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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 327578 matches for " Morton S. Roberts "
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Ultraviolet Imaging of the Irregular Galaxy NGC 4449 with UIT: Photometry and Recent Star-Formation History
Robert S. Hill,Michael N. Fanelli,Denise A. Smith,Ralph C. Bohlin,Susan G. Neff,Robert W. O'Connell,Morton S. Roberts,Andrew M. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306302
Abstract: The bright Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449 was observed during the Astro-2 Space Shuttle mission by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), which obtained images of a ~40 arcmin field centered on the galaxy in two broad far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands centered at 1520 A and 1620 A, with 3 arcsec - 5 arcsec spatial resolution. Together with H-alpha and H-beta fluxes from ground-based Fabry-Perot images, these data are analyzed in order to explore the recent star formation history of NGC 4449. Maps of the flux ratios H-alpha/FUV and FUV/blue continuum are presented and interpreted using evolutionary synthesis models. Photometry is presented both for 22 apertures containing large OB complexes and for 57 small apertures containing compact FUV-emitting knots. The OB complexes along the northern edge of the visible system have high H-alpha/FUV ratios, and thus appear to be more dominated by the current generation of stars than are other parts of the galaxy. However, young sources do exist elsewhere and are particularly conspicuous along the bar. The small aperture analysis shows three candidate regions for sequential star formation. Surface brightness profiles are consistent with an exponential disk in both the FUV and the optical continuum.
Ultraviolet Signatures of Tidal Interaction in the Giant Spiral Galaxy, M101
William H. Waller,Ralph C. Bohlin,Robert H. Cornett,Michael N. Fanelli,Wendy L. Freedman,Jesse K. Hill,Barry F. Madore,Susan G. Neff,Joel D. Offenberg,Robert W. O'Connell,Morton S. Roberts,Andrew M. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/304057
Abstract: We present new evidence for tidal interactions having occurred in the disk of M101 in the last 10^8 - 10^9 years. Recent imaging of the far-ultraviolet emission from M101 by the Shuttle-borne Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) reveals with unprecedented clarity a disk-wide pattern of multiple linear arm segments (``crooked arms''). The deep FUV image also shows a faint outer spiral arm with a (``curly tail'') feature that appears to loop around the supergiant HII region NGC 5471 - linking this outlying starburst with the rest of the galaxy. These FUV-bright features most likely trace hot O & B-type stars along with scattered light from associated nebular dust. Counterparts of the outermost ``crooked arms'' are evident in maps at visible wavelengths and in the 21-cm line of HI. The inner-disk FUV arms are most closely associated with H$\alpha$ knots and the outer (downstream) sides of CO arms. Comparisons of the ``crooked arm'' and ``curly tail'' morphologies with dynamical simulations yield the greatest similitude, when the non- axisymmetric forcing comes from a combination of ``external interactions'' with one or more companion galaxies and ``internal perturbations'' from massive objects orbiting within the disk. We speculate that NGC 5471 represents one of these ``massive disturbers'' within the disk, whose formation followed from a tidal interaction between M101 and a smaller galaxy.
Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) Observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud
Robert H. Cornett,Michael R. Greason,Jesse K. Hill,Joel Wm. Parker,William H. Waller,Ralph C. Bohlin,Kwang-Peng Cheng,Susan G. Neff,Robert W. O'Connell,Morton S. Roberts,Andrew M. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: A mosaic of four UIT far-UV (FUV; 1620A) images, which covers most of the SMC bar, is presented, with derived stellar and HII region photometry. The UV morphology of the Bar shows that recent star formation there has left striking features including: a) four concentrations of UV-bright stars spread from northeast to southwest at nearly equal (~30 arcmin=0.5 kpc) spacings; b) a well-defined 8-arcmin ring of UV-bright stars surrounded by a larger H-alpha ring, suggesting sequential star formation. FUV PSF photometry is obtained for 11,306 stars, and a FUV luminosity function is derived. A (FUV-V,V) color-magnitude diagram for 195 identified supergiants, with derived extinctions; the bluest (least-reddened) stars of each spectral type have FUV-V colors consistent with models. FUV photometry is obtained for 42 H-alpha-selected HII regions, both for the stars and for the total emission within the apertures defined by Kennicutt & Hodge. The flux-weighted average ratio of total to stellar FUV flux is 2.15; the stellar FUV luminosity function indicates that most of the excess total flux is due to scattered FUV radiation, rather than faint stars. Both stellar and total emission are well correlated with H-alpha fluxes, and yield FUV/H-alpha ratios that are consistent with models of single-burst clusters with SMC metallicity, ages from 1-5 Myr, and moderate (E(B-V)=0.0-0.1 mag) internal SMC extinction.
UIT Detection of Hot Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC362
Ben Dorman,Ronak Y. Shah,Robert W. O'Connell,Wayne B. Landsman,Robert T. Rood,Ralph C. Bohlin,Susan G. Neff,Morton S. Roberts,Andrew M. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/310613
Abstract: We used the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope during the March 1995 Astro-2 mission to obtain a deep far-UV image of the globular cluster NGC 362, which was formerly thought to have an almost entirely red horizontal branch (HB). 84 hot (T_eff > 8500 K) stars were detected within a radius of 8'.25 of the cluster center. Of these, 43 have FUV magnitudes consistent with HB stars in NGC 362, and at least 34 are cluster members. The number of cluster members is made uncertain by background contamination from blue stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). There are six candidate supra-HB stars which have probably evolved from the HB. We discuss the implications of these results for the production of hot blue stars in stellar populations.
Ultraviolet Signposts of Resonant Dynamics in the Starburst-Ringed Sab Galaxy, M94 (NGC 4736)
William H. Waller,Michael N. Fanelli,William C. Keel,Ralph Bohlin,Nicholas R. Collins,Barry F. Madore,Pamela M. Marcum,Susan G. Neff,Robert W. O'Connell,Joel D. Offenberg,Morton S. Roberts,Andrew M. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/319384
Abstract: M94 (NGC 4736) is investigated using images from the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (FUV-band), Hubble Space Telescope (NUV-band), Kitt Peak 0.9-m telescope (H-alpha, R, and I bands), and Palomar 5-m telescope (B-band), along with spectra from the International Ultraviolet Explorer and Lick 1-m telescopes. The wide-field UIT image shows FUV emission from (a) an elongated nucleus, (b) a diffuse inner disk, where H-alpha is observed in absorption, (c) a bright inner ring of H II regions at the perimeter of the inner disk (R = 48 arcsec. = 1.1 kpc), and (d) two 500-pc size knots of hot stars exterior to the ring on diametrically opposite sides of the nucleus (R= 130 arcsec. = 2.9 kpc). The HST/FOC image resolves the NUV emission from the nuclear region into a bright core and a faint 20 arcsec. long ``mini-bar'' at a position angle of 30 deg. Optical and IUE spectroscopy of the nucleus and diffuse inner disk indicates an approximately 10^7 or 10^8 yr-old stellar population from low-level starbirth activity blended with some LINER activity. Analysis of the H-alpha, FUV, NUV, B, R, and I-band emission along with other observed tracers of stars and gas in M94 indicates that most of the star formation is being orchestrated via ring-bar dynamics involving the nuclear mini-bar, inner ring, oval disk, and outer ring. The inner starburst ring and bi-symmetric knots at intermediate radius, in particular, argue for bar-mediated resonances as the primary drivers of evolution in M94 at the present epoch. Similar processes may be governing the evolution of the ``core-dominated'' galaxies that have been observed at high redshift. The gravitationally-lensed ``Pretzel Galaxy'' (0024+1654) at a redshift of approximately 1.5 provides an important precedent in this regard.
Far Ultraviolet Imagery of the Edge-On Spiral Galaxy NGC 4631
Andrew M. Smith,Nicholas R. Collins,William H. Waller,Morton S. Roberts,Denise A. Smith,Ralph C. Bohlin,K. P. Cheng,Michael N. Fanelli,Susan G. Neff,Robert W. O'Connell,Ronald A. Parise,Eric P. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/318273
Abstract: Far ultraviolet FUV imagery of the edge-on, Sc/SBd galaxy, NGC 4631 reveals very strong FUV emission, resulting from active star formation, uniformly distributed along the galactic mid- plane. Multi-band imagery, HI and HII position-velocity curves and extinction considerations all imply that the emission is from the outer edges of the visible galaxy. The overall FUV morphology of this edge-on disk system is remarkably similar to those of the so-called "chain galaxies" evident at high redshift, thus suggesting a similar interpretation for at least some of those distant objects. FUV, U, B and V magnitudes, measured for 48 star forming regions, along with corresponding H-alpha and H-beta measurements are used to construct diagnostic color-color diagrams. Although there are significant exceptions, most of the star forming regions are less massive and older than 30 Doradus. Comparison with the expectations from two star formation models yields ages of 2.7 to 10 Myr for the instantaneous burst (IB) model and star formation cut-off ages of 0 to 9 Myr for the continuous star formation (CSF) model. Interpreted in terms of the IB model the photometry implies a total created mass in the 48 star forming regions of 25 million solar-masses. When viewed as resulting from constant star formation the photometry implies a star formation rate of 0.33 solar-masses/yr. These results are compared to those derived from FIR and radio observations. Corrections for FUV emission reprocessed by interstellar grains are estimated.
Ultraviolet Imaging of the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae
Robert W. O'Connell,Ben Dorman,Ronak Y. Shah,Robert T. Rood,Wayne B. Landsman,Ralph C. Bohlin,Susan G. Neff,Morton S. Roberts,Andrew M. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/118619
Abstract: We have used the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope to obtain deep far-UV (1620 Angstrom), 40' diameter images of the prototypical metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae. We find a population of about 20 hot (Teff > 9000 K) objects near or above the predicted UV luminosity of the hot horizontal branch (HB) and lying within two half-light radii of the cluster center. We believe these are normal hot HB or post-HB objects rather than interacting binaries or blue stragglers. IUE spectra of two are consistent with post-HB phases. These observations, and recent HST photometry of two other metal-rich clusters, demonstrate that populations with rich, cool HB's can nonetheless produce hot HB and post-HB stars. The cluster center also contains an unusual diffuse far-UV source which is more extended than its V-band light. It is possible that this is associated with an intracluster medium, for which there was earlier infrared and X-ray evidence, and is produced by C IV emission or scattered light from grains.
Ultraviolet Imaging of the z=0.23 Cluster Abell 2246
Robert H. Cornett,Ben Dorman,Eric P. Smith,Michael A. Fanelli,William R. Oegerle,Ralph C. Bohlin,Susan G. Neff,Robert W. O'Connell,Morton S. Roberts,Andrew M. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/300430
Abstract: We present deep ultraviolet observations of a field containing the cluster Abell 2246 (z=0.225) which provide far-ultraviolet (FUV) images of some of the faintest galaxies yet observed in that bandpass. Abell 2246 lies within the field of view of Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) observations of the quasar HS1700+64, which accumulated over 7100 seconds of UIT FUV exposure time during the Astro-2 mission in March 1995. For objects found on both the FUV and ground-based V-band images, we obtain FUV (l ~ 1520 A) photometry and V-band photometry, as well as mid-UV (l ~ 2490 A) photometry from UIT Astro-1 observations and ground-based I-band photometry. We find five objects in the images which are probably galaxies at the distance of Abell 2246, with FUV magnitudes (m(FUV)) between 18.6 and 19.6, and V magnitudes between 18.4 and 19.6. We find that their absolute FUV fluxes and colors imply strongly that they are luminous galaxies with significant current star formation, as well as some relatively recent, but not current, (> 400 Myr ago) star formation. We interpret the colors of these five objects by comparing them with local objects, redshift-corrected template spectra and stellar population models, finding that they are plausibly matched by 10-Gyr-old population models with decaying star formation, with decay time constants in the range 3 Gyr < t < 5 Gyr, with an additional color component from a single burst of moderate ( ~ 400-500 Myr) age. From derived FUV luminosities we compute current star formation rates. We compare the UV properties of Abell 2246 with those of the Coma cluster, finding that Abell 2246 has significantly more recent star formation, consistent with the Butcher-Oemler phenomenon.
A simplification of the vorticity equation and an extension of the vorticity persistence theorem to three dimensions
T. S. Morton
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: A simplified form of the vorticity equation is derived for arbitrary coordinate systems. The present work unifies and extends the previous findings that vorticity is conserved in planar Euler flow, while in axisymmetric Euler rings it is the ratio of the vorticity to the distance from the symmetry axis that is conserved. The unifying statement is that in any Euler flow, all components of the vorticity tensor of a streamline coordinate system that are normal to the streamline direction are conserved along streamlines. This is true for both two- and three-dimensional flows, whether the flow is axisymmetric or not, with or without swirl. What remains of the nonlinear convective terms in the vorticity equation, after the mathematical simplification, is the Lie derivative of the vorticity tensor with respect to fluid velocity. A temporal derivative is defined which, when set to zero, expresses either the continuity or vorticity equation (excluding the viscous term), depending upon the argument supplied to it.
An estimate of the circulation generated by a bluff body
T. S. Morton
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: A loss in circulation is sometimes cited in connection with bluff-body wakes as a result of comparing the circulation actually observed downstream with a well-known theoretical estimate of the total circulation generated by a cylinder. In an effort to better understand this reported loss in circulation, an alternative estimate of the circulation generated by a cylinder is derived by integrating the velocity on a closed loop containing the attached boundary layer. Predictions of the dimensionless circulation for a cylinder in cross flow are less than the previous theoretical estimate and agree with observed values. This suggests that the total circulation generated by bluff bodies may have been overestimated in the past, and that comparison of observed values with this overestimate is the origin of the perceived "loss" in circulation.
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