oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 63 matches for " Monetisation in Bhutan "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /63
Display every page Item
The Monetisation of Bhutan
Nicholas Rhodes
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2000,
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to describe how Bhutanese society hasbecome monetised over the years, at first very slowly, but rapidlyduring the last half century. I will briefly comment on the effect that monetisation has had on Bhutanese Society, and the potential conflict that exists between traditional values in Bhutan, which are largely non-monetary based, and so-called “modern” values, which are almost entirely money oriented.Since the idea of coinage was first developed in Asia Minor aroundthe year 600 B.C., money has played an increasingly important role inevery “developed” country and society in the world. In many ways,monetisation has become a necessary accompaniment, not only toeconomic modernisation and development, but also to thedemocratisation of political processes. Money gives a personeconomic freedom of choice, and the ability to make a living withoutdepending on the goodwill and patronage of his political lord andmaster. However, lack of money in a monetised society, can be agreater hardship, because it can be accompanied by feelings that theindividual concerned has mismanaged his finances. In a nonmonetisedsociety, on the other hand, poverty can usually be blamed on outside forces, such as famine, drought, war or political mismanagement.Bhutan has been a very latecomer to the concept of money. It is only in the second half of the 20th century that currency has started to play a significant role in the fiscal policy of the state and in the wider economy. Bhutan provides an interesting subject for research into the social, political and economic effects of monetisation as the country continues its development process.
Population and Governance in the mid-18th Century Bhutan, as Revealed in the Enthronement Record of Thugs-sprul ' Jigs med grags pa I (1725-1761)
John Ardussi and Karma Ura
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2000,
Abstract: The present paper is a preliminary analysis of the oldest survivingcensus of Bhutan’s population and economy. This census was usedas the basis for computing the distribution of gifts to state officials,monks and ordinary citizens in celebration of the 1747 enthronement of Zhabdrung Jigme Dragpa I (1725-1761) as religious head of state. He was the first of the Mind incarnations (thugs sprul) of Ngawang Namgyal, founder of the modern Bhutan state, to beinstalled in this role. The document is one of several importantgovernment records incorporated in their apparent entirety into thebiography of the reigning civil ruler Desi Sherab Wangchuck(r.1744-1763), who sponsored the event. The publication of hisbiography ensured the preservation of these archival documents,whose originals were presumably destroyed in the numerous fires ofthe capital fortresses during the late 18th and 19th centuries.A complete analysis of this census record will eventually tell us agreat deal about the socio-economic architecture of the state duringthe period in question. For this first look, however, we will confineourselves to a review of the governing hierarchy and a brief analysisof the population data. We will also highlight some of the document’s special terminology, and suggest interpretations ofcertain data peculiarities. The entire document has been summarized and tabulated in a set of spreadsheets (Table 4). We are aware of the many uncertainties remaining, and hope that this preliminary study will stimulate further discussion, and perhaps the publication of related or similar texts.
Coinage in Bhutan
Nicholas Rhodes
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 1999,
Abstract: In Thimphu, and elsewhere in Western Bhutan, it is still possible to find many examples of the old copper coins, known as Matam, Chetam and Zangtam. Old silver coins can also be found, although less frequently. Very little, however, has been written about the background to these coins - whomade them, where and when, and how they were used. The purpose of this article is to set out what I know about these old Bhutanese coins, not only to present the information more widely, but also in the hope that there will be people in Bhutan who will be encouraged to provide additional evidence from oral tradition, written records, or from any othersources. Elderly people may still be alive who remember such coins being struck, but unless their memories are recorded soon, the information will be lost forever.Before the 1950's, there were no urban communities in Bhutan, and coins only played a small part in the economy of the country, serving mainly as a store of value, and as ceremonial gifts or donations. Silver coins, usually foreign coins, also served as the raw material from which jewellery and “pan” boxes were made. Day to day life mainly involved subsistence farming, supplemented by barter. Taxes were paid either in kind or in services, and land rent was paid as a share of the produce, again in kind.Some insight into how coins were used in the old days can be obtained from Karma Ura's books, 'The Hero with a Thousand Eyes' and 'The Ballad of Pemi Tshewang Tashi.' For example, Pemi Tshewang Tashi gave a silver coin, called norzangphubchen, to Aum Jayshing Jaymo as a thank you for the hospitality given1. Then in 1944, Dasho Shingkar Lam offered a silver coin to His Majesty, when he was firstregistered as a tozep, and noted that previously the customary gift on such an occasion had been three copper coins2. In 1947, when the King was travelling to Ha, at several points villagers greeted His Majesty with the customary gift of a basket of rice with three hard-boiled eggs, and they received a coin in exchange. Only in 1952 weremoves taken to increase the role of money in general, and coins in particular, when senior courtiers and secretaries began to be paid in cash, rather than in kind.
Perceptions of Security
Karma Ura
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2001,
Abstract: As a bridgehead between two economic, demographic andgeo-political giants – India and China - has had greatinfluence on our perception of security, which changes inresponse to internal and external circumstances. Issues ofsecurity occupy a great deal of attention of the state even inpeacetime. It has become somewhat customary to assessissues from the point of view security because of theheightened and staunch sense of security in the country. Thishabit has had a constructive impact. Bhutan has beenpolitically a stable country having been kept out of colonialdomination, cold war and regional rivalries1.Different explanations apply to different periods ofmaintenance of our security, depending on the nature ofthreat and warfare. In the 17th and early 18th century, thesecurity threat was mainly posed from Tibet. In the 19thcentury, it was threat from Imperial British Raj with whomBhutan was embroiled over the Assam and Bengal Duars2.The Bhutanese foreign policy, since the 1950s, has beenclearly focused on forging a close relationship with India whilebroadening Bhutan’s links with the international community.The latter is inescapable consequence also of globalisation.There is no choice to be made between close ties with Indiaand the growth of Bhutan’s international relationships: eachtrack contributes to the national security and progress in itsown way. This tenet of foreign policy has contributed tostability and progress in the country.Contemporary security concerns are primarily two: theterritorial incursions by United Liberation Front of Assam(ULFA) and National Democratic Front for Bodoland (NDFB)cadres in southern Bhutanese jungles and the problem ofsouthern dissidents. The southern problem is a by-product ofimmigrant’s citizenship issue. The illicit intrusion of ULFAand NDFB cadres using Bhutanese jungles as sanctuaries isthe result of internal conflict in Assam. Their intrusion pointsto the fact that the instabilities and unrest in theinternational border regions could spill over into Bhutan.
The Politics of Bhutan: Change in Continuity
Thierry Mathou
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2000,
Abstract: Although there is a certain degree of incompatibility between theWestern-derived rhetoric relating to politicisation and Bhutanesepractice, since the former may be irrelevant to the latter, challenges resulting from the politicisation process in Bhutan can be compared to what happened in all developing societies. As all traditional states, Bhutan has gone through two different stages in the modernisation of its polity. From the establishment of the monarchy in 1907 to the 1960's, the first challenge had been to "concentrate power necessary to produce changes in a weakly articulated and organised traditional society and economy". The second stage that consists in expanding "the power in the system to assimilate the newly mobilised and politically participant groups, in order to create a modern system", is still underway. Huntington's conclusion that such a process was necessarily fatal to any monarchical system lacking the western European political-cultural background has not yet been verified in Bhutan. On the contrary, the Bhutanese monarchy has been the main agent of modernisation. Since it opened to the outside world, in the early 1960s, the kingdom has adopted a unique path toward development. Promoting a distinctive approach to institutions building (polity) and governance orientations (policies), which is consistent both with tradition and modernity, has been essential to its survival.The present paper is a tentative presentation of the normativearchitecture of the current Bhutanese polity. It identifies a hierarchy of principles and patterns, which have guided simultaneously the preservation of the traditional system and its adaptation to modern constraints. The main challenges are also described in order to assess the viability of the monarchy as the principal agent of change.
Political Reform in a Buddhist Monarchy
Thierry Mathou
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 1999,
Abstract: The Fifteenth Day of the Fourth Month of the Year of the Male Earth Tiger, corresponding to 10th June 1998, will probably stay as a milestone date in Bhutan's modern history. HM Jigme Singye Wangchuck, the fourth King of Bhutan, known to his subjects as the Druk Gyalpo, has issued a kasho (royal edict) that could bring profound changes in the kingdom’s everyday life. By devolving full executive powers to an elected cabinet, the authority of which will be defined by the National Assembly during its 1999 session, and introducing the principle of his own political responsibility, the King has opened a new page in Himalayan politics.Although being a small country which has always been very cautious on the international scene, Bhutan, as a buffer state, nested in the heart of the Himalayas, between India and China, has a strategic position in a region where the divisive forces of communalism are vivid. The kingdom, which has long stayed out of the influence of such forces, is now facing potential difficulties with the aftermath of the so called ngolop issue and the impact of ULFA-Bodo activity across the border with India, that threatens its political stability and internal security. The process of change in Bhutan is not meant to fit in any regional model that could be inspired by Indian or Nepalese politics. However there is a clear interaction between national and regional politics. Whatever happens on the internal political scene, can have repercussions outside the kingdom, and vice-versa. As a genuine Buddhist kingdom, which has chosen a unique path towards development, Bhutan, while preserving its cultural heritage, has to meet new and specific challenges that relate not only to social and economic factors, but also to a broader approach of development that includes political changes. In order to understand the rationale and the impact of the current reform, we must place it in its historical, economic, social and cultural context.
On the Two Ways of Learning in Bhutan
Karma Phuntsho
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2000,
Abstract: Bhutanese folklore has it that the bat would show its teeth to the birds to evade the bird tax, and show its wings to the beasts to evade the beast tax. But come winter, when the food supplies are distributed, the bat would show its wings to the birds and teeth to the beasts to claim its share from both, although often it is rejected and ostracized by both parties. This paper is an outcome of my role as a bat-like scholar involved in both traditional and modern systems of learning and scholarship, with some of the academic teeth of the modernist beasts as well as the spiritual wings of the traditionist birds, and at times, like the bat, being disowned and despised by both, by the traditionists as an unfaithful, agnostic cynic, and by the moderns as a narrow-minded,sutra-thumping fanatic. This double role, however, to my advantage,has given me the opportunity to study my own religion and culturefrom the various perspectives using different tools, and revealed to me the privileged position in which one can blend the varying approaches and methods of the modernists and traditionists. It is from the vantage point of such position that I shall present a case study of the encounter of the two systems of education – traditional and modern – in the Kingdom of Bhutan.
Dances in Bhutan: A Traditional Medium of Information
Francoise Pommaret
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2006,
Abstract:
Recent Bhutanese Scholarship in History and Anthropology
Francoise Pommeret
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2000,
Abstract: This paper would like to present the recent scholarship on Bhutan bythe Bhutanese themselves and to show that the studies of thesescholars are the offsprings of a long tradition of Bhutanese scholarship but that they also demonstrate new trends, which are in tune with the socio-cultural changes in the country.My topic today is Bhutanese scholarship in what are generally called"the Human Sciences", that is history and anthropology, but will notdeal with sociology, political studies, development studies or religious studies, fields in themselves. In brief reference to this last discipline, suffice it to mention here Khenpo Phuntsho Tashi, assistant director of the National Museum, Karma Wangchuk, who works at the National Library in Thimphu, and Karma Phuntsho in Oxford and Dorji Wangchuk in Hamburg, both doing their Ph. Ds.Largely bibliographical, this paper will also fully indicate the recent Bhutanese publications to interested researchers. The mentions of publications, which are often too unknown outside Bhutan because of problems of distribution, therefore aim at broadening the scientific knowledge of Bhutan on specific subjects. While ethno-history and anthropology, are still in their infancy in Bhutan - I will come back to that subject a little later - history hasalways been one of the subjects that has made Bhutanese scholarsfamous among academics working on the Himalayas and Tibet. Theircontribution, not only to the history of Bhutan but to the history of the Himalayan region as well, is very important. Among the many scholars of past centuries, there are a number we can name more particularly: the 4th Je Khenpo, Ngawang Lhungrub whowrote the monumental biography of the 4th Desi, Tenzin Rabgye; the13th Je Khenpo, Yonten Thaye, who wrote the biography of the 10thJe Khenpo Tenzin Chogyal and that of the 13th Desi, SherabWangchuk.
On Bhutanese and Tibetan Dzongs
Ingun Brunskeland Amundsen
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2001,
Abstract: There used to be impressive dzong complexes in Tibet and areas of the Himalayas with Tibetan influence. Today most of them are lost or in ruins, a few are restored as museums, and it is only in Bhutan that we find the dzongs still alive today as administration centers and monasteries. This paper reviews some of what is known about the historical developments of the dzong type of buildings in Tibet and Bhutan, and I shall thus discuss towers, khars (mkhar) and dzongs (rdzong). The first two are included in this context as they are important in the broad picture of understanding the historical background and typological developments of the later dzongs. The etymological background for the term dzong is also to be elaborated.
Page 1 /63
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.