Abstract:
We compare tools for complementing nondeterministic B\"uchi automata with a recent termination-analysis algorithm. Complementation of B\"uchi automata is a key step in program verification. Early constructions using a Ramsey-based argument have been supplanted by rank-based constructions with exponentially better bounds. In 2001 Lee et al. presented the size-change termination (SCT) problem, along with both a reduction to B\"uchi automata and a Ramsey-based algorithm. The Ramsey-based algorithm was presented as a more practical alternative to the automata-theoretic approach, but strongly resembles the initial complementation constructions for B\"uchi automata. We prove that the SCT algorithm is a specialized realization of the Ramsey-based complementation construction. To do so, we extend the Ramsey-based complementation construction to provide a containment-testing algorithm. Surprisingly, empirical analysis suggests that despite the massive gap in worst-case complexity, Ramsey-based approaches are superior over the domain of SCT problems. Upon further analysis we discover an interesting property of the problem space that both explains this result and provides a chance to improve rank-based tools. With these improvements, we show that theoretical gains in efficiency of the rank-based approach are mirrored in empirical performance.

Abstract:
This volume contains the proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Strategic Reasoning 2013 (SR 2013), held in Rome (Italy), March 1617, 2013. The SR workshop aims to bring together researchers, possibly with different backgrounds, working on various aspects of strategic reasoning in computer science, both from a theoretical and a practical point of view. This year SR has hosted four outstanding invited talks by Krishnendu Chatterjee, Alessio R. Lomuscio, Jean-Francois Raskin, and Michael Wooldridge. Moreover, the program committee selected 13 papers among the 23 contributions submitted. Almost all of them have been revised by three reviews and the contributions have been selected according to quality and relevance to the topics of the workshop.

Abstract:
In program synthesis, we transform a specification into a program that is guaranteed to satisfy the specification. In synthesis of reactive systems, the environment in which the program operates may behave nondeterministically, e.g., by generating different sequences of inputs in different runs of the system. To satisfy the specification, the program needs to act so that the specification holds in every computation generated by its interaction with the environment. Often, the program cannot observe all attributes of its environment. In this case, we should transform a specification into a program whose behavior depends only on the observable history of the computation. This is called synthesis with incomplete information. In such a setting, it is desirable to have a knowledge-based specification, which can refer to the uncertainty the program has about the environment's behavior. In this work we solve the problem of synthesis with incomplete information with respect to specifications in the logic of knowledge and time. We show that the problem has the same worst-case complexity as synthesis with complete information.

Abstract:
Synthesis is the automatic construction of a system from its specification. In classical synthesis algorithms, it is always assumed that the system is "constructed from scratch" rather than composed from reusable components. This, of course, rarely happens in real life, where almost every non-trivial commercial software system relies heavily on using libraries of reusable components. Furthermore, other contexts, such as web-service orchestration, can be modeled as synthesis of a system from a library of components. Recently, Lustig and Vardi introduced dataflow and control-flow synthesis from libraries of reusable components. They proved that dataflow synthesis is undecidable, while control-flow synthesis is decidable. In this work, we consider the problem of control-flow synthesis from libraries of probabilistic components . We show that this more general problem is also decidable.

Abstract:
The synthesis problem asks for the automatic construction of a system from its specification. In the traditional setting, the system is "constructed from scratch" rather than composed from reusable components. However, this is rare in practice, and almost every non-trivial software system relies heavily on the use of libraries of reusable components. Recently, Lustig and Vardi introduced dataflow and controlflow synthesis from libraries of reusable components. They proved that dataflow synthesis is undecidable, while controlflow synthesis is decidable. The problem of controlflow synthesis from libraries of probabilistic components was considered by Nain, Lustig and Vardi, and was shown to be decidable for qualitative analysis (that asks that the specification be satisfied with probability 1). Our main contributions for controlflow synthesis from probabilistic components are to establish better complexity bounds for the qualitative analysis problem, and to show that the more general quantitative problem is undecidable. For the qualitative analysis, we show that the problem (i) is EXPTIME-complete when the specification is given as a deterministic parity word automaton, improving the previously known 2EXPTIME upper bound; and (ii) belongs to UP $\cap$ coUP and is parity-games hard, when the specification is given directly as a parity condition on the components, improving the previously known EXPTIME upper bound.

Abstract:
This volume contains the proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Strategic Reasoning 2014 (SR 2014), held in Grenoble (France), April 5-6, 2014. The SR workshop aims to bring together researchers, possibly with different backgrounds, working on various aspects of strategic reasoning in computer science, both from a theoretical and a practical point of view. This year SR has hosted four invited talks by Thomas A. Henzinger, Wiebe van der Hoek, Alessio R. Lomuscio, and Wolfgang Thomas. Moreover, the workshop has hosted 14 contributed talks, all selected among the full contributions submitted, which have been deeply evaluated, by four reviewers, according to their quality and relevance.

Abstract:
Sound and complete axiomatizations are provided for a number of different logics involving modalities for knowledge and time. These logics arise from different choices for various parameters. All the logics considered involve the discrete time linear temporal logic operators `next' and `until' and an operator for the knowledge of each of a number of agents. Both the single agent and multiple agent cases are studied: in some instances of the latter there is also an operator for the common knowledge of the group of all agents. Four different semantic properties of agents are considered: whether they have a unique initial state, whether they operate synchronously, whether they have perfect recall, and whether they learn. The property of no learning is essentially dual to perfect recall. Not all settings of these parameters lead to recursively axiomatizable logics, but sound and complete axiomatizations are presented for all the ones that do.

Abstract:
We compute the probability of satisfiability of a class of random Horn-SAT formulae, motivated by a connection with the nonemptiness problem of finite tree automata. In particular, when the maximum clause length is 3, this model displays a curve in its parameter space along which the probability of satisfiability is discontinuous, ending in a second-order phase transition where it becomes continuous. This is the first case in which a phase transition of this type has been rigorously established for a random constraint satisfaction problem.

Abstract:
Strategy Logic (SL, for short) has been recently introduced by Mogavero, Murano, and Vardi as a useful formalism for reasoning explicitly about strategies, as first-order objects, in multi-agent concurrent games. This logic turns to be very powerful, subsuming all major previously studied modal logics for strategic reasoning, including ATL, ATL*, and the like. Unfortunately, due to its expressiveness, SL has a non-elementarily decidable model-checking problem and a highly undecidable satisfiability problem, specifically, $\Sigma_{1}^{1}$-Hard. In order to obtain a decidable sublogic, we introduce and study here One-Goal Strategy Logic (SL[1G], for short). This logic is a syntactic fragment of SL, strictly subsuming ATL*, which encompasses formulas in prenex normal form having a single temporal goal at a time, for every strategy quantification of agents. SL[1G] is known to have an elementarily decidable model-checking problem. Here we prove that, unlike SL, it has the bounded tree-model property and its satisfiability problem is decidable in 2ExpTime, thus not harder than the one for ATL*.

Abstract:
In open systems verification, to formally check for reliability, one needs an appropriate formalism to model the interaction between agents and express the correctness of the system no matter how the environment behaves. An important contribution in this context is given by modal logics for strategic ability, in the setting of multi-agent games, such as ATL, ATL\star, and the like. Recently, Chatterjee, Henzinger, and Piterman introduced Strategy Logic, which we denote here by CHP-SL, with the aim of getting a powerful framework for reasoning explicitly about strategies. CHP-SL is obtained by using first-order quantifications over strategies and has been investigated in the very specific setting of two-agents turned-based games, where a non-elementary model-checking algorithm has been provided. While CHP-SL is a very expressive logic, we claim that it does not fully capture the strategic aspects of multi-agent systems. In this paper, we introduce and study a more general strategy logic, denoted SL, for reasoning about strategies in multi-agent concurrent games. We prove that SL includes CHP-SL, while maintaining a decidable model-checking problem. In particular, the algorithm we propose is computationally not harder than the best one known for CHP-SL. Moreover, we prove that such a problem for SL is NonElementarySpace-hard. This negative result has spurred us to investigate here syntactic fragments of SL, strictly subsuming ATL\star, with the hope of obtaining an elementary model-checking problem. Among the others, we study the sublogics SL[NG], SL[BG], and SL[1G]. They encompass formulas in a special prenex normal form having, respectively, nested temporal goals, Boolean combinations of goals and, a single goal at a time. About these logics, we prove that the model-checking problem for SL[1G] is 2ExpTime-complete, thus not harder than the one for ATL\star.