Abstract:
With increased privatization of natural resource regulation, green or sustainable public procurement policies are emerging as incentives for sustainable development. Thus, a revival of governmental influences on so-called non-state, market-driven governance systems takes place. The paper exemplifies this development by reference to the green public procurement directives for wood products in Germany and its influence on major forest certification systems and forest governance. Using an approach of governmentality in relational space, the paper displays how governmental entities play a significant role in influencing forest governance systems and the greening of markets. The importance of the underlying relations that shape governmental instruments and their influences on forest certification and governance are evaluated from a German perspective. Acknowledging the market-driven aspects of forest certification systems, the paper highlights the often-neglected impacts of governmental regulation on emerging forest governance systems. Thus, the framework allows insights into how relations among political entities and their means of knowledge production are essential for processes of forest governance.

Abstract:
The integration of improved environmental or sustainable aspects in forest management is often affiliated with the rise of market-driven governance systems, such as forest certification. In terms of forest resource peripheries, like North-Karelia, Finland, these are often attributed to environmental business and consumer demands from the green Central European markets. While acknowledging these aspects related to the supply chains of wood-based products, this study evaluates the actual perceptions about environmental forest governance and its spaces in the resource peripheries themselves. It displays the perceived changes and practices in forestry by comparing private and corporate ownership and their governance networks. This is accomplished by a qualitative, interview based case study of North Karelian and Finnish forestry actors. Transnational forest governance is hereby treated as a relational space, with forest certification systems as possible technologies used to achieve improved, sustainable forest management. Utilizing the North-Karelian forestry sector, the varying positionalities of actors and institutions within such a relational space shape the knowledge networks, perceptions and decision-making. The study evaluates how these local-global positionalities of actors and individuals shapes their understanding, and guide the direction of sustainable forest management in Finland while it (re-)produces opposing regimes of practice. With the discourse on forest certification being twofold, a more complex picture emerges if aspects of even- versus uneven-aged forest management in Finland are integrated. Shaped by the actor’s positionalities and related knowledge networks, perceptions regarding the quality of forest management practices and technologies used to achieve sustainability differ and thereby shape governance processes. The green markets are not perceived as the main driving force and a strong governmental influence, particularly related to private ownership aspects, is noted in the Finnish case. Forest certification systems, and other political technologies for sustainable forest management, are embedded in or strongly restricted by these aspects.

Abstract:
Two-phase fluid properties such as entropy, internal energy, and heat capacity are given by thermodynamically defined fit functions. Each fit function is expressed as a temperature function in terms of a power series expansion about the critical point. The leading term with the critical exponent dominates the temperature variation between the critical and triple points. With β being introduced as the critical exponent for the difference between liquid and vapor densities, it is shown that the critical exponent of each fit function depends (if at all) on β. In particular, the critical exponent of the reciprocal heat capacity c^{﹣1} is α=1－2β and those of the entropy s and internal energy u are 2β, while that of the reciprocal isothermal compressibility κ^{﹣1}_{T} is γ=1. It is thus found that in the case of the two-phase fluid the Rushbrooke equation conjectured α + 2β + γ=2 combines the scaling laws resulting from the two relations c=du/dT and κ_{T}=dlnρ/dp. In the context with c, the second temperature derivatives of the chemical potential μ and vapor pressure p are investigated. As the critical point is approached, ﹣d^{2}μ/dT^{2} diverges as c, while d^{2}p/dT^{2} converges to a finite limit. This is explicitly pointed out for the two-phase fluid, water (with β=0.3155). The positive and almost vanishing internal energy of the one-phase fluid at temperatures above and close to the critical point causes conditions for large long-wavelength density fluctuations, which are observed as critical opalescence. For negative values of the internal energy, i.e. the two-phase fluid below the critical point, there are only microscopic density fluctuations. Similar critical phenomena occur when cooling a dilute gas to its Bose-Einstein condensate.

Abstract:
This study is concerned with describing the thermodynamic equilibrium of the saturated fluid with and without a free surface area A. Discussion of the role of A as system variable of the interface phase and an estimate of the ratio of the respective free energies of systems with and without A show that the system variables given by Gibbs suffice to describe the volumetric properties of the fluid. The well-known Gibbsian expressions for the internal energies of the two-phase fluid, namely for the vapor and
for the condensate (liquid or solid), only differ with respect to the phase-specific volumes and . The saturation temperature T, vapor presssure p, and chemical potential are intensive parameters, each of which has the same value everywhere within the fluid, and hence are phase-independent quantities. If one succeeds in representing as a function of and , then the internal energies can also be described by expressions that only differ from one another with respect to their dependence on and . Here it is shown that can be uniquely expressed by the volume function . Therefore, the internal energies can be represented explicitly as functions of the vapor pressure and volumes of the saturated vapor and condensate and are absolutely determined. The hitherto existing problem of applied thermodynamics, calculating the internal energy from the measurable quantities T, p, , and , is thus solved. The same method applies to the calculation of the entropy,

Abstract:
The internal energy U of the real, neutral-gas particles of total mass M in the volume V can have positive and negative values, whose regions are identified in the state chart of the gas. Depending on the relations among gas temperature T, pressure pand mass-specific volume v=V/M, the mass exists as a uniform gas of freely-moving particles having positive values U or as more or less structured matter with negative values U. In the regions U>0？above the critical point [T_{c} , p_{c} , v_{c}] it holds that p(T,v)>p_{c} and v>v_{c}, and below the critical point it holds that p(T,v)

_{c} and v>v_{v} , where vv is the mass-specific volume of saturated vapor. In the adjacent regions with negative internal energy values U<0 the mean distances between particles are short enough to yield negative energy contributions to U？due to interparticle attraction that exceeds the thermal, positive energy contributions due to particle motion. The critical isochor v_{c }is the line of equal positive and negative energy contributions and thus represents a line of vanishing internal energy ？U=0. At this level along the critical isochor the ever present microscopic fluctuations in energy and density become macroscopic fluctuations as the pressure decreases on approaching the critical point; these are to be observed in experiments on the critical opalescence. Crossing the isochor v_{c} from U>0 to U<0, the change in energy ΔU>0 happens without any discontinuity. The saturation line v_{v} also separates the regions between U>0 and U<0 , but does not represent a line U=0. The internal-energy values of saturated vapor U_{v }and condensate U_{i} can be determined absolutely as functions of vapor pressure p and densities (M/V)_{v} and (M/V)i , repectively,

Abstract:
With his publication in 1873 [1] J. W. Gibbs formulated the thermodynamic theory. It describes almost all macroscopically observed properties of matter and could also describe all phenomena if only the free energy U - ST were explicitly known numerically. The thermodynamic uniqueness of the free energy obviously depends on that of the internal energy U and the entropy S, which in both cases Gibbs had been unable to specify. This uncertainty, lasting more than 100 years, was not eliminated either by Nernst’s hypothesis S = 0 at T = 0. This was not achieved till the advent of additional proof of the thermodynamic relation U = 0 at T = T_{c}. It is noteworthy that from purely thermodynamic consideration of intensive and extensive quantities it is possible to derive both Gibbs’s formulations of entropy and internal energy and their now established absolute reference values. Further proofs of the vanishing value of the internal energy at the critical point emanate from the fact that in the case of the saturated fluid both the internal energy and its phase-specific components can be represented as functions of the evaporation energy. Combining the differential expressions in Gibbs’s equation for the internal energy, d(μ/T)/d(1/T) and d(p/T)/d(1/T), to a new variable d(μ/T)/d(p/T) leads to a volume equation with the lower limit v_{c} as boundary condition. By means of a variable transformation one obtains a functional equation for the sum of two dimensionless variables, each of them being related to an identical form of local interaction forces between fluid particles, but the different particle densities in the vapor and liquid spaces produce different interaction effects. The same functional equation also appears in another context relating to the internal energy. The solution of this equation can be given in analytic form and has been published [2] [3]. Using the solutions emerging in different sets of problems, one can calculate absolutely the internal energy as a function of temperature-dependent, phase-specific volumes and vapor pressure.

Abstract:
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions, especially those involved in energy metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the CSF concentration of Mg in various neurological disorders (n = 72) and in healthy subjects (n = 75). The control group included 35 males and 40 females, aged 16-89 years (mean age 53 years) who were subjected to a lumbar puncture for diagnostic reasons. The CSF examination was normal mainly as concerns the macroscopically examination, the leukocyte count and the protein level. The determination of Mg was performed with xylidyl-blue photometry. Our normal CSF Mg mean value was 0.97 ± 0.08 mmol/l (range 0.6-1.4 mmol/l). In the group of patients (n = 11) with convulsive seizures a slightly but significantly lower Mg were revealed (0.92 ± 0.03 mmol/l; p = 0.001; paired two-tailed Student’s t-tests). No statistically significant change of CSF Mg levels was noted in patients suffering from alcohol withdrawal syndrome, multiple sclerosis or Bell’s palsy. Our results indi-cate that magnesium deficiency may play a role for seizure manifestation even in patients with a moderate low Mg without neurological signs. Low CSF magnesium is associated with epilepsy, further studies may determine the influ-ence of anti-epileptic drug therapy on CSF magnesium levels.

Abstract:
Twenty-two pigs were subjected to cardiac arrest. After 8 minutes of ventricular fibrillation and 2 minutes of basic life support, advanced cardiac life support was started. After successful return of spontaneous circulation (N = 16), animals were randomized to either (1) propofol (CONTROL) anesthesia or (2) SEVO anesthesia for 4 hours. Neurological function was assessed 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation. The effects on myocardial and cerebral damage, especially on inflammation, apoptosis and tissue remodeling, were studied using cellular and molecular approaches.Animals treated with SEVO had lower peak troponin T levels (median [IQR]) (CONTROL vs SEVO = 0.31 pg/mL [0.2 to 0.65] vs 0.14 pg/mL [0.09 to 0.25]; P < 0.05) and improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function compared to the CONTROL group (P < 0.05). SEVO was associated with a reduction in myocardial IL-1β protein concentrations (0.16 pg/μg total protein [0.14 to 0.17] vs 0.12 pg/μg total protein [0.11 to 0.14]; P < 0.01), a reduction in apoptosis (increased procaspase-3 protein levels (0.94 arbitrary units [0.86 to 1.04] vs 1.18 arbitrary units [1.03 to 1.28]; P < 0.05), increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein expression (P < 0.05) and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (P < 0.05). SEVO did not, however, affect neurological deficit score or cerebral cellular and molecular pathways.SEVO reduced myocardial damage and dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the early postresuscitation period. The reduction was associated with a reduced rate of myocardial proinflammatory cytokine expression, apoptosis, increased HIF-1α expression and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9. Early administration of SEVO may not, however, improve neurological recovery.Approximately 1 million sudden cardiac arrests occur each year in the United States and Europe [1]. Although the initial return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest (CA) is ac

Abstract:
This essay reflects on the many different strategies involved in translation, which is both a linguistic and a cultural-historical strategy. Examples from the Middle Ages and the Modern Age are adduced to illustrate the huge impact which translations have had on peoples and societies throughout time.