Abstract:
An 80-year-old woman underwent a bilateral lung resection for metastases
originating from follicular thyroid cancer. The resection was performed 30
years after right hemithyroidectomy to remove the follicular adenoma. Chest
X-ray revealed a 30-mm mass shadow in the right lower lung filed. Chest
computed tomography revealed a 32-mm mass shadow in right lung segment 10 (S10)
and a 15-mm nodular shadow in left S10. Another partial lung resection of left
S10 and a right lower lobectomy were performed 3 months later. Although rarely
performed, resection of bilateral pulmonary metastases arising from follicular
thyroid cancer was conducted for this patient.

We present a case
report of a 63-year-old male who underwent lung resections for metastases
originating from gastric cancer 18-year after total gastrectomy with
lymphadenectomy. The gastrectomy was performed in 1994; histological
examination of the original tumor revealed stage II poorly differentiated
adenocarcinoma [pT2 (MP), N0, M0]. Chest X-ray and computed tomography in 2012
showed a well-defined tumor, 9 mm in size, at the left S3 of the lung. Thoracoscopic partial resection was
performed. The tumor was diagnosed as poorly differentiated carcinoma, most
likely metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. Although rarely performed, resection
of pulmonary metastases from carcinoma of the stomach was done to improve the patient’s
chances for long-term survival.

We present a case report of a 65-year-old woman who underwent resection of a chest wall tumor. In contrast with computed tomography, the tumor exhibited hypervascularity and was fed from the 9th intercostals artery. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a cellular variant of solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura, with branching “staghorn” vessels and hypervascularity. The tumor thus resembled a chest wall hemangiopericytoma.

Abstract:
We have experienced three inverted Meckel’s diverticula with ileus that are
diagnosed before surgery and treated with laparoscopic surgery. The patients
were 22, 26, and 29 years of age. The history of ileus for each patient
differed, being the first experience for one patient, the second for another,
and the third experience for the remaining patient. None of these patients had
a history of abdominal surgery. Conservative therapy eventually improved the
existing symptoms, but the cause of past ileus remained unclear. Elective
surgery was performed 12 days from the onset of symptoms on two of the patients
after improving the ileus by inserting a long tube into the bowel. Emergency surgery
was performed on the same day of admission on the remaining case that involved
moderate expansion of intestine. In these patients, the first trocar was
inserted into the umbilicus region. Laparoscopic surgery was then performed
with three trocars. The patients were discharged upon favorable outcome after
surgery. No recurrence of ileus was noted post-surgery. Laparoscopy was useful
both to diagnose and treat ileus of a Meckel’s diverticulum.

Short-term memory allows
individuals to recall stimuli, such as numbers or words, for several seconds to
several minutes without rehearsal. Although the capacity of short-term memory
is considered to be 7 ± 2 items, this can be increased through a process called
chunking. For example, in Japan, 11-digit cellular phone numbers and 10-digit
toll free numbers are chunked into three groups of three or four digits:
090-XXXX-XXXX and 0120-XXX-XXX, respectively. We use probability theory to predict
that the most effective chunking involves groups of three or four items, such
as in phone numbers. However, a 16-digit credit card number exceeds the capacity
of short-term memory, even when chunked into groups of four digits, such as
XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX. Based on these data, 16-digit credit card numbers should
be sufficient for security purposes.

Abstract:
It has been suggested that sick sinus syndrome, which is due to the dysfunction
of the sinus node, may result from the sparser gap junctions and/or lower
intrinsic frequencies of pacemaker cells that occur with aging. Hence, in this
paper, the synchronization mechanism of pacemaker cells that lie in the sinus
node of the heart is examined using a modified Kuramoto phase model. Although
each element always interacts with all the others in the Kuramoto
phase model, in the proposed model, each element interacts only with the
neighbors over a certain time (called the interaction time) during Phase 4 of
the action potential. The pacemaker cell elements are arranged on a square
lattice, and each element connects with the elements surrounding it. The results
indicate that the diversity of intrinsic frequencies of pacemaker cells may
be necessary for synchronization. Moreover, increasing the proportion of
invalid connections causes the elements to take more time to synchronize until
eventually they do not synchronize at all, and decreasing the intrinsic frequencies
of the elements prevents them from synchronizing. Probably these
elucidate the cause of sick sinus syndrome.

The purpose of this study is to find out the critical number of elements needed
for group survival. Taking a probabilistic approach, how the lifetime of a
group consisting of several elements depends on the number of elements and
the probability distribution of their lifetimes is investigated. Four probability
distributions are examined: an exponential distribution, a uniform distribution,
a parabolic distribution, and a pointed distribution composed of two parabolas.
The lifetime of the group is defined as the expected value of the
maximum lifetime of the elements in that group. The probability distribution
of this maximum shifts to the right as the number of elements increases, and
the expected value of the lifetime of each element eventually becomes less than
the lower limit of this distribution. The number of elements in this case is defined
as the critical number of elements needed for group survival. Hence, if
the number of elements is larger than the critical number needed for group
survival, the lifetime of the group is guaranteed to be longer than the expected
lifetime of one element. The findings are in the following. The critical number
needed for group survival is inversely proportional to the expected lifetime of
one element, regardless of the probability distribution used. It decreases as for an exponential distribution, and as in case of the others,
where N is the number of elements of the group. Because a probability distribution
defined over a finite range is assumed to be reasonable in practice, a
group consisting of more than 10 elements should survive well.

Abstract:
Although the formula of mass-energy equivalence was derived from the hypothesis that the speed of light in free space is constant, conversely, the purpose of this research is to show that a method of probabilistically determining whether the speed of light is constant is derived from this formula. By considering the formula of mass-energy equivalence to be a function of the energy of an object moving at speed V, the probability density function (PDF) of the energy can be obtained using the inverse function of this formula, if the speed of light obeys a probability distribution. The main result is that the PDF of the energy diverges to infinity at a certain
energy value regardless of the PDF of the speed of light. Thus, when the speed calculated from this value enters a certain range of the speed of light as V increases stepwise from below 299,792,458 m/s, the PDF of the energy should increase abruptly. If not, then the speed of light is constant. This is the method of probabilistically determining whether the speed of light is constant. An experimental method is proposed to confirm this.

Abstract:
We simplify some conjectures in quantum information theory; the additivity of minimal output entropy, the multiplicativity of maximal output p-norm and the superadditivity of convex closure of output entropy. We construct a unital channel for a given channel so that they share the above additivity properties; we can reduce the conjectures for all channels to those for unital channels.

Abstract:
In this paper we present a class of maps for which the multiplicativity of the maximal output p-norm holds when p is 2 and p is larger than or equal to 4. The class includes all positive trace-preserving maps from the matrix algebra on the three-dimensional space to that on the two-dimensional.