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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1188 matches for " Molly; Vijaya Raghavan "
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Days lost due to disability of diclofenac-induced adverse drug reactions
Thomas,Dixon; Mathew,Molly; Vijaya Raghavan,C.; Mohanta,Guru P.; Padmanabha Reddy,Y.;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2012, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552012000100007
Abstract: disability adjusted life years (daly) is a widely used measure to quantify the burden of diseases or illness. dalys for a disease is calculated as the sum of the years of life lost (yll) due to premature mortality in the population and the equivalent healthy years lost due to disability (yld). the only difference from the yld and days lost due to disability (dld) calculation is that instead of considering the duration of adverse drug reaction (adr) in years, it is calculated in days. objective: dld was measured for diclofenac tablets to prepare the adr profile. methods: the study was done on the patients (18-65 years old) attending the community pharmacy at kasaragod district, south india, with prescription of diclofenac tablets. patients reported adrs on their next visit to the pharmacy or they had called to the provided phone number and reported it. disability weight (dw) was calculated in an analogue scale from 0-1. zero represent complete health and 1 represent death or equivalent condition. dw was multiplied with occurrence and duration of adrs in days. results: about 943 patients received diclofenac tablets in 1000 prescriptions were successfully followed up for possible, probable and definite adrs. a total of 561 reactions reported in 2010 for diclofenac tablet in the study population. there were 34 different types of adrs under 12 physiological systems/organs. most common reactions were on gastrointestinal (gi) system (48%), followed by skin (14%), central nervous system (10%), renal (7%), and cardiovascular (7%). abdominal pain, cramps or flatulence was the highest occurring gi adr (107), followed by 43 rashes, 42 nausea/vomiting, 37 indigestion, 34 peptic ulcers, 31 edema etc. dld for peptic ulcer was considerably high (0.078) per 1000 of the study population on diclofenac. the most damaging adr were peptic ulcer with or without perforation, followed by rash 0.036 dld and edema 0.027 dld. there was considerable dld by acute renal failure (0.012) steven-joh
Influence of Diet and NSAIMs in Allergic Skin Reactions
Dixon Thomas,Molly Mathew,C. Vijay Raghavan
International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Vegetarian or non-vegetarian food and Non- Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medications (NSAIMs) also known as NSAIDs are separate factors in causing skin allergic reactions. The study aims to investigate whether there is a change in the incidence of allergies, associated with the concurrent exposure to both factors.Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to four groups, two of each were control, one non-vegetarian and one vegetarian group with no medicines for the last three months. Group – I were non-vegetarians taking NSAIMs while group – II were vegetarians taking NSAIMs. Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated to find out the risk factor in developing skin reactions. Chi – square test was done to measure the significance of the OR.Results/Discussion: Skin allergic reactions in the test group of non-vegetarians who consume NSAIMs were 38(9.3%). Control group of 400 non-vegetarians in the same community showed skin reactions in 13(3.3%) people. The OR was found to be 3. Chi – square value have shown high significance with a P – value less than 0.01. Allergic skin reactions in the test group of vegetarians who consume NSAIMs were 21 (5.6%). Control group of 400 vegetarians (without any drugs for last three months) in the same community showed skin reactions in 9 (2.3%) people. The OR was found to be 2.5. Chi – square value have shown significance with a P – value less than 0.05 in increasing allergic skin reactions.Conclusion: Non-vegetarian patients who take NSAIMs have shown three times higher rates in allergic skin reactions, while vegetarian diet produces more or less additive effect with NSAIMs. Non-vegetarian food is a highly significant factor in increasing allergic skin reactions for the patients who take NSAIMs.
Kinetics of Extraction of β-Carotene from Tray Dried Carrots by Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction Technique  [PDF]
Kamalpreet Kaur, Uma Shanker Shivhare, Santanu Basu, G. S. Vijaya Raghavan
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.35081
Abstract: β-carotene acts as an antioxidant and is receiving growing interest due to its ability as protecting agent against heart diseases, cancer and strengthening effect on red blood cells. The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the supercritical fluid extraction of β-carotene from tray dried carrots at 40℃, 50℃ and 55℃ and 30, 35 and 40 MPa at SC-CO2 flow rate of 2.0 L/min for extraction time of up to 6 h. It was observed that the concentration of β-carotene in the extract increased with pressure, temperature and extraction time. The results indicated that yield was found to be maximum at 45℃ and 35 MPa at 2 L/min SC-CO2 flow rate. Concentration of β-carotene in the extract increased with SC-CO2 flow rate. Weibull distribution model described adequately the kinetics of extraction of β-carotene from carrots.
Soybean Hydrophobic Protein Response to External Electric Field: A Molecular Modeling Approach
Ashutosh Singh,Valérie Orsat,Vijaya Raghavan
Biomolecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/biom3010168
Abstract: The molecular dynamic (MD) modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of an external electric field on soybean hydrophobic protein and surface properties. Nominal electric field strengths of 0.002 V/nm and 0.004 V/nm had no major effect on the structure and surface properties of the protein isolate but the higher electric field strength of 3 V/nm significantly affected the protein conformation and solvent accessible surface area. The response of protein isolate to various external field stresses demonstrated that it is necessary to gain insight into protein dynamics under electromagnetic fields in order to be able to develop the techniques utilizing them for food processing and other biological applications.
In vitro and invivo evaluation of flax seed polymer and chitosan combination as a carrier for colon specific drug delivery
Vijaya Raghavan,Janaki G,Ramakrishnan A
Erciyes Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Purpose: The present investigation is aimed at using the inexpensive , nontoxic naturally available flax seed polymer and chitosan combination as colon- specific drug carriers and to study the influence of chitosan on the release characteristics of the formulation .Materials and Methods: Core tablets of mesalazine were prepared by wet granulation with starch paste and were compression coated with coating formulations containing different weight ratios of flax seed polymer and chitosan 2:3, 3:2 and 4:1. The tablets were subjected to invitro drug release studies in simulated colonic fluids(4% w/v of rat cecal contents).The invivo evaluation was performed in 6 healthy human volunteers.Results: The compression coated flax seed polymer and chitosan tablets were found degraded by colonic bacteria of rat cecal contents in simulated colonic fluids at the end of 26 h indicating the susceptibilty of the formulation to the rat cecal contents. The invitro studies in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer containing 4% w/v rat cecal1 contents showed that the cumulative percentage of mesalazine after 26 h were 52.16±0.06, 64.10±0.08 and 98.00±0.19 (mean ±s.d) respectively for tablets containing different weight ratios of flax seed polymer and chitosan 2:3, 3:2 and 4:1. The invivo studies conducted in six healthy male human volunteers for the various formulations revealed that the drug released was intiated only after 5h (i.e) transit time of small intestine and the bioavailability (AUC 0-t*)of the drug was found to be 196.97±3.02, 245.8±5.10 and 910.51±9.61 (mean ± s.d) respectively for tablets containing different weight ratios of flax seed polymer and chitosan 2:3, 3:2 and 4:1. Formulation C6 which contains 110mg of chitosan when compared to formulation C4 and C5 contains 330mg and 220mg of chitosan is the suitable ratio for the better release of the drug which in turn having higher bioavailability.Conclusion : The results of our study indicates that compression coated tablets containing 4:1 ratio of flax seed polymer and chitosan held a better dissolution profile higher bioavailability and hence a potential carrier for drug targeting to colon.
Effect of External Electric Field Stress on Gliadin Protein Conformation
Ashutosh Singh,Shirin Munshi,Vijaya Raghavan
Proteomes , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/proteomes1020025
Abstract: A molecular dynamic (MD) modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of external electric field on gliadin protein structure and surface properties. Static electric field strengths of 0.001 V/nm and 0.002 V/nm induced conformational changes in the protein but had no significant effect on its surface properties. The study of hydrogen bond evolution during the course of simulation revealed that the root mean square deviation, radius of gyration and secondary structure formation, all depend significantly on the number hydrogen bonds formed. This study demonstrated that it is necessary to gain insight into protein dynamics under external electric field stress, in order to develop the novel food processing techniques that can be potentially used to reduce or eradicate food allergens.
Modeling Rheological Properties of Mango Puree
Michael O. Ngadi,Lamin S. Kassama,Vijaya Raghavan
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Very limited information is available with regards to physical parameters for the optimization of mango processing. The rheological and thermal properties of mango puree were measured using a controlled-stress/strain rheometer and a thermal analysis DSC. Mango puree was prepared from natural ripen mangoes using a blender. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) consisting of a three-factored factorial with two levels was used for the study. The factors were temperature (20 and 70?C), concentration (12 and 24 Brix) and shear rate (300 and 800 /s). A response surface analysis was used in optimizing the rheological properties. The rheological behavior was thixotropic and the yield stress was sensitive to increases in temperatures. The viscosity of the product was significantly influenced by the independent variables. Thermal analysis results showed that the glass transition, crystallization and melting were affected by the process variables. The result of this study could provide a baseline data for better understanding of the physical properties of mango puree and thus could enhance and optimize product storage quality and development of new product.
Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Water Retted and Non-retted Flax Fibers
Gopu Raveendran Nair,Ashutosh Singh,Malgorzata Zimniewska,Vijaya Raghavan
Fibers , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/fib1030059
Abstract: Flax stems of Modran variety were subjected to water retting under laboratory conditions and its physical properties were compared with non-retted fibers. Physical properties including percentage of impurities, weighted average length, linear density, tenacity and elongation were analyzed and the results were compared. The analysis of retted and non-retted flax fibers showed that retting is the most important step in the processing of flax fibers and it directly affects quality attributes like strength, fineness, and homogeneity. Scanning Electron microscope images of fibers were also analyzed and the retted fibers showed much cleaner surface when compared to decorticated non-retted fibers.
Application of Electro-Technologies in Processing of Flax Fiber
Gopu R. Nair,Denis Rho,G. S. Vijaya Raghavan
Fibers , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/fib1020021
Abstract: Flax fibers used for various applications are obtained from flax stems. Retting followed by drying and mechanical separation leads to the production of fibers. This review article discusses the application of electro-technologies in the production of bast fibers from the flax stem. In these technologies, flax stems harvested from the field are subjected to microwave assisted retting, followed by electro–osmotic dewatering which reduces the water content of the stems. Dewatered stems are transferred to a microwave chamber for further drying, thus retted stems are obtained for further processing.
Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum from butanol fermentation using glucose and xylose
Kumaran Sivagnanam, Vijaya GS Raghavan, Manesh Shah, Robert L Hettich, Nathan C Verberkmoes, Mark G Lefsrud
Proteome Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-9-66
Abstract: We identified 894 different proteins in C. acetobutylicum from ABE fermentation process by two dimensional - liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) method. This includes 717 proteins from glucose and 826 proteins from the xylose substrate. A total of 649 proteins were found to be common and 22 significantly differentially expressed proteins were identified between glucose and xylose substrates.Our results demonstrate that flagellar proteins are highly up-regulated with glucose compared to xylose substrate during ABE fermentation. Chemotactic activity was also found to be lost with the xylose substrate due to the absence of CheW and CheV proteins. This is the first report on the shotgun proteomic analysis of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 in ABE fermentation between glucose and xylose substrate from a single time data point and the number of proteins identified here is more than any other study performed on this organism up to this report.Clostridium acetobutylicum is a gram positive, spore forming, obligate anaerobic bacteria and is one of the few microorganisms capable of converting a wide variety of sugars into three main products acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) [1]. ABE fermentation process was the primary source of butanol for over 40 years until the mid-1950s and is one of the oldest large-scale industrial fermentations [2]. ABE fermentation could not compete with the chemical synthesis of ABE solvents from petroleum since the mid-1950s [3]. However, increased concern over depletion of fossil fuels has led to renewed research interest in producing solvents via microbial fermentation processes.Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant renewable resource that can be used for the production of alternative fuels [4]. It is advantageous to use lignocellulosic biomass such as rice straw, wheat straw, corn stover and agricultural residues for biofuel production as they have limited impact on food supplies [5]. Glucose is the most abundant sugar fou
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