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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8260 matches for " Monica Chan "
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Bi-Polar RF, Still the Gold Standard for Non-Invasive Fat Volume Reduction  [PDF]
James K. M. Chan, Inna Belenky, Monica Elman
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2015.54030
Abstract: Background and Objective: Non-invasive body contouring treatments is one of the fastest growing markets in the aesthetic field. The main purpose of radiofrequency (RF)-based devices for body contouring is to produce thermal stimulus which leads to skin tightening effect by dermal collagen production and decreases the volume of adipose tissue by a reduction of the adipocyte’s cytosolic. The cutaneous application of RF devices in Asian patients differs in several respects from their use in Caucasians; therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel RF device used for focal fat reduction. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two Asian patients aged 24 - 51, Fitzpatrick skin types III-V, were enrolled to the study and received 6 sessions of consecutive abdomen contouring treatment with bi-polar RF device combined with a mechanical pressure. Statistical linear correlation tests and descriptive analysis were performed on the cohort. Results: All twenty-two patients treated for six treatments showed some degree of circumferential reduction with a stable weight. No adverse events were recorded during the whole period of trial. During the 3-month follow up visit, no deterioration of the body condition was detected. No statistical significant relation was found between circumference change and weight, age, height?or BMI. Conclusions: The majority of the patients exhibited a substantial circumferential reduction, not at the expense of weight loss. The bi-polar RF device was found to be safe for Asian skin.
Epidemiology and Outcomes of Clostridial Bacteremia at a Tertiary-Care Institution
Monica Shah,Eliahu Bishburg,David A. Baran,Trini Chan
The Scientific World Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2009.21
Surveillance for Clostridium difficile Infection: ICD-9 Coding Has Poor Sensitivity Compared to Laboratory Diagnosis in Hospital Patients, Singapore
Monica Chan,Poh Lian Lim,Angela Chow,Mar Kyaw Win,Timothy M. Barkham
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015603
Abstract: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an increasingly recognized nosocomial infection in Singapore. Surveillance methods include laboratory reporting of Clostridium difficile toxin assays (CDTA) or use of International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) discharge code 008.45. Previous US studies showed good correlation between CDTA and ICD-9 codes. However, the use of ICD-9 codes for CDI surveillance has not been validated in other healthcare settings.
Alternative TFAP2A isoforms have distinct activities in breast cancer
Chiara Berlato, KaYi V Chan, Anna M Price, Monica Canosa, Angelo G Scibetta, Helen C Hurst
Breast Cancer Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2838
Abstract: Expression levels of four TFAP2A isoforms were assayed at the level of RNA and protein (via the generation of isoform-specific antibodies) in a panel of breast tumour cell lines and in tissue from normal breast and primary tumour samples. Expression constructs for each isoform were used in reporter assays with synthetic and natural promoters (cyclin D3 and ERBB2) to compare the activation and repression activity of the isoforms.We demonstrate that the two isoforms AP-2α 1b and AP-2α 1c, in addition to the originally cloned, AP-2α 1a, are conserved throughout evolution in vertebrates. Moreover, we show that isoform 1c in particular is expressed at levels at least on a par with the 1a isoform in breast epithelial lines and tissues and may be more highly expressed in tamoxifen resistant tumours. The isoforms share a similar transactivation mechanism involving the recruitment of the adaptors CITED2 or 4 and the transactivators p300 or CBP. However, isoform 1b and 1c are stronger transactivators of the ERBB2 promoter than isoform 1a. In contrast, AP-2α 1a is the only isoform able to act as a repressor, an activity that requires an intact sumoylation motif present within the N-terminus of the protein, and which the other two isoforms lack.Our findings suggest that TFAP2A isoforms may be differentially regulated during breast tumourigenesis and this, coupled with differences in their transcriptional activity, may impact on tumour responses to tamoxifen therapy. These data also have implications for the interpretation of tumour studies that seek to correlate outcomes with TFAP2A expression level.AP-2α belongs to the AP-2 family of transcription factors with four other members, AP-2β, γ, δ and ε [1], which have all been implicated in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation in specific tissues. In particular, AP-2α is expressed in the developing and adult mammary gland [2,3]. In breast cancer, lower AP-2α expression levels are found in invasive cancer compared to
Correspondence Analysis on a Space-Time Data Set for Multiple Environmental Variables  [PDF]
Palma Monica
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.610090
Abstract: Applications of the multivariate technique called correspondence analysis for environmental studies are relatively new and are limited to spatial multivariate data set. In this paper, a procedure of applying correspondence analysis to a large space-time data set for multiple environmental variables is shown. In particular, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide hourly concentrations measured during January 1999 at several monitored stations in a district of Northern Italy are analyzed. The procedure consists in transforming the continuous variables into categorical ones by the means of appropriate indicator variables, generating special contingency tables and applying correspondence analysis. The use of this classical multivariate technique allows the identification of important relationships among pollution levels and monitoring stations and/or relationships among pollution levels and observation times.
Equilibrium in Classical Confucian “Economy”  [PDF]
Shirley Chan
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22015
Abstract: In a modern economy, “equilibrium” means that supply and demand is equal. It is at this point that the allocation of goods and services is at its most efficient, this being because the amount of goods and the amount of goods in demand are equally balanced. The market equilibrium therefore is determined by supply and demand. This paper looks at the concept of “equilibrium” in some of the early Confucian texts and its possible implications in economic activities. In the Confucian context equilibrium, or what can be termed as the ultimate equilibrium, is to be understood in a broader sense where balances and harmony at different levels (e.g. individual and society) need to be sought in order to achieve a model of sustainable development. The ultimate equilibrium may provide an alternative approach to social welfare and economic prosperity creating universal harmony and better living for humans. In Confucian ideology, governing for the welfare of the people is not merely a question of increasing personal income and wealth; it requires implementation on a priority basis, taking into consideration the formation of an orderly society based on the enforcement of moral and ethical standards with the existence of a benevolent government which appropriates things according to the principles of harmony and order to achieve what can be termed as the “great equilibrium”—equilibrium that is not simply defined by balanced economic forces as in modern economic theory; but rather is used to suggest an ideal state of harmony in self fulfilment and socio-political order through incentives and by appropriate means.
Language Learner Autonomy and Learning Contract: A Case Study of Language Majors of a University in Hong Kong  [PDF]
Mable Chan
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.52013
Abstract: With the aim of developing first year undergraduate students’ awareness and ability of autonomous learning, they were asked to do self-access work in an academic English proficiency course through drafting a learning contract outlining their learning objectives and submitting learning evidence regularly in the course of the semester. This study examines the content of the learning contract and the English language learning beliefs reflected from the learning objectives formulated, plus questionnaire results, and determines whether university students in Hong Kong are ready for autonomous learning or not. Based on the findings, the study examines whether Hong Kong university students are ready for autonomous learning, and discusses ways to deal with the challenges which might impede implementation of language learner autonomy in Hong Kong.
Teachers’ Cognition about Teaching and Learning of Simple Past Tense: Can Processing Instruction Help?  [PDF]
Mable Chan
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2016.64033
Abstract: This study examines how teachers perceive the difficulties and strategies of acquiring simple past tense, and the pedagogical implications. Findings show that teachers’ understanding of the nature of the acquisition problem of tense, and their use of teaching approach are instrumental in shaping students’ learning outcomes. What is fortunate is that they understand the need to improve the existing teaching approach which is too form-oriented. Unfortunately, they do not seem to have much knowledge about how to do so. Findings in the literature should not be limited to researchers; there is a pressing need for teachers to understand the nature of the acquisition problem, possible reasons leading to the difficulty, and ways to help students master both the forms and meaning of simple past tense.
Dengue E Protein Domain III-Based DNA Immunisation Induces Strong Antibody Responses to All Four Viral Serotypes
Monica Poggianella?,José L. Slon Campos?,Kuan Rong Chan,Hwee Cheng Tan?,Marco Bestagno?,Eng Eong Ooi?,Oscar R. Burrone
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003947
Abstract: Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major emerging disease widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world affecting several millions of people. Despite constants efforts, no specific treatment or effective vaccine is yet available. Here we show a novel design of a DNA immunisation strategy that resulted in the induction of strong antibody responses with high neutralisation titres in mice against all four viral serotypes. The immunogenic molecule is an engineered version of the domain III (DIII) of the virus E protein fused to the dimerising CH3 domain of the IgG immunoglobulin H chain. The DIII sequences were also codon-optimised for expression in mammalian cells. While DIII alone is very poorly secreted, the codon-optimised fusion protein is rightly expressed, folded and secreted at high levels, thus inducing strong antibody responses. Mice were immunised using gene-gun technology, an efficient way of intradermal delivery of the plasmid DNA, and the vaccine was able to induce neutralising titres against all serotypes. Additionally, all sera showed reactivity to a recombinant DIII version and the recombinant E protein produced and secreted from mammalian cells in a mono-biotinylated form when tested in a conformational ELISA. Sera were also highly reactive to infective viral particles in a virus-capture ELISA and specific for each serotype as revealed by the low cross-reactive and cross-neutralising activities. The serotype specific sera did not induce antibody dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) in non-homologous virus serotypes. A tetravalent immunisation protocol in mice showed induction of neutralising antibodies against all four dengue serotypes as well.
Effect of Pixellization on Efficiency and Stability of MEH-PPV Based Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes  [PDF]
Ranbir Singh, Monica Katiyar
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2012.21002
Abstract: Organic light-emitting diodes are generally depicted as sequential deposition of active layers and electrodes onto a substrate, but commercial devices are fabricated using pixellization technique, where an insulator layer is introduced between the indium tin oxide and organic layer to define the area of the active device. Here, we have inserted a layer of photoresist (thickness ~ 200 nm) at the edge of patterned anode (indium tin oxide) and between the anode and hole transport layer (Poly 3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene poly styrenesulfonate) to examine its effect on the leakage current of organic light-emitting diode and on the electron-hole recombination ratio in the emission area, as a result increasing the luminance efficiency. Current leakage causes the loss of charges, which adversely affects the recombination of electrons and holes in the emitting zone and results in poorer luminance efficiency. In this paper, we report the effect of pixellization on current density-voltage, luminescence-voltage and degradation behavior of single layer Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethylhexyloxy)-1, phenylene vinylene] based organic light-emitting diodes. Devices with isolation layer have 30% higher external electroluminescence quantum efficiency and reduced device degradation in comparison to without isolation layer.
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