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Fiction on Nature
Moslem Zolfagharkhani
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2306
Abstract: Joseph Conrad’s ‘Youth’ is significant and considerable in that it is a novella which is built on the author’s personal experiences along with drawing on the interaction between Man and Nature. Conrad’s tenth story ‘Youth’ revolves round Marlow who is both a narrator and a central character. He undertakes a sea journey in which the adolescent Marlow becomes a man. ‘Youth’ is a story of discovery and development, of revelation and revolution vis-à-vis man and nature and their sociality. Conrad delineates this sociality through the English people and the sea. The direct engagement of natural elements, water and wind, as adversaries to man is revealed by the author. This engagement makes man not just an object of more or less accidental fate, but a protagonist, a fighter in the battles of his existence. What kind of a community gets surfaced in ‘Youth’ vis-à-vis Sea? Marlow starts his narrative by addressing five people at the beginning of the story. He says “between the five of us there was the strong bond of the sea, and also the fellowship of the craft” (69). Such beginning speeches direct us to get involved in a fiction which is a mirror of man and nature community. Keywords: Fiction; Joseph Conrad; ‘Youth’; Man; Nature; Sociality. Résumé: La Jeunesse de Joseph Conrad est importante et considérable en ce qu’elle est une nouvelle qui se construit sur des expériences personnelles de l’auteur ainsi que par le dessin sur l’interaction entre l’homme et la nature. Jeunesse dixième étage de Conrad tourne autour de Marlow qui est à la fois un narrateur et un personnage central. Il entreprend un voyage en mer dans lequel l’adolescent Marlow devient un homme. Jeunesse est une histoire de la découverte et le développement, de la révélation et la révolution vis-à-vis de l’homme et la nature et leur socialité. Conrad délimite cette socialité par l’intermédiaire du peuple anglais et de la mer. la participation directe des éléments naturels, l’eau et le vent, comme des adversaires à l’homme est mis en évidence par l’auteur. Cet engagement fait de l’homme n’est pas seulement un objet de sort plus ou moins accidentelle, mais un protagoniste, un combattant dans le batailles de son existence. Quel genre d’une communauté se fait surface dans vis-à-vis de Jeunesse de la mer? Marlow commence son récit en abordant cinq personnes au début de l’histoire. Il dit: entre les cinq d’entre nous il y avait la forte discours des obligations de la mer, et aussi la communion de l’artisanat (69). De commencer ces diriger nous de s’impliquer dans une fiction qui est un miroir d
Fiction on Revolution
Moslem Zolfagharkhani
Studies in Literature and Language , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2255
Abstract: The present study aims at showing Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes as the author’s major deep concern about revolution and revolutionaries. Indeed the book is his memoire of both his past life and his mother country. The novel focuses on Razumov the central character and his unwanted involvement in political activities. Hence two worlds are depicted, one is the individual world of Razumov the student and the other is the communal world of the revolutionists. Under Western Eyes is a site for Conrad’s sentiments and inner responses where one comes across his obsessions about man and his society. Key words: Fiction; Joseph Conrad; Under Western Eyes; Revolution
Pedagogical and Colonial Power Discourses in William Shakespeare’s The Tempest
Moslem Zolfagharkhani,Zahra Heshmatifar
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.ccc.1923670020120802.1345
Abstract: This paper aims at exploring the relationship between pedagogy and colonial power as discourse instances in Shakespeare’s The Tempest which dates back to the early seventeenth century. A brief historical study is given focusing on the variety of forms and purposes in pedagogical life of England during 1540 to 1560 and emergence of the Reformation period. It is revealed, for example, that The Tempest is recognized as a model of colonial relationship and as a metaphor of educational history. The concept of power discussed in The Tempest, is not shaped just by supreme authority of the kingdom, but is infl uenced by its relationship with knowledge as an instrument of power in Foucaultian eye. The paper seeks to investigate how Prospero, the master of the colonial prison of his island, makes use of his magical books, the symbols of knowledge, so as to teach all the characters dramatized in the story as all classes of the society, from aristocrats to commoners. In particular, it focuses on Prospero’s reliance on his colonized power presented by verbal and physical punishment toward Caliban, the colonized misshapen creature on the one hand, and homeschooling of Miranda, Prospero’s daughter, on the other hand. The article ends by resembling Prospero’s magical power and his god-like control into a Foucaultian reading of history as he argues that power will inevitably result in some form of resistance. The Tempest suggests an expanding threat of disruption, treason and rebellion as the reaction to the power. Key words: Colonial power; Pedagogy; Discourse; Foucault; William Shakespeare; The Tempest Résumé Cet article vise à explorer la relation entre la pédagogie et de la puissance coloniale comme des instances de discours dans La Tempête de Shakespeare, qui remonte à début du XVIIe siècle. Une brève étude historique est donné en se concentrant sur la variété des formes et des buts dans la vie pédagogique de l’Angleterre au cours de 1540 à 1560 et l’émergence de la période de la Réforme. Il est révélé, par exemple, que la tempête est reconnu comme un modèle de la relation coloniale et comme une métaphore de l’histoire éducative. Le concept de pouvoir discuté dans La Tempête, n’est pas en forme juste par l’autorité suprême du royaume, mais est influencée par sa relation avec la connaissance comme un instrument de pouvoir dans l’oeil foucaldien. Le document vise à étudier comment Prospero, le ma tre de la prison coloniale de son le, fait usage de ses livres magiques, les symboles de la connaissance, de sorte que d’enseigner à tous les personnages en scène dans l’hi
Power Relations: Mario Vargas LIosa’s The Feast of the Goat
Moslem Zolfagharkhani,Ehteram Tabasi
Studies in Literature and Language , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.sll.1923156320120402.1010
Abstract: The notion of ‘power’ is one of the most debatable notions in sociological studies, and this is because of its inevitable presence in social relations and interactions. In all his relations within the society, man can feel the influence of power, either as the one in power or as the powerless one. Power does not exist in vacuum and it should be considered in relation with other social concepts such as class, race, gender, space, etc. Along with these concepts, different embodiments of power in the society can be revealed and different models of exercising of power will be formed. One of the most directly related notions to power is the notion of ‘politics’. What allows politicians to use different policies is power and what gives them power to fulfill their will and impose their own desire and interests on the other is politics. The other concept which serves these two notions is ‘discourse’. It is obvious that without ‘discourse’ and ‘language’ the existence of ‘power’ and ‘politics’ is only a probability, because ‘discourse’ is the means of exercising the power and applying the politics. Thus, here is a triangle of ‘power’, ‘politics’, and ‘discourse’. In this regard, a very brief historical overview of power is given. The base of discussion and analysis in this article is the different forms of power according to S. Westwood’s Power and the Social. This article explores the relation between the three angles of the mentioned triangle in Liosa’s The Feast of The Goat, a dictator–historical novel set in Dominican Republic. This study investigates various shapes of power exercised by Dominican dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo through politics and discourse. Key words: Power; Race; Class; Gender; Space; Vision; S. Westwood; Mario Vargas LIosa; The Feast of the Goat
Power in R. K. Narayan’s Malgudi Days
Moslem Zolfagharkhani,Siranoush Akhgarandouz
Canadian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.css.1923669720120802.1010
Abstract: The present study aims to consider Foucauldian ‘Power’ and its dimensions in the select short stories of R. K. Narayan’s Malgudi Days (1982). To that end, Foucauldian ‘Hegemony’ and ‘Resistance to Power and Limits of Power’ are discussed in these select short stories: “The Blind Dog”, “Forty-Five a Month”, “A Willing Slave”, “Leela’s Friend”, and “Selvi”. The study further shows the way the clusters in turn are related to each other and at the same time contribute to the Foucauldian concepts. Furthermore, Foucauldian ‘Hegemony’ and ‘Resistance to Power and Limits of Power’ are created through ‘Power’ which exists in various forms. Key words: Michel Foucault; Power; Resistance to power; Limits of power; Hegemony Résumé La présente étude vise à examiner la “Puissance” foucaldienne et ses dimensions dans les histoires courtes de certains jours Malgudi RK Narayan (1982). à cette fi n, L’hégémonie foucaldienne et la Résistance au pouvoir et les limites de la puissance sont discutés dans ces histoires courts sélectionné:“le chien aveugle’’, “Un mois de la Quarante-Cinq”, “Un esclave volontaire”, “Ami de Leela”, et le “Selvi”. L’étude montre en outre la fa on dont les grappes à leur tour sont liés les uns aux autres et en même temps contribuer à des concepts foucaldiens. En outre, L’hégémonie foucaldienne et Résistance au pouvoir et limites de la puissance sont créés par “Power” qui existe sous diverses formes. Mots clés: Michel Foucault; Puissance; La résistance au pouvoir; Les limites de la puissance; L’hégémonie
The Relationship Between Reading Aloud Strategies and Comprehension Among the Iranian EFL learners in Pre-Intermediate Levels
Moslem Zolfagharkhani,Mohammad Ali Kowsary
Studies in Literature and Language , 2013, DOI: 10.3968/j.sll.1923156320130601.1682
Abstract: However different studies have focused on the importance of reading aloud to children in the first language teaching situations as a means of improving their comprehension and encouraging them to read, this technique has been neglected in foreign language situations or teaching techniques. This paper have done in one of the English Language Institute in Sabzevar, a city in Khorasan Razavi province, in order to find out whether the teacher’s reading aloud to learners of English as a foreign language leads to a higher level of comprehension than when the learners read silently on their own. In one session of the class, students were given three passages to read silently and asked to answer five multiple-choice comprehension questions in each passage. In another day the researcher read aloud three other passages of comparable reading difficulty to the same students before asking them to answer the comprehension questions. The results show that the students’ scores were significantly higher in the second testing session, which indicates a positive effect of the reading aloud technique on the learners reading comprehension. Moreover, in answer to a short questionnaire, 73% of the subjects reported that they are interested in the teacher’ reading aloud strategy. Key words: Reading aloud strategies; Comprehension; Teaching techniques
The Effect of Etymology Instruction on Vocabulary Learning of Upper-Intermediate EFL Iranian Learners
Moslem Zolfagharkhani,Rokhsareh Ghorbani Moghadam
Canadian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.3968/j.css.1923669720110706.180
Abstract: The present study mainly focused on the impact of etymology instruction on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL upper-intermediate learners; secondly, it aimed to find out whether there is any significant difference between the performance of male and female learners in learning vocabulary through etymology strategy or not. To accomplish the study, 60 EFL learners studying English as their major within the age range of 20 to 28 of both males and females at SabzevarTarbiatMoallem University and SabzevarPayam-e-Noor University, Iran participated in this experiment.Their language proficiency was determined by the TOEFL test. In order to determine their homogeneity in vocabulary knowledge, a vocabulary test was given to them. Then they were randomly assigned to one control group and one experimental group, each including thirty students. Only the experimental group received the treatment. The control group followed its normal educational program. After completing the treatment sessions a posttest was administered to determine the effect of etymology instruction. To determine the statistical significance of the difference between the means of the two sets of scores, t-test was employed. The results of the study revealed that the students receiving treatment in the experimental group outperformed those in the control group. To test the second hypothesis another t- test was used to analyze the data, the results of which indicated that male and female EFL learners in experimental groupdiffered in their performance. Key words: Etymology strategy; Affix; Vocabulary learning; Vocabulary learning strategy
‘Gaze’ and ‘Visuality’ in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice
Zolfagharkhani M.,Ramezani H.
K@ta : a Biannual Publication on the Study of Language and Literature , 2012,
Abstract: For many readers, there is no connection between Jane Austen’s novels and the sexualized body. Sexuality in Austen’s novels is never explicit; nonetheless, it permeates every look, gesture, and letter that passes between her lovers. This article aims to reveal the concept of ‘gaze’, especially female gaze, in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. According to feminist critics it is psychologically inevitable that women are the sexual objects of men; therefore, they have effectively refused to acknowledge the possibility that a female gaze could exist. Arguably, as it is indicated throughout this article, women are not necessarily rendered mute and inert by the male gaze; in fact, they actively shape and respond to male desire and their gaze encompasses as much authority and power as the male gaze.
On the running of the spectral index to all orders: a new approach to constrain the inflationary models
Moslem Zarei
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: In conventional approaches, the power spectrum of primordial perturbations is characterized by free parameters such as the spectral index, its running, the running of running and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. In this work we show that, at least for simple inflationary potentials, one can find the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra exactly by summation over all of the running terms. In this method, we expand the power spectra about the pivot scale and then find the series terms as a function of e-folding number for models of inflation. Interestingly, for the models studied here one can sum over all terms and evaluate the exact form of power spectra. This in turn reduces the parameter space because in our method there are no spectral indexes and running terms. We compare our results to the recent CMB data and find that our new power spectra have good agreement with data although they contain less free parameters.
Design and simulation of a sigma delta ADC
Moslem Rashidi
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: In this report we describe the design and simulation of a Sigma Delta ADC in Matlan/Simulink
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