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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1783 matches for " Mori "
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Japanese Are Modest Even When They Are Winners: Competence Ratings of Winners and Losers in Social Comparison  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori, Hideko Mori
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411119
Abstract:

Social comparison experiments in two different social conditions, competing between friends and between strangers, were carried out with 88 Japanese male undergraduates. Participants were asked to come to the laboratory in friend pairs to participate in the experiment. Two pairs were randomly combined for each experimental session. In the Between-Friends condition, one of the two pairs solved 20 anagrams competitively while the other pair observed them. In the Between-Strangers condition, one performer and one observer were randomly chosen in each pair and the performers solved anagram tasks competitively. As in our previous study, the anagram tasks were presented utilizing a presentation trick so that one performer-and-observer group viewed easier anagrams than the other group without their noticing the difference. As intended, those who viewed the easier anagrams outperformed the others, becoming winners in all sessions. No participants noticed the trick. After the task, all four participants rated the ability of the two performers including themselves. Their ability ratings showed that they tended to evaluate their own ability modestly. Even winners consistently rated themselves lower than the others rated them. Two possible explanations of why Japanese participants made such modest responses were presented and discussed.

A Revival of Little Black Sambo in Japan  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/als.2014.21003
Abstract:

In the late 1980s, a popular children’s book “Little Black Sambo”(hereafter,LBS) disappeared from all bookstores in Japan.The book was alleged to have racist characteristics such as the name of the boy, the way the illustrations caricatured blacks, etc. Mori (1997) revised the original story by changing the protagonist from a black boy to a black Labrador puppy, with eliminating the word “Sambo”,which had a historically pejorative connotation in the US. Mori (2005) conducted an experiment to compare the entertainment value of the two versions of LBS using four-year-old children and found no difference. Mori (2005) also casted a suspicion that the real reason why the book was withdrawnin Japan was a matter of piracy rather than racism. All Japanese publishers at that time had not properly obtained the copyright. Nowadays there are several versions of LBS available in bookstores all over Japan.

Getting Rid of the Horizontal-to-Vertical Strategy: A Case Report of a Japanese Research Psychologist  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24040
Abstract: Most Japanese research psychologists have used “Horizontal-to-Vertical Conversion Strategy” for their research, simply replicating experimental studies published in Western journals with Japanese participants and publishing papers only in Japanese (the traditional orthography of the Japanese language is vertical). This short article criticized this prevailing research strategy among Japanese psychologists and reported a series of studies resulted from an invention of new experimental procedure. It showed an example of a Japanese researcher who had got rid of the inadequate approach by inventing a new experimental method. It also aimed to encourage Japanese psychologists to conduct innovative research and publish their studies in English journals.
Assessment of the Implicit Attitude of Japanese People toward Blacks and Little Black Sambo  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.61001
Abstract:
We examined whether Japanese people, 47 junior high school students, 49 undergraduates, and 52 older adults, possessed negative attitudes against blacks and the picture book Little Black Sambo. We assessed the implicit attitude toward the target word pairs, “black/white” and “Sambo/Heidi,” by utilizing a paper-based Implicit Association Test and found that both black and Sambo were associated more negatively than white and Heidi. However, the implicit attitudes assessed with a single-target IAT showed that 67 Japanese students showed positive implicit scores for blacks but with smaller valences. A post hoc analysis revealed that the reading experience of Little Black Sambo did not show a significant difference between the implicit attitudes of those who had and had not read the book.
Secular Changes in Child Height in Japan and South Korea: Consumption of Animal Proteins and “Essential Nutrients”  [PDF]
Hiroshi Mori
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.912106
Abstract: Child height in Japan and South Korea increased dramatically over the past half century. At age 17 - 18 years, male students in Japan were 2 cm taller in the 1960s through 1970s, still barely taller in the 1980s than S. Korean students, but by the early 1990s they ceased to grow any taller in height, whereas their Korean peers kept increasing in height to overtake their Japanese peers by 3 cm in the mid-2000s. Economic growth was rapid in both countries, but S. Korea some two decades behind Japan. Per capita GDP in Japan was four times that in S. Korea in the mid-1980s and twice in the early-2000s. Food consumption increased conspicuously in both countries, with per capita net supply of animal products in Japan noticeably exceeding that in S. Korea in the early-2000s. However, per capita total caloric intake has been a few hundred kcal/day greater in S. Korea than in Japan since the end of 1970s, mainly from cereals. In particular, S. Koreans have consumed nearly twice as many vegetables as Japanese after the early 1980s. What may deserve attention is that Japanese youth, as compared to their older generations, drastically reduced their consumption of fruit and vegetables in the mid-1970s, whereas their S. Korean counterparts have maintained their consumption of these produce. These contrasts in food consumption patterns may have contributed to the differences in child height development in the two countries.
Banking Underserved Market Segments  [PDF]
Margherita Mori
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.73042
Abstract:
This paper aims at discussing how to contribute to sustainable development by targeting underbanked market segments: according to a common view, they include people who have become blacklisted by major banks, are young consumers, want to avoid debt collectors, are fed-up with fees, are out of a job or had a bad customer experience; in these cases, traditional financial services could—or would—be hardly accessed and informal channels tend to prevail. The unbanked too call for attention, as that they do not even hold a bank account and hence are excluded from formal banking opportunities, which is likely to pave the way to alternative, less reputable business models. Given the high number of potential consumers involved worldwide, furthering their financial inclusion sounds like a must. In sight of reaching this ambitious goal, the starting point can be identified with an extensive analysis of the underlying concepts, that are closely linked to the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015; the next step revolves around the features of the market segments under investigation, their financial needs that remain unsatisfied and the strategic tools that are likely to improve the state of the art. The main findings lead to stress that usually listed categories to be better served by banks do not tell the whole story, which should act as a stimulus to disseminate best practices and to suggest concrete proposals; they can help to meet the critical challenges of social and economic sustainability within the framework of the generation pact and may also allow financial institutions to expand their activity profitably. Conclusions imply that a more inclusive financial system would provide benefits to the underbanked (not to mention the unbanked), as well as to society at large, with financial competence, literacy and education set to gain momentum.
Nutritional Biomarker Analyses for Hypertension-Related Risk Assessment and Control  [PDF]
Mari Mori, Hideki Mori, Yukio Yamori
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.45035
Abstract: A simple method to collect 24-hour urine (24U) by sampling 2.5% of the voided urine each time was developed for analyzing the biomarkers of the intakes of salt (NaCl), vegetables and grains (K, Mg), soys (isoflavones), sea-foods (taurine), protein (urea nitrogen) etc. This method was applied to WHO-coordinated CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison) study covering 61 populations in 25 countries, and revealed significant positive associations of Na or Na/K with blood pressure (BP) and stroke mortality and significant inverse associations of isoflavones or taurine with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, indicating the adverse effect of salt intake on BP and stroke and beneficial effect of soy or sea food intakes on CHD. Furthermore, higher urinary taurine and/or Mg excretions were associated with significantly lower risks of metabolic syndromes such as obesity, hypertension and hypercholestelomia. 24U collections were useful to prove nutritional improvement by intervention studies for observing soy intake effect on BP and atherogenic index in Japanese immigrants living in Brazil, and in Australian Aboriginals, for observing taurine effect on BP in Tibetans and for confirming soy and fish effects on the risks of metabolic syndromes in Japanese businessmen. 24U collection was utilized for population strategy to reduce salt and to increase soy intake in 5.6 million people of Hyogo Prefecture. A simple method for 24U collection has enabled us to utilize nutritional biomarkers for hypertension-related disease risk analyses, and to apply objective nutritional intake estimation to intervention studies as well as to population strategy for nutritional improvement, and therefore, the methodology will contribute to hypertension-related disease prevention and global health promotion.
A 29-year-old pregnant woman with a history of anthracycline-induced clinical heart failure  [PDF]
Valentina Scheggi, Fabio Mori
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.31007
Abstract: The number of women with heart disease who reach childbearing age in a good functional state increases continuously as advances in diagnosis and treatment improve overall health and prognosis. The cardiologist’s role is to give the woman an estimate of both maternal and fetal risk to allow her to make an informed decision about embarking on a pregnancy, and to provide appropriate antenatal care. There are only a few data about the natural history of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy during preg- nancy; we report our experience of a 29-year- old pregnant woman with a history of anthracycline-induced clinical heart failure.
Conformity of Six-Year-Old Children in the Asch Experiment without Using Confederates  [PDF]
Aiko Hanayama, Kazuo Mori
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27100
Abstract: We investigated the conformity of young children without the use of confederates by utilizing the fMORI-Asch paradigm. The Asch-equivalent tasks were presented by means of a presentation trick so that one participant observed different stimuli than the other three, creating a minority-majority confrontation without using confederates. Ninety-six Japanese first graders (6-7 years old; 48 boys and 48 girls) participated in same-sex groups of four. The response order was randomly assigned and the third responders observed the standard lines differently from the other three children. The results showed that the minority children who had observed different stimuli tended to make more errors than the other three children. No gender differences were observed.
Pre-Schoolers’ Reports of Conflicting Points Secretly Inserted into a Co-Witnessed Event: An Experimental Investigation Using the MORI Technique  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori, Ryuta Takahashi
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31005
Abstract: Thirteen pre-school and ten undergraduate pairs participated as eyewitnesses to a simulated criminal event presented through animated cartoons using a presentation trick (MORI technique). Although there were two different versions, the MORI technique had participants observe only one version without being aware of the other. In three reporting sessions, participants recalled what they presumed they had jointly observed; individually immediately after the presentation, collaboratively after the individual recall, and again individually one week later. The main results were: pre-schoolers, as well as undergraduates, showed better recall in the collaborative tests, though the former generally showed poorer recall than the latter, pre-schoolers tended to conform more frequently than undergraduates in the week-later tests, and both pre-school and undergraduate pairs conformed more often for amendment than distortion.
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