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STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL FOR CONSTRAINED PROBABILISTIC MISS SAFETY STOCK INVENTORY SYSTEM WITH CONTINUOUS INCREASING ORDER COST FUNCTION
Mona F. El-Wakeel
Journal of Global Research in Mathematical Archives , 2013,
Abstract: This paper treated the statistical process control (SPC) for the constrained probabilistic multi- item, single source (MISS) inventory system with varying order cost and instantaneous replenishments of the ordered quantity. The expected maximum inventory level of each item is a function of the expected order quantity and no shortages are to be allowed. A geometric programming approach is used to drive the analytical solution of the optimal number of periods and the optimal expected maximum inventory level . A numerical example is added with R and X bar- charts to confirm that the process is under control.
Constrained Probabilistic Continuous Review Inventory System with Mixture Shortage and Stochastic Lead Time Demand
Mona F. El-Wakeel,Hala A. Fergany
Advances in Natural Science , 2013, DOI: 10.3968/j.ans.1715787020130601.1646
Abstract: This paper derives the probabilistic continuous review backorders and lost sales inventory system when the order cost is a function of the order quantity. Our objective is to minimize the expected annual total cost under a restriction on the expected annual holding cost when the lead time demand follows some continuous distributions by using the Lagrangian method. Some published special cases are deduced and an illustrative numerical example with some graphs is added.
PROBABILISTIC (Q,r) INVENTORY MODEL WITH PARTIALLY BACKORDERS WHEN LEAD TIME DEMAND NORMALLY DISTRIBUTED UNDER HOLDING COST RESTRICTION
Mona F. El-Wakeel,Hala A. Fergany
Journal of Global Research in Mathematical Archives , 2013,
Abstract: This paper derives the probabilistic continuous review inventory model that has the two types of shortage when the order cost is a function of the order quantity. The objective is to minimize the expected annual total cost under a constraint on the expected holding cost when the lead time demand follows Normal distribution by using the Lagrangian method. Some published special cases are deduced and a numerical application with illustrative graphs is added.
8. Involvement of catecholamines in congestive heart failure, linked to lack of vitamin D and increased epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) production
Nadia M Hamdy,Lamiaa El-Wakeel
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research (IJPBR) , 2010,
Abstract: In order to evaluate the role of sympathoadrenomedullary system in the causative mechanism of the anginal attack, the hemodynamic changes in heart failure were observed in 50 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), compared to 20 normal subjects, and 20 patients with essential hypertension (HTN), all of whom had similar lifestyles; the overall age range was 18-60 years. Hence, we compared vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, lipids, the acute phase reactant highsensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, serotonin, norepinepherine (NE), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) between these groups. This study confirms a strong association between catecholamines as well as EGF-R levels with PTH and low vitamin D levels, being related to hyperlipidemia and inflammation (hsCRP and fibrinogen) in CVD. This study indicates that increased levels of lipids, fibrinogen, PTH, proinflammatory marker(s), catecholamines, and EGF-R, as well as low vitamin D, contribute to the complex process of atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients that leads eventually to CHF.
Levels of Salivary IFN-gamma, TNF-Alfa, and TNF Receptor-2 As Prognostic Markers in (Erosive) Oral Lichen Planus
Noha A. Ghallab,Naglaa El-Wakeel,Olfat G. Shaker
Mediators of Inflammation , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/847632
Abstract: To explore the feasibility of detecting salivary levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and sTNFR-2 from erosive oral lichen planus (ELP) patients for clinical application, 20 ELP patients were enrolled in the study as were 20 age-sex-matched controls. From all subjects, saliva level of the tested biomarkers was determined by ELISA. Salivary profiles were assessed in ELP patients by ELISA after being treated with prednisone. A significantly higher level of IFN-γ ( ), TNF-α ( ), and sTNFR-2 ( ) was detected in ELP patients before treatment than in controls. Following treatment, the salivary levels of IFN-γ ( ), TNF-α ( ), and sTNFR-2 ( ) decreased significantly when compared to their pretreatment levels. This study demonstrated that salivary IFN-γ, TNF-α, and sTNFR-2 can be detectable in ELP patients and decreased significantly after treatment with prednisone, which may reveal the possibility of using these disease-related biomarkers in diagnosis and monitoring. 1. Introduction Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition involving the oral mucosal tissues [1]. Although the mechanisms of OLP pathogenesis have not been fully disclosed, it has been suggested that autoreactive cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells trigger keratinocytes apoptosis in OLP [2]. Evidence has shown that a complex cytokine network plays an important role in the exacerbation and perpetuation of OLP; hence, TNF-α and IFN-γ have been extensively studied and were proven by many investigators to have a key regulatory role in the immunopathogenesis of OLP [3, 4]. Being a Th1 cytokine, IFN-γ is involved in the activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells and maintains keratinocytes major histocompatibility class II expression in OLP, thereby contributing to disease chronicity [2, 5]. Cell-mediated immunity in OLP may be regulated by various cytokines and their receptors [5]. TNF-α is a highly pleiotropic, multifunctional cytokine that regulates diverse cellular responses via binding to two distinct cell surface receptors: TNF receptor-1 (TNFR-1/60?kDa) and TNF receptor-2 (TNFR-2/80?kDa) [6]. Apoptosis is seen as a general TNF-α-mediated cytotoxic phenomenon occurring through the TNFR-1 signaling pathway [7]. Sugerman et al. [2] suggested that one of the possible mechanisms used by CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells to trigger keratinocyte apoptosis in OLP included the T-cell-secreted TNF-α binding to TNFR-1 on the keratinocyte surface. This binding may activate the keratinocyte caspase cascade resulting in keratinocyte apoptosis. Previous studies showed that many cell types coexpress TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 and require
Efficacy and Safety of Artemether in the Treatment of Chronic Fascioliasis in Egypt: Exploratory Phase-2 Trials
Jennifer Keiser ,Hanan Sayed,Maged El-Ghanam,Hoda Sabry,Saad Anani,Aly El-Wakeel,Christoph Hatz,Jürg Utzinger,Sayed Seif el-Din,Walaa El-Maadawy,Sanaa Botros
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001285
Abstract: Background Fascioliasis is an emerging zoonotic disease of considerable veterinary and public health importance. Triclabendazole is the only available drug for treatment. Laboratory studies have documented promising fasciocidal properties of the artemisinins (e.g., artemether). Methodology We carried out two exploratory phase-2 trials to assess the efficacy and safety of oral artemether administered at (i) 6×80 mg over 3 consecutive days, and (ii) 3×200 mg within 24 h in 36 Fasciola-infected individuals in Egypt. Efficacy was determined by cure rate (CR) and egg reduction rate (ERR) based on multiple Kato-Katz thick smears before and after drug administration. Patients who remained Fasciola-positive following artemether dosing were treated with single 10 mg/kg oral triclabendazole. In case of treatment failure, triclabendazole was re-administered at 20 mg/kg in two divided doses. Principal Findings CRs achieved with 6×80 mg and 3×200 mg artemether were 35% and 6%, respectively. The corresponding ERRs were 63% and nil, respectively. Artemether was well tolerated. A high efficacy was observed with triclabendazole administered at 10 mg/kg (16 patients; CR: 67%, ERR: 94%) and 20 mg/kg (4 patients; CR: 75%, ERR: 96%). Conclusions/Significance Artemether, administered at malaria treatment regimens, shows no or only little effect against fascioliasis, and hence does not represent an alternative to triclabendazole. The role of artemether and other artemisinin derivatives as partner drug in combination chemotherapy remains to be elucidated.
Relation between serum progranulin, inflammatory markers and visceral fat in childhood obesity  [PDF]
Nagwa Abdallah Ismail, Shadia Ragab, Abeer Nour Eldin Abd El Baky, Mona Hamed, Dina F. Ayoub
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.412138
Abstract:

Aim: To study serum progranulin (PGRN) level in children with obesity and its relationship to inflamamatory markers and visceral fat. Methods: Fifty obese children and 50 controls aged 10-18 years were recruited. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical features were collected according to a standard protocol. Serum progranulin levels, serum IL-6 and hsCRP were measured using ELISA. Insulin resistance was calculated by the homeostasis model (HOMA-IR) using the following formula: HOMA-IR = fasting insulin (mU/L) × fasting glucose (mmoL/L)/ 22.5. The maximum visceral fat thickness (VFT) and the minimum subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) were measured by ultrasonography. Results: In the obese group, a significant increase was found in serum PGRN (48.87 ± 42.33 ng/mL) compared to control group (30.18 ± 23.82 ng/mL). Progranulin correlated significantly with VFT (r = 0.475), IL6 (r = 0.368), Insulin(r = 0.440) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.379). The mean serum progranulin in the high tertile VFT group was significantly higher than those in the low tertile and middle tertile groups (P = 0.030 and P = 0.039 respectively). VFT was highly positively correlated to progranulin, SFT, IL6, insulin, HOMA-IR and hsCRP (P = 0.001, 0.000, 0.001, 0.001, 0.003 and 0.003). However, the correlation coefficient between SFT and progranulin was insignificant. Summary: we demonstrated for the first time that serum PGRN concentrations increased in Egyptian obese children. The concentrations of serum PGRN correlated closely with visceral fat and IL6. Conclusion: PGRN may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in obesity. It could be a novel marker of visceral fat in obesity. Thus PGRN could be a potential therapeutic target for management of chronic inflammation in obesity.

Topiramate-Induced Modulation of Hepatic Molecular Mechanisms: An Aspect for Its Anti-Insulin Resistant Effect
Hanan S. El-Abhar, Mona F. Schaalan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037757
Abstract: Topiramate is an antiepileptic drug known to ameliorate insulin resistance besides reducing body weight. Albeit liver plays a fundamental role in regulation of overall insulin resistance, yet the effect of topiramate on this organ is controversial and is not fully investigated. The current work aimed to study the potential hepatic molecular mechanistic cassette of the anti-insulin resistance effect of topiramate. To this end, male Wistar rats were fed high fat/high fructose diet (HFFD) for 10 weeks to induce obese, insulin resistant, hyperglycemic animals, but with no overt diabetes. Two HFFD-groups received oral topiramate, 40 or 100 mg/kg, for two weeks. Topiramate, on the hepatic molecular level, has opposed the high fat/high fructose diet effect, where it significantly increased adiponectin receptors, GLUT2, and tyrosine kinase activity, while decreased insulin receptor isoforms. Besides, it improved the altered glucose homeostasis and lipid profile, lowered the ALT level, caused subtle, yet significant decrease in TNF-α, and boosted adiponectin in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, topiramate decreased liver weight/, visceral fat weight/, and epididymal fat weight/body weight ratios. The study proved that insulin-resistance has an effect on hepatic molecular level and that the topiramate-mediated insulin sensitivity is ensued partly by modulation of hepatic insulin receptor isoforms, activation of tyrosine kinase, induction of GLUT2 and elevation of adiponectin receptors, as well as their ligand, adiponectin, besides its known improving effect on glucose tolerance and lipid homeostasis.
The Formation of Fringes of Equal Chromatic Order across Double Clad Fiber in the Presence of High Power Lasers  [PDF]
Mona F. Omar, Rania H. Abd El-Maksoud
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2016.62005
Abstract: Multiple-beam fringes of equal chromatic order interferometry is a powerful technique to extract optical properties over a continuous range of spectrum. In this paper we develop a theory for the spectral shape of the fringes of equal chromatic order (FECO) that are formed across a double-clad fiber. The modified single term Sellmeier dispersion formula is used to construct the refractive index dispersion curves for the liquid, claddings, and core. Expressions for the paraxial optical path length for several rays passing through the fiber and the liquid are developed. The condition of bright fringe is applied to get an analytical expression for the spectral shape of the FECO across a double-clad fiber with an elliptical/circular inner cladding. A potential application of this theory is to determine the dispersion of Kerr constant of the claddings and the core of the fiber. To illustrate the theory and its application, simulation examples are provided and discussed.
Effects of microwave heating on the thermal states of biological tissues
Nabil TM El-dabe, Mona AA Mohamed, Asma F El-Sayed
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: A mathematical analysis of microwave heating equations in one-dimensional multi-layer model has been discussed. Maxwell's equations and transient bioheat transfer equation were numerically calculated by using finite difference method to predict the effects of thermal physical properties on the transient temperature of biological tissues. This prediction of the temperature evolution in biological bodies can be used as an effective tool for thermal diagnostics in medical practices.
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