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Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants of Eastern Botswana
D.M.T. Motlhanka
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Water and methanol extracts from roots of Ozoroa paniculosa (Anarcardiaceae); seeds of Colophospermum mopane (Caesalpiniaceae) and Cucumis metuliferus (Cucurbitaceae) ripe fruits were assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity. Free radical scavenging activity was measured spectrophotometrically as maximum fading power of DPPH at 525 nm. Water and methanol extracts of Ozoroa paniculosa exhibited higher scavenging potency than extracts of either Colophospermum mopane or Cucumis metuliferus at all tested concentrations. None of the extracts from Cucumis metuliferus exhibited any recognizable free radical scavenging activity. Above 50 μg mL-1 both water and methanol extracts of Ozoroa paniculosa exhibited 91% scavenging activity similar to the control compounds L-ascorbic acid (91%) and (-) epicatechin (92%). Between 50-100 μg mL-1, water and methanol extracts of Colophospermum mopane exhibited scavenging potency of <=70%. However, above 100 μg mL-1, both water and methanolic extracts of C. mopane exhibited scavenging activity >70%. Chloroform extracts of all the tested plants showed poor scavenging activity (<30%). The order of scavenging potency for the tested samples was as follows: L-ascorbic acid >= epicatechin > O. paniculosa (methanolic extract) > O. paniculosa (water extract) > O. paniculosa (ethylacetate extract) > C. mopane (methanolic extract) > C. mopane (water extract) > all extracts of C. metuliferus. These findings lend credence to the use of these plants as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents in folk medicine.
Phytochemical and antioxidant analysis of wild and ex situ cultivated shoots and tubers of Harpagophytum procumbens (Burch)DC ex. Meisn from Botswana
Motlhanka D.M.T.
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2012,
Abstract: Comparative phytochemical analysis [TLC method] and antioxidant activity of wild and ex situ cultivated shoots and tubers of Harpagophytum procumbens were done. Total phenolic content [Folin-Ciocalteu method] and free radical scavenging activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay] of both chloroform and methanol extracts were determined. Analysis of ex situ cultivated plant material showed presence of phytochemicals comparable with those found in the wild plants. The total phenolic contents (mg GAE/L) of methanolic tuber extracts from wild plants (3366±22.68) were comparable to the methanolic tuber extracts (3297.00±54.56) from ex situ cultivated plants. The total phenolic contents of methanolic leaf extracts from wild (2562±158.77) plants were also not significantly different from the ex situ (2686.00±10.49) cultivated H. procumbens. Similar trends were observed in the chloroform extracts of both wild and ex situ cultivated H. procumbens. The free radical scavenging activities also correlated well with the total phenolic contents of both wild and ex situ cultivated plants. At all tested concentrations, the methanolic extracts of both wild and ex situ cultivated plants were ≥80%. The scavenging potencies of chloroform extracts were consistently lower than the methanol extracts in both ex situ cultivated plants and wild species. The consistency in presence of phenolic compounds in these plant materials is of interest from both the pharmacological and conservation point of view given the role played by these compounds in oxidative stress. These results indicate that ex situ cultivation can be both a conservation strategy and can provide an alternative and sustainable source of therapeutically active compounds.
POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ANALYSIS OF PSEUDOLACHNOSTYLIS MAPROUNEIFOLIA PAX VAR DIKINDTII USED AS LIVESTOCK FEED BY FARMERS FROM EASTERN BOTSWANA
Motlhanka D.M.T
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation , 2012,
Abstract: In the present work, fresh fruits (FF),sun dried fruits (SDF), fresh leaves (FL) and sun dried leaves (SDL) of Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia var dikindtii were analyzed for total phenolic, total flavonoid content, presence of reducing sugars, proteins and lipids as well as free radical scavenging power. P.maprouneifolia is used as a dry season supplementary feed by livestock farmers in Eastern Botswana. The fruits and leaves of the studied plant tested positive for presence of reducing sugars and proteins. Lipids were detected only in fresh fruit samples. The order of total phenolic content (mg gallic acid equivalents/L) was SDF(1240.3±200.5)>FL(1097.9±154.6)>SDL(952.7±86.8)>FF(838.6±5.7). The order of the flavonoid content (mg Quercetin equivalent/L) was FL(384.9±5.2)>SDL(256.7±3.9)>SDF(159.9±8.3)>FF(139.1±2.6). Sun drying caused an increase in phenolic and flavonoid content in fruits, whilst in leaves the content of both phenols and flavonoids decreased. These changes in polyphenolic contents had no effect on the free radical scavenging potency of the extracts. At all tested concentrations, there was no significant difference between the radical scavenging powers of the fruits. Up to 100μg/ml, the scavenging power of the fruits was (85.6%) higher than that of leaves. Above 100μg/ml, the scavenging power of leaves was (87%) higher than that of the fruits. The current work is the first of its kind, providing new reference data regarding the polyphenolic and antioxidant analysis of this plant. In the light of the obtained result, the present study supports the use of the fruits and leaves of this plant as dry season supplementary feed to livestock. However, further investigations involving nutritional analysis and in vivo studies are required to ascertain the potential of P.maprouneifolia as a candidate for improving livestock health and production in Botswana.
Edible Indigenous Wild Fruit Plants of Eastern Botswana
D.M.T. Motlhanka,P. Motlhanka,T. Selebatso
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2008,
Abstract: Botswana harbors a rich floral diversity of wild fruit plants which have served as mainstay sources of nutrition and medicines for many years. The majority of wild fruits of eastern Botswana have served as sources of nutrition for many years. Some of them have gained immense popularity that they form integral parts of many local hotel menus. Wild fruits trees of Botswana if properly exploited can ensure food security for both rural and urban dwellers. Today wild fruits still represent some of the commodities sold by both local shops and street vendors. This paper provides an inventory of edible fruit plants of eastern Botswana.
Prevalence and distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis antibodies in dogs in Mosul City
D.M.T. Jwher
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of the current study to investigate of visceral leishmaniasis antibodies in blood of dogs. One hundred and fifty six samples of blood of stray and domestic dog blood samples of different ages and sexes and from various regions of Mosul city were collected. The study began from July to August 2010. The area of the study (Mosul city) was divided geographically in to two main areas i.e. right and left coasts of Mosul city. Also, another subdivision was followed in which each major areas was divided into six administrative parts, having other residential quarters. A qualitative membrane based immunoassay (rK-39) was followed for detection of antibodies of visceral leishmaniasis. However additional conformation of the parasite was done by blood smears and impressions smears obtained from the liver and spleen of the sacrificed dogs. The finding showed that visceral leishmaniasis antibodies were recovered in the dogs of southern and south eastern parts of Mosul city representing a total infection rate of (14.1%). However, infection rate was higher in the dogs of left coast (16.66%) than that in the right coast of Mosul city (11.11%). It can be concluded that high prevalence rate was found in the southern and south eastern parts of Mosul city.
Anatomia foliar e caulinar de Chamaecrista trichopoda (Caesalpinioideae) e histoquímica do nectário extrafloral
Francino, D.M.T.;Sant'Anna-Santos, B.F.;Silva, K.L.F.;Thadeo, M.;Meira, R.M.S.A.;Azevedo, A.A.;
Planta Daninha , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-83582006000400010
Abstract: nectaries are common among the leguminosae, being frequently located in the leaves. the aim of this work was to anatomically characterize the stem, leaf and extrafloral nectary of chamaecrista trichopoda, as well as to histochemically investigate the composition of the nectary secretion of this species. the samples were submitted to histochemical tests and usual plant anatomy techniques and analyzed through light microscope and scanning electron microscope. the leaflets are amphistomatic, dorsiventral, with collateral bundles and present associated fibers. it is common the occurrence of monocrystals in the bundle sheath cells. uniseriate and multicellular tector trichomes occur in foliar lamina and stem. the stem presents uniseriate epidermis. below the epidermis, three to four layers of collenchyma are observed, followed by two to three layers of chlorenchyma. in the most internal layers of the cortex, crystalliferous idioblasts containing monocrystals are observed, and the bundle sheath is delimited by fibers and the pith is parenchymatic. the leaf and stem anatomy characteristics corroborate with the existing caesalpinioideae subfamily data. the nectary is pedunculate, around 1mm high and located in the adaxial part of the petiole, presenting an orange-like color, with the apex forming a concavity and the borders slightly rounded. it is common the occurrence of small openings on the surface of the nectary and fungi hyphae in the post-secretory phase. anatomically, a nectary structure was confirmed. the nectary is vascularized by phloem and xylem with the nectariferous parenchyma occurring below the epidermis, which presents a thick cuticle. anatomic characters may help study genus taxonomy. histochemical analyses evidence the accumulation of tannins in the cells of the nectariferous parenchyma, likely functioning as a protection against herbivore. it was observed on the nectary surface the presence of pores, which may be preferential sites of nectar elimination.
PHARMACOLOGY AND DESENSITISATION OF THE HUMAN RAMP3 AND RAT CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE RECEPTOR COMBINATION
D.L. Hay,T. Choksi,D.M. Smith
The Scientific World Journal , 2001, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2001.418
Abstract:
Infuence of depression on stability in elderly patients with discirculatory encephalopa-thy
Baidina T.V.,Sosnitskaya D.M.
Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research , 2012,
Abstract: The goal of the research is studying of patients who suffer from disequilibrium because of the gerontal dyscir-culatory encephalopathy (DE) with borderline disorders. The research also highlights possible relationship between depression and postural abnormalities using stabilometrics. 72 patients of 75 – 90 years old with dyscirculatory en-cephalopathy were examined. There were clinical and psychometric trials. Mental depression was detected according to depressive disorder criteria of ICD-10 (International Classifcation of Deseases-10th revision). Clinical assessment of static sense according to R. Bohannon scale (1989). Stabilometrics was carried out in compliance with European open eyes — methodology using “MBN — Biomechanics” complex (Moscow).During the tests two groups of patients were sorted out. They are the main group consisted of 56 patients with depressive symptom and a group for comparison consisted of 16 patients without anxiety or depression. The groups are comparable to age and cognitive defect rate. There was no difference according to clinical assessment of static sense according to R. Bohannon scale. The length and the area of a stabilogram, the centre of pressure movement speed in the main group is higher because the oscillation amplitude in the medium frequency area in frontal plane.The research concluded that depression intensifes balance disorder at patients with gerontal dyscirculatory en-cephalopathy. This disorder can be revealed by computer stabilometrics method. These disorders are the consequences of the infuence of phrenopathy on muscle tone.
Análise de crescimento e parti o de assimilados em plantas de maria-pretinha submetidas a níveis de sombreamento Growth analysis and partitioning of assimilates in mary-nightshade plants submitted to shading levels
T.Z Aumonde,T Pedó,E.G Martinazzo,D.M Moraes
Planta Daninha , 2013, DOI: 10.1590/s0100-83582013000100011
Abstract: A espécie Solanum americanum (maria-pretinha) é considerada planta daninha; por possuir elevada habilidade competitiva e agressividade, ela reduz a produtividade dos cultivos. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegeta o e objetivou analisar o crescimento e a parti o de assimilados em plantas de maria-pretinha submetidas a três níveis de sombreamento. As plantas foram coletadas em intervalos regulares de sete dias após o transplante até o final do ciclo, sendo determinada a massa seca e a área foliar. A partir dos dados primários, foi aplicada a análise de crescimento, sendo calculados a massa seca total (Wt), as taxas de produ o de matéria seca (Ct), crescimento relativo (Rw) e assimilatória líquída (Ea), o índice de área foliar (L), as raz es de área foliar (Fa) e massa foliar (Fw), a área foliar específica (Sa), a parti o de matéria seca entre órg os e o número de frutos. Plantas de maria-pretinha cresceram e se desenvolveram melhor sob condi o intermediária de luz (65%), em que atingiram maior Wt, Ct, L, Fa, matéria seca de caule, matéria seca de fruto e maior número de frutos, enquanto a luz plena e a redu o da luminosidade em nível acentuado, de maneira mais marcante, afetaram negativamente o crescimento e o desenvolvimento, o que possivelmente pode influenciar a habilidade competitiva da maria-pretinha. The species Solanum americanum (mary-nightshade) is considered a weed whose highly competitive ability and aggressiveness reduce crop productivity. This work was conducted under greenhouse conditions aiming to analyze the growth and partitioning of assimilates in mary-nightshade plants subjected to three levels of shading. The plants were collected at regular intervals of seven days after transplantation until the end of the cycle, with dry mass and leaf area being determined. Based on primary data , growth analysis was carried out to calculate total dry matter production (Wt), dry matter production rates (Ct), relative growth (R-w), net assimilation (Ea), leaf area index (L), relative growth of leaf area and ratios of leaf area (Fa) and leaf mass (Fw), specific leaf area (Sa) and dry matter partitioning between organs. Mary-nightshade plants showed a better growth and development under intermediate light conditions (35% shade), reaching higher Wt, Ct, L, Fa, stem dry matter, fruit dry matter and number of fruit. Full light and reduction of light at a more accentuated level had a negative effect on growth and development, a fact that may influence the competitive ability of these plants.
REMOTE SENSING OF SEA SURFACE SALINITY: A CASE STUDY IN THE BURDEKIN RIVER, NORTH-EASTERN AUSTRALIA
Heron,M.L; Prytz,A; Stieglitz,T; Burrage,D.M;
Gayana (Concepción) , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-65382004000200050
Abstract: the principles of remotely sensing sea surface salinity are briefly reviewed. the airborne instrument used for this study is a scanning low frequency microwave radiometer (slfmr). it has spatial resolution of typically 500m (depending on the altitude of the aircraft) and a salinity resolution of about 1 psu. this configuration is suitable for studying the dynamics of river plumes as they form on the continental shelf. the burdekin river is one of australia's major rivers with about 2.4% of the annual runoff from the continent. this river is in the dry tropics and has severe transient peaks which last for days to weeks during the summer monsoon season. the case study shows the river plume during growth and decay phases and is supported with in situ vertical profiles of water salinity and temperature. the river plume forms a classic low density layer at the surface, but its development and movement along the coast is a feature of the regional oceanography
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