Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
experiments in two different social conditions, competing between friends and between
strangers, were carried out with 88 Japanese male undergraduates. Participants
were asked to come to the laboratory in friend pairs to participate in the
experiment. Two pairs were randomly combined for each experimental session. In
the Between-Friends condition, one of the two pairs solved 20 anagrams
competitively while the other pair observed them. In the Between-Strangers
condition, one performer and one observer were randomly chosen in each pair and
the performers solved anagram tasks competitively. As in our previous study,
the anagram tasks were presented utilizing a presentation trick so that one performer-and-observer
group viewed easier anagrams than the other group without their noticing the difference.
As intended, those who viewed the easier anagrams outperformed the others,
becoming winners in all sessions. No participants noticed the trick. After the
task, all four participants rated the ability of the two performers including
themselves. Their ability ratings showed that they tended to evaluate their own
ability modestly. Even winners consistently rated themselves lower than the
others rated them. Two possible explanations of why Japanese participants made
such modest responses were presented and discussed.
In the late 1980s, a popular children’s book “Little Black Sambo”(hereafter,LBS) disappeared from all bookstores in Japan.The book was alleged to have racist characteristics such as the name of the boy, the way the illustrations caricatured blacks, etc. Mori (1997) revised the original story by changing the protagonist from a black boy to a black Labrador puppy, with eliminating the word “Sambo”,which had a historically pejorative connotation in the US. Mori (2005) conducted an experiment to compare the entertainment value of the two versions of LBS using four-year-old children and found no difference. Mori (2005) also casted a suspicion that the real reason why the book was withdrawnin Japan was a matter of piracy rather than racism. All Japanese publishers at that time had not properly obtained the copyright. Nowadays there are several versions of LBS available in bookstores all over Japan.