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Antimicrobial and Cytotoxicity Studies of the Aerial Part of Arachis hypogea Linn.
Most. Nazma Parvin,Sadia Afreen Chowdhury
Stamford Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol soluble extracts of the aerial part of Arachis hypogea (Papilionaceae) were screened for their possible antimicrobial activity against thirteen bacteria and three fungi by disc diffusion method and cytotoxic activity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The chloroform soluble extract showed moderate antimicrobial activity with a zone of inhibition of 13-15 mm. The petroleum ether soluble extract showed mild and methanol soluble extract showed poor antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the most significant cytotoxicity was showed by petroleum ether soluble extract with an LC50 of 3.36 g/ml where vincristine sulphate was used as standard with an LC50 of 0.749 μg/ml. The results suggested significant antimicrobial activity of chloroform soluble extract and cytotoxic potential of petroleum ether soluble extract.
Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Clitoria ternatea Linn.
Kamrun Nahar,Muhammad Ashikur Rahman,Most. Nazma Parvin,Shammy Sarwar
Stamford Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs led to the evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The current study was aimed to evaluate the possible anthelmintic effects of crude fresh juice of leaves of Clitoria ternatea Linn. using of adult earth worm Pheretima Posthuma. Three concentrations (25, 50, 100mg/ml) of juice were studied for the determination of time of paralysis and death of the earth worms. Albendazole in same concentration as that of juice was considered as standard reference and normal saline as control. The result of the present study reveals that fresh juice significantly showed paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at higher concentraton of 100mg/ml, as compared to standard reference Albendazole.
Chemical and biological investigations of Dillenia indica Linn.
Most. Nazma Parvin, Mohammad S. Rahman, Mohammad S. Islam and Mohammad A. Rashid
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology , 2009,
Abstract: A total of four compounds namely, lupeol (1), betulinaldehyde (2), betulinic acid (3) and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from the stem extract of Dillenia indica Linn. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-4) were established by extensive spectroscopic studies. The crude methanolic extracts and its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and chloroform soluble partitionates demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The extractives revealed significant cytotoxic activity when tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the extractives exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity when compared with ascorbic acid.
Atypical Steatocystoma Multiplex with Calcification
Muhammad Hasibur Rahman,Muhammad Saiful Islam,Nazma Parvin Ansari
ISRN Dermatology , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/381901
Abstract: A 60-year-old male reported to us with an atypical case of giant steatocystoma multiplex in the scrotum with calcification. There was no family history of similar lesions. Yellowish, creamy material was expressed from a nodule during punch biopsy. The diagnosis was based on clinical as well as histological findings. Successful surgical excision was done to cure the case without any complications. 1. Introduction Steatocystoma multiplex occurs as numerous, epithelial-lined, sebum-filled dermal cysts with characteristic sebaceous glands in the cyst walls [1]. Usually it begins in adolescence or early adult life. It may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, but most cases have no family history [2]. Both sexes are affected equally. Clinically, it is characterized by multiple small soft, movable, yellowish to skin-colored dermal cystic papules and nodules, varying from a few to 20?mm or more in size [3]. Overlying epidermis, it usually remains normal with no central punctum [4]. The trunk (with the presternal region as the site of election) and proximal extremities are involved, but lesions may appear anywhere, including the scrotum. Usually, the lesions are asymptomatic, but some lesions may become inflamed, suppurate and heal with scarring [3]. When inflammation of the ruptured cysts takes place and is extensive, it can produce the so-called steatocystoma multiplex suppurate, which mimics acne conglobata [2]. Occurrence of a solitary lesion is called steatocystoma simplex, which has no hereditary tendency [3]. The condition has been given, variety of names including steatocystomatosis, sebocystomatosis and epidermal polycystic disease [5]. Instances of lesions of large size grouped in large quantities in one region of the body are rare. Similar lesions with extensive calcification seem to be extremely rare. We are presenting here a case report of steatocystoma multiplex with extensive calcification and firm adhesion to the scrotum. 2. Case Report A 60-year-old male presented to us with asymptomatic multiple cystic papule and nodules of various size and shape in group with firm adhesion on the scrotum for a period of 15 years. To start with the investigation we noticed a small, firm, elevated lesion on the scrotum which remained stationary for 10 years. With the passage of time, and since the past year, the lesion increased in size and number. Large-sized nodules grouped in large quantities in scrotum are rarely found. Similar lesions with extensive calcification with firm adhesion seem to be extremely rare. Figure 1 shows atypical steatocystoma
Admission Hypothermia Among Neonates Presented to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Shaheen Akter,Rubiya Parvin,B.H. Nazma Yasmeen
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v33i3.8312
Abstract: Introduction: In developing countries, thermal protection of the newborn is not properly addressed. Neonates presented to Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for admission with various problems are frequently found to be hypothermic. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and associated risk factors for neonatal hypothermia on admission to NICU. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study carried over a period of three years at Enam Medical College and Hospital (EMCH) among the newborns admitted to NICU. Hypothermia has been defined as axillary temperature <36.5°C (<97.7° F). Temperature was measured at admission. Data were collected regarding perinatal and socio economic factors. Bivariate and multivariate analysis has been done to see the association of risk factors. Result: A total of 2310 babies between 0 and 680 h of age (mean 43± 12 hours) were studied. Thirty four percent (785) of the neonates had hypothermia. Mean gestation was 34±3 weeks and 42.5% were inborn. Significant determinants of neonatal hypothermia at admission included factors like preterm (p=0.03), low birth weight (p=0.005), normal delivery (p=0.012), birth asphyxia (p=0.001) below average socioeconomic status (p=0.001) and long distance (>10 km) travelled by the neonate (p=0.03). Independent variables are resuscitation at birth [p=.001, Odds Ratio (OR), 2.43; Confidence Interval (CI), 1.47 to 4.00], (p=0.001), age less than 24 hours (p=.02; OR 2.25; CI, 1.13 to 4.47), low birth weight (p=0.03; OR,2.0; CI, 1.06 to 3.82), caesarean section(C/S) delivery (p=.006; OR 1.35; CI, 1.18-2.12) and below average economic status (p=0.001; OR, 2.76; CI, 1.56 to 5.90). Conclusion: Incidence of admission hypothermia among neonates in our NICU was 34%. Independent risk factors are resuscitation at birth, very low birth weight, C/S delivery, age less than 24 hours and poor socio-economic condition. Proper thermal care should be provided for neonates both at home and hospitals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jnps.v33i3.8312 ? J. Nepal Paediatr. Soc. 2013;33(3):166-171
The Rate of Decline and Trend Line Analysis of Groundwater underneath Dhaka and Gazipur City  [PDF]
Mithila Parvin
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.113020
Abstract: Groundwater is reported to account for 87% of all drinking water resources in Dhaka which has suffered a decline of up to 75 m in some specific location. Over-extraction of groundwater is an extensive social problem in Dhaka and Gazipur city which needs to be investigating thoroughly. This study presents the diagnosis of groundwater depletion pattern and the yearly rate of decline over the last three decades for Dhaka and Gazipur metropolitan area. Groundwater data were collected from the relevant institutions in order to analyse the trend line and the rate of decline of groundwater levels for more than 30 years period to understand the long-time variability. Ten individual stations datasets for GWL have been analyzed for Dhaka and Gazipur within a selected reference time period (1980-2012). The highest depleted GWL were found in the Mirpur station which is now 68 m below ground. To find out the time span when the depletion rate is highest, the rate of decline of all datasets has been computed which shows that 1998-2005 is the consecutive eight years time span with the fastest depletion rate. On the other hand, the annual trend-line analysis shows rapid depletion pattern after the year 2000.
Orbital phase resolved spectroscopy of GX 301-2 with MAXI
Nazma Islam,Biswajit Paul
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu756
Abstract: GX 301-2, a bright HMXB with an orbital period of 41.5 days, exhibits stable periodic orbital intensity modulations with a strong pre-periastron X-ray flare. Several models have been proposed to explain the accretion at different orbital phases, invoking accretion via stellar wind, equatorial disk, and accretion stream from the companion star. We present results from exhaustive orbital phase resolved spectroscopic measurements of GX 301-2 using data from the Gas Slit Camera onboard MAXI. Using spectroscopic analysis of the MAXI data with unprecendented orbital coverage for many orbits continuously, we have found a strong orbital dependence of the absorption column density and equivalent width of the iron emission line. A very large equivalent width of the iron line along with a small value of the column density in the orbital phase range 0.10-0.30 after the periastron passage indicates presence of high density absorbing matter behind the neutron star in these orbital phase range. A low energy excess is also found in the spectrum at orbital phases around the pre-periastron X-ray flare. The orbital dependence of these parameters are then used to examine the various models about mode of accretion onto the neutron star in GX 301-2.
A Classifier Ensemble of Binary Classifier Ensembles
Hamid Parvin,Sajad Parvin
International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This paper proposes an innovative combinational algorithm to improve the performance in multiclass classification domains. Because the more accurate classifier the better performance of classification, the researchers in computer communities have been tended to improve the accuracies of classifiers. Although a better performance for classifier is defined the more accurate classifier, but turning to the best classifier is not always the best option to obtain the best quality in classification. It means to reach the best classification there is another alternative to use many inaccurate or weak classifiers each of them is specialized for a sub-space in the problem space and using their consensus vote as the final classifier. So this paper proposes a heuristic classifier ensemble to improve the performance of classification learning. It is specially deal with multiclass problems which their aim is to learn the boundaries of each class from many other classes. Based on the concept of multiclass problems classifiers are divided into two different categories: pairwise classifiers and multiclass classifiers. The aim of a pairwise classifier is to separate one class from another one. Because of pairwise classifiers just train for discrimination between two classes, decision boundaries of them are simpler and more effective than those of multiclass classifiers.The main idea behind the proposed method is to focus classifier in the erroneous spaces of problem and use of pairwise classification concept instead of multiclass classification concept. Indeed although usage of pairwise classification concept instead of multiclass classification concept is not new, we propose a new pairwise classifier ensemble with a very lower order. In this paper, first the most confused classes are determined and then some ensembles of classifiers are created. The classifiers of each of these ensembles jointly work using majority weighting votes. The results of these ensembles are combined to decide the final vote in a weighted manner. Finally the outputs of these ensembles are heuristically aggregated. The proposed framework is evaluated on a very large scale Persian digit handwritten dataset and the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.
Effect of Temperature-Dependent Variable Viscosity on Magnetohydrodynamic Natural Convection Flow along a Vertical Wavy Surface
Nazma Parveen,Md. Abdul Alim
ISRN Mechanical Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/505673
Impact of Irrigation on Food Security in Bangladesh for the Past Three Decades  [PDF]
M. Wakilur RAHMAN, Lovely PARVIN
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.13027
Abstract: Bangladesh has made impressive progress in agriculture sector in the last three decades and has almost be-come self-sufficient in food grain production. This is a tremendous achievement owing to its small territory and huge population and this was achieved through agricultural mechanization and modernization. Irrigation is one of the leading inputs has direct influence to increase yield, food grains production and plays vital role for ensuring food security in Bangladesh. The present study examined the growth of irrigated area and its impact on food grain production during last three decades. Time series data were used for the study. Differ-ent statistical methods such as mean, percentage, linear and exponential growth model were applied for get-ting meaningful findings. Various technologies have been used for irrigating crops which have contributed to rapid expansion of irrigated area. The conventional irrigation methods (Low Lift Pump, Dhone, Swing Bas-ket, Treadle Pump etc.) were replaced by modern methods (i.e Deep Tube Well and Shallow Tube Well). In addition, surface water irrigation also sharply declined, losing its importance due to lack of new surface irri-gation project and the ineffectiveness of earlier project. Groundwater covered 77 percent of total irrigated area and major (62%) extractions occurred through Shallow Tube Wells (STWs). The rapid expansion of ground water irrigation in respect to STWs irrigation was due to government’s withdrawal on restrictions on tube well setting rule, encouraging private sector and the cost effectiveness of Chinese engine which have been affordable to the small and medium farmers. Irrigated area thus, increased by about three times and cropping intensity also increased from 154 to 176 percent. Boro rice, an irrigated crop, consumed 73 percent of the total crop irrigation and contributed to a greater extent in total rice production in Bangladesh. Boro rice alone contributed to 55 percent of total food grain and was also highest (3.44 MT per hectare) compared to aus rice (1.66 MT per hectare) and aman rice (1.99 MT per hectare) per unit production. Consequently, the cultivated area of boro rice increased by 1168 to 4068 thousand hectares. The higher productivity of boro rice has almost helped the nation to meet her food requirements (about 24 Million MT). Boro rice production was highly correlated (r = .978) with irrigated area. Expansion of one hectare of irrigated area added 3.22 MT of boro rice in Bangladesh. Finally, the study suggested for expansion of irrigated areas (ground water and surface water),
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