par uréthrotomie optique interne pendant la période d'étude avec l'age qui variait de 26 à 80 ans (moyenne: 42,2 ans). L'étiologie du rétrécissement était post-infectieuse dans 80% des cas. Résultats Soixante-quinze pour cent des patients ont maintenu un débit urinaire satisfaisant entre 15 ml/sec et 28 ml/sec avec un débit moyen de 23 ml/sec après une seule séance d'uréthrotomie et sur une période de suivi allant de 6 mois à 5 ans. Conclusion L'uréthrotomie optique interne peut être efficace dans le traitement des patients avec rétrécissement uréthral post-infectieux n'affectant pas l'urètre membraneux, et devrait être pratiquée d'emblée où les facilités existent, car l'échec de l'uréthrotomie ne coupe pas les ponts pour le traitement du rétrécissement par d'autres techniques. African Journal of Urology Vol. 7 No. 2 (May 2001): pp 62-65
Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smokers among undergraduates of the University of Ilorin, Nigeria
AE Fawibe, AO Shittu
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Smoking control is urgently needed to prevent the epidemic of tobacco-related diseases and deaths in developing countries. This requires data on smoking, especially among vulnerable groups like students. We have surveyed cigarette smoking among undergraduates of the University of Ilorin, in the North Central region of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based survey among undergraduates of the University of Ilorin. A total of 1800 students were selected by multistage random sampling. Results: A total of 1754 students (234 medical and 1520 non-medical students) completed the questionnaires. They were 1148 (65.5%) males and 606 (34.5%) females with a mean age of 21.6 ± 3.1 years. The prevalence rate of current smoking was 5.7% (males 7.7%, females 2.0%) and of ever smoking was 17.1% (males 22.9%, females 6.2%). Smoking was more common in non-medical students. Eighty-three (83.8%) of the smokers had already started smoking by their eighteenth birthday. Fifty-one (51.5%) of them smoked ≤ 5 sticks of cigarettes daily. Most of them were influenced into smoking by peer pressure and commercial advertisements. Sixty-seven (67.6%) of them believed that smoking could never have a negative impact on their health status and quality of life and just 39 (39.4%) smokers were willing to quit. Conclusions: Despite the low prevalence rate of smoking in the studied population, a majority of them were not willing to quit because of a low perception of the negative effects of smoking on their health and quality of life. Comprehensive antismoking campaigns were urgently needed to control cigarette smoking among University undergraduates in Nigeria.
Orbital metastases of prostatic carcinoma in a tropical African population
OB Shittu, JO Ogunbiyi
West African Journal of Medicine , 2003,
Abstract: We have reviewed the cases of orbital metastases from carcinoma of the prostate gland seen in the University College Hospital, Ibadan over an 11 year period, 1990 – 2000. During the period, seven cases of orbital metastases that presumably arose from carcinoma of the prostate were seen. Four of the patients died of progression of the primary disease over a variable period ranging between 2 weeks and 30 months of diagnosis and treatment, two were lost to follow up and one is alive 46 months after initial diagnosis of orbital metastases from carcinoma of the prostate and treatment.
Long-term outcome of posterior urethral valves ablation using the Mohan's urethral valvotome
OB Shittu, AO Asinobi
West African Journal of Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: Context: Posterior urethral valves are the most common cause of mechanical infravesical obstruction in children. The disorder has a broad spectrum of severity and the patients could develop complications on the long term, even after valves ablation. Objective: To report the result of the follow-up study of 26 children who had posterior urethral valves ablated with the Mohan's urethral valvotome at the University college hospital, Ibadan over a period of five years. Study design setting and subjects: Children who had posterior urethral valves ablated with the Mohan's urethral valvotome at the UCH, Ibadan between January 1996 and December 2000 were followed up in the out patient clinic on a regular basis. Results: A total of 26 patients with posterior urethral valves had the valves ablated with the Mohan's urethral valvotome during the period of the study. The period of follow-up varied between 18 months and five years. Problems noticed on follow-up include recurrent urinary tract infections in 35% of the cases, acute and chronic renal failure in 5% and 15% respectively, rickets, anaemia, malnutrition and urethral stricture. Conclusion: Children who had posterior urethral valves ablated should be followed up much beyond the immediate post valve ablation period as complications could arise on the long term. Key Words: Posterior urethral valves, Mohan's urethral valvotome, Long-term outcome. Résumé Résultat à long term de l' ablation des valves urétrales postérieures tout en utilizant la méthode de Valvotome Urétral de Mohan. Contexte: Les valves urétrales postérieures sont les causes les plus courantes de l'obstruction infravésicale mécanique chez des enfants. Le spectre de la gravité de ce trouble est large et les patients pourraient contracter des complications a long terme même après une ablation des valves couronnée de succès. Objectif: Rapporter le résultat d'examens de control a long terme de 26 enfants qui ont subi une ablation des valves urétrales postérieures et le valvotome urètre de Mohan au College Hospitalo Universitaire d'Ibadan au cours d'une période de 5ans. Plan d'étude cadre et sujets: Des enfants qui ont subi une ablation des valves urétrales postérieures avec le valvotome urétral de Mohan au UCH, Ibadan entre javier 1996 et décembre 2000 ont été suivi dans le service des consultations externes regulièrement. Résultats: Un total de 26 patients avec des valves urétrales postérieures avaient eu des ablations des valves à travers un valvotome urétral de Mohan pendant la durée de cet etude. La période d'examens de contr les à long terme change entre 18 mois et cinq ans. Les problemes remarqués au cours d'examens de contr les a long terme sont: infections urinaire périodique en 35% des cas, insuffisance rénale aigue et chronique en 5% et 15% respectivement, rachitisme, anémie, sousalimentation et rétrécissement urétral. Conclusion: Les enfants qui ont subi une ablation des valves urétrales postérieures devraient avoir des soins post ho
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