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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 967 matches for " Mona Ebrahimipur "
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Mean length of utterance and grammatical morphemes in speech of two Farsi-speaking children
Nahid Jalilevand,Mona Ebrahimipur,Jamshid Purqarib
Audiology , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Children usually produce their first words when they are 10-15 months old and go through simple to complex speech by passing some stages. One of the criteria for examining development of children's language is mean length of utterance (MLU). The main purpose of this study was calculating mean length of utterance and grammatical morphemes used by Farsi-speaking children during their 12-60th months of life.Case: It was a longitudinal descriptive study. Every month during children's 12 to 60th months of life, 120-minute spontaneous speech samples of two children in kindergarten were videotaped and transcribed. The girl said her first word at the age of 12, and the boy said his first word at the age of 16 months. Combining words and constructing two-word utterances started at 18 and 20th months of the girl's and the boy's lives respectively. First grammatical morpheme appeared before the 24th month of children's lives and when mean length of utterance was lower than 2 morphemes. Singular verb suffixes were acquired sooner than the plural ones. Both children started using six subject identifiers of Farsi language before 36th month of their lives.Conclusion: The speech development in Farsi-speaking children follows the same pattern as other children, starting from one-word utterances and complicates gradually by increasing the number of words, word combinations and using grammatical morphemes. The important point is that Farsi-speaking children started to use grammatical morphemes when their mean length of utterance was lower than two morphemes.
Metabolic Response of the Two Marine Unicellular Algae Chlorella salina and Dunaliella bardawil to Toxicity of the Antifouling Agent Irgarol 1051  [PDF]
Mona Kaamoush
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.99056
Abstract: Toxic pollutants are metabolic poisons that can seriously injure or destroy the photosynthetic organisms upon which the food chain depends. Since microalgae play a key role in marine ecosystems, marine microalgae are proposed as excellent bio-indicators of pollution due to their high sensitivity, which can give warning of the toxic effects of chemicals sooner than any other species. The aim of this work concentrated on the effect of different concentrations of the antifouling biocide (Irgarol 1051) on growth and chlorophylls content (as an essential metabolite) of the two marine unicellular green algae Chlorella salina and Dunaliella bardawil that usually used in fish feeding. The growth of the wall-less Dunaliella bardawil was more sensitive to Irgarol 1051 than the walled cells Chlorella salina, although the concentrations used were greatly different. The product of photosynthesis in the two algal species greatly affected since in the presence of Irgarol 1051, a serious destructive effect was observed. The cell wall appeared to play a significant role in protecting the organism against toxicity of the antifouling agent either by adsorption or degradation. The strength of toxicity depends mainly on the concentration of the antifouling agent, the length of culturing period and the type of organism tested.
PVC-membrane potentiometric sensors based on a recently synthesized Schiff base for Fe(III) ion
Iran Sheikhshoaie, Tayebeh Shamspur, Ali Mostafavi, S. Yousef Ebrahimipur
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2012,
Abstract: A potentiometric iron sensor based on the use 3-(2-diethylamino-ethylimino)-1,3-dihydro-indol-2-one (DEDIO) as an ionophore in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix, is reported. The plasticized membrane sensor exhibits a Nernstian response for Fe(III) ions over a wide concentration range (2.0 × 10-6 - 5.0 × 10-2 M) with a super Nernstian slope of 26(±1) mV per decade. It has a fast response time of <12 s and can be used for ten weeks without any considerable divergences in its potentials .the electrode can be used in the pH range 4.5-8.0. The proposed sensor shows fairly good discriminating ability towards Fe(III) ion in comparison with a large number of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor was used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Fe(III) ions vs. EDTA. KEY WORDS: Iron, Ion selective electrode, PVC membrane, Schiff base, Potentiometry Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2012, 26(1), 65-72. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i1.7
PVC-membrane potentiometric sensors based on a recently synthesized Schiff base for Fe(III) ion
Iran Sheikhshoaie,Tayebeh Shamspur,Ali Mostafavi,S. Yousef Ebrahimipur
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2012,
Abstract: A potentiometric iron sensor based on the use 3-(2-diethylamino-ethylimino)-1,3-dihydro-indol-2-one (DEDIO) as an ionophore in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix, is reported. The plasticized membrane sensor exhibits a Nernstian response for Fe(III) ions over a wide concentration range (2.0 × 10-6 - 5.0 × 10-2 M) with a super Nernstian slope of 26(plus or minus 1) mV per decade. It has a fast response time of less than 12 s and can be used for ten weeks without any considerable divergences in its potentials the electrode can be used in the pH range 4.5-8.0. The proposed sensor shows fairly good discriminating ability towards Fe(III) ion in comparison with a large number of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor was used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Fe(III) ions vs. EDTA.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i1.7
Impact of the Human Activities on the Local Climate and Environment of the Suez City in Egypt  [PDF]
Mona Fouad Kaiser
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.57063
Abstract:

Surface temperature and vegetation are the major land cover changes that significantly affect on the thermal environment. In the present study, remote sensing techniques were applied to identify the relationship between anthropogenic activities and the thermal environment in the North Gulf of Suez area. Results have indicated that the urbanization and agricultural expansion have been increased during the last 25 years. Although urban areas increased from 49 km2 in 1987 to 57 km2 in 2012, the urban heat island-range declined from very high and high, to moderate and low. An expansion in cultivated areas from 3 km2 in 1987 to 26 km2 in 2012 was responsible for the decline. The results of this study provided valuable information for understanding the local thermal changes that associate rapid urbanization and expansion of cultivated areas. Consequently, this work recommends that proper planning and management regimes for land use and cover changes associated with rapid urbanization will result in positive impacts on the local climate and environment.

Stress-Induced Changes in Testosterone Secretion in Male Rats: Role of Oxidative Stress and Modulation by Antioxidants  [PDF]
Mona Abdullah Al-Damegh
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2014.42010
Abstract: Seventy adult male albino rats were randomly allotted into 3 main groups: control group (n = 10), acute stress-exposed group (n = 30) and chronic stress-exposed group (n = 30). Each of the stressed groups was subdivided into 3 equal subgroups (n = 10/subgroup, SG): subgroup 1 animals were exposed to immobilization stress, SG2 animals, were given immobilization stress and supplemented with α-tocopherol (vitamin E), SG3 animals were exposed to immobilization stress and supplemented with ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Immobilization stress exposure was applied once for 6 continuous hours in the acute stressed group and was 6 hours daily for 10 consecutive days in the chronic stressed group. In all vitamin supplemented groups, both vitamin E and C were administered orally mixed with the diet in a similar dose of 500 mg/kg diet. This supplementation started 6 weeks prior to the stress exposure and continued throughout the experimental period. At the end of the last immobilization session, sera were harvested from all animals thereafter, animals were sacrificed and the testes were immediately excised and processed for further biochemical investigations. Serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were measured and the activities of antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT) & glutathione-s-transferase (GST)] as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were determined in sera and testes. Compared to control, the results revealed that acute and chronic immobilization stress caused significant decrease in levels of serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH). Also, significant reductions (P < 0.01) were found in the activities of CAT and GST in sera and testes. Contrariwise, there existed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in MDA concentrations in serum and testis. Co-administration of vitamin E or C relatively restored (P < 0.01) the above parameters. Thus, this study draws a conclusion that immobilization stress of male rats significantly inhibited testosterone secretion and induced oxidative stress which partially mediated this inhibition. It also proved a protective role of vitamin E and C against the oxidative stress-induced down-regulation of testosterone secretion with a better efficacy of vitamin E.
Sperm DNA Integrity Assessment: A New Tool in Diagnosis and Treatment of Fertility
Mona Bungum
Obstetrics and Gynecology International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/531042
Abstract: Infertility affects 15% of all couples. Although male infertility factors with reduced semen quality are contributing to about half of all involuntary childlessness, the value of standard semen parameters in prediction of fertility in vivo and choice of proper method for assisted reproduction is limited. In the search for better markers of male fertility, during the last 10 years, assessment of sperm DNA integrity has emerged as a strong new biomarker of semen quality that may have the potential to discriminate between infertile and fertile men. Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI) as assessed by the flow cytometric Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) can be used for evaluation of sperm chromatin integrity. The biological background for abnormal DFI is not completely known, but clinical data show that DFI above 30% is associated with very low chance for achieving pregnancy in natural way or by insemination, but not in vitro. Already when the DFI is above 20%, the chance of natural pregnancy may be reduced, despite other sperm parameters being normal. Thus this method may explain a significant proportion of cases of unexplained infertility and can be beneficial in counselling involuntary childless couples need of in vitro fertilisation. 1. Introduction In western countries up to one-forth of couples in reproductive age are seeking medical help for involuntary childlessness [1]. Despite the significant developments in the area of fertility seen during the last decades about one-third of these couples will be undiagnosed without any explanation to their problems. Although, the traditional semen parameters concentration, motility, and morphology are a golden standard in diagnosing of male infertility it has become apparent that none of these parameters recommended by the Word Health Organization (WHO) [2] are sufficient for the prediction of male fertility capacity. As the WHO parameters only address few aspects of sperm quality and function the discriminative power in relation to fertility is quite low [3, 4]. As a result, there has for long been searched for better markers of male fertility. During the last decades the use of assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) has increased substantially [1, 5]. In particular intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is used to an increasing degree. While in the beginning of the era of ICSI the indication for treatment was severe male factor infertility, now also couples with normal sperm quality request are treated with ICSI. However, IVF and ICSI are symptomatic treatments where only 25–30% of the treatments result
Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study
Mona Nabulsi
BMC Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-75
Abstract: We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation.Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management.Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health measure that significantly impacts infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries [1,2]. Breastfeeding is associated with reduced infant risks of infections, atopic dermatitis, asthma, obesity, diabetes types 1 and 2, childhood leukemia, sudden infant death syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis; and with higher Intelligence Quotient and academic performance at 6.5 years of age [3-5]. Moreover, it is associated with decreased maternal risks of diabetes type 2, breast a
Notions of Female Authority in Modern Shi’i Thought
Mona Tajali
Religions , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rel2030449
Abstract: The dominant Shi’i gender discourse has undergone major shifts in recent years, resulting in revisions of various jurisprudential rulings on women’s rights and status. Among such shifts, there have been rulings on female authority, particularly women’s right to access political decision-making positions. Despite being a controversial topic that has historically faced much clerical debate and disagreement, in recent years a number of reformist clerics have argued in favor of women’s leadership, which is considered a radical departure from the conventional stance. While there are a number of reasons that have contributed to these modernist clerical views in recent years, I argue that the most significant is women’s demands and mobilization for reform of misogynist Shari‘a-based laws. Through reference to clerical gender discourses unfolding in Iran, a Shi’i state, this work will shed light onto the modernist clerical discourses that resulted from women’s strategic and organized pressuring for enhanced women’s political representation. In this regard, this work will examine the interactions between women’s groups and religious elites, in particular pious women’s efforts to publicize and politicize the issue of female authority and women’s access to leadership positions within the Iranian society, as well as the various types of justifications offered by Shi’i clerics for enhancing women’s political rights. By analyzing the recent clerical reformist discourses, this article identifies two dominant types of justifications used by such clerics in explaining the shift from the conventional stand on the subject of female authority, which are categorized as a contextual rereading and a feminist rereading. This analysis will conclude by evaluating the impact of these different types of clerical responses on the future prospects of reform in the society, especially democratization of religious interpretation.
RISK AVERSION AND THE PREFERENCE FOR PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYMENT: EVIDENCE FROM EGYPTIAN LABOR SURVEY DATA
Mona Sai
International Journal of Economics and Research , 2011,
Abstract: This paper measures some of the effects of the long-standing policy of guaranteeing public sector employment to all university and technical secondary graduates in Egypt. Unlike previous studies, the paper measures risk aversion through sorting to determine the high valuation on job security in determining sector choice. Estimates of a sector –choice probit model employing cross-sectional data from two household surveys point to the profound impact of the graduate public sector employment guarantee on labor market segmentation in Egypt. In particular, the level of educational attainment became the most important factor in sorting workers between sectors. The main results of this paper highlight the importance of job security as the major factor determining the persistence of queues for public sector jobs in Egypt. Additionally, this paper draws policy lessons for designing early retirement and retrenchment packages for public sector employees in developing countries undertaking civil service reform
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