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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4287 matches for " Molina "
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Kp Pan Evaporation and ETo Monthly Maps Using Information of 60 Weather Observatories Included in the Climate Normals (1941-1970) from Mexico  [PDF]
Martín Mundo-Molina
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.615136
Abstract: The most precise equation in order to estimate the evapotranspiration (ET) of crops is the Penman-Monteith (PM). However, the PM equation needs specific data that, in the majority of Mexico’s irrigation districts, it is not available because there are few automated weather stations. For this reason, it is convenient to develop simple methods that allow to precise estimation of ET. A reliable way to estimate ET is by using the pan evaporation that, according to the revised literature, continues to be used nowadays. Investigators like to include its use in irrigation water management projects in various parts of the world. However, this method uses Kp from the FAO that is not calibrated in Mexico. The use of FAO Kp affects the precision of the results, since some variables like radiation, wind, temperature and relative humidity vary from place to place; therefore ET is under estimated or overestimated. This paper presents an original contribution across method to estimate “Kp pan evaporation and ETo monthly maps”, using information from 60 weather observatories included in The Climate Normals (1941-1970) from Mexico, based on the PM method and the class A pan evaporation. Once the Kp values were obtained from each weather observatory, the Kringing method was used. This way, by interpolating data of the triad “latitude, longitude and Kp” and “latitude, longitude and ET”, monthly normalized maps of Kp and ET were established for Mexico, except the upland areas (Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental), as well as other highland zones above 2700 meters over sea level, for the highest observatory is located in Toluca, State of Mexico (key 14-0039), at 2680 m over sea level.
Climate Change Effects on Evapotranspiration in Mexico  [PDF]
Martín Mundo-Molina
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.42012
Abstract: In Mexico’s case, the scarcity of water in the north of the country is worrying, even more from the agricultural point of view because according to the results of general circulation models, a major impact due to global warming is expected in this region, and it will have important repercussions on the rural sector in the north of Mexico. According to [1] the results of the sensitivity analysis made in this study indicate that the most vulnerable zone is the north of Mexico, wherein the increase of evapotraspiration (ET) is greater in comparison to the rest of the country; up to 8% annual average for a +3°;C growth in mean annual temperature. Due to some limitations in this preliminary investigation (e.g., global temperature data was used without regionalizing it), it was decided to make more detailed studies to estimate the climate change effects on ET on a regional scale, using the downscaling method to adjust temperature data. In this study a new methodology to estimate the ET before climate change scenarios is introduced, which includes the selection of the Hargreaves-Samani method (HS), calibrated and compared against the Penman-Monteith ASCE method in various irrigation districts in the northern part of the country, obtaining ET estimations with a 93% precision. This procedure was applied to nine states in north Mexico: Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila y Durango. The principal results are enunciated as follows: the ET variations between the contemporary scenario and the 2030 scenario are quite significant, according to the data of 160 meteorological stations; for temperature variations between 0.1°;C to 0.45°;C the corresponding ET fluctuation goes from 2% in the current scenario to 7% in the 2030 scenario. These obtained percentages are greater than the ones expected to happen for the precision of the method. It is important to note that a 7% rise of ET
Notas sobre las relaciones sociales y la organización administrativa del espacio en la campa?a mendocina en los inicios del proceso revolucionario (1810-1814)
Mundo agrario , 2008,
Abstract: the present work analyze certain facts on the social relationships that give the census at the end of 1810 and the beginning of 1814 en mendoza articulated with the administrative reforms that pretended to control de population on a raising of civic urgencies context. its belief that even with the "photographic" defects of a synchronic look its interesting to start this analysis, as it gives an approaching to the reality that the local elite on a re-composition process had to face to re-unite resources and achieve a disciplinement that assured the governability during the independence tournabout.
Lectio platonica: André Laks, lector de las Leyes
Molina, José;
Diánoia , 2009,
Abstract: the present article describes and briefly comments on the book by andré laks, la filosofía política de platón a la luz de las leyes. the book is an invitation to read the laws, an introduction to plato's political philosophy (not only in the laws) and a critical assessment of the reception given to this work. according to laks, plato is the inventor of political philosophy, albeit some precursors, which is to be found in the relations between the laws and other previous dialogues such as the republic and the politicus.
La ideología del gobierno venezolano en la web: lectura desde la salud pública
Anagramas -Rumbos y sentidos de la comunicación- , 2010,
Abstract: this exploratory study reveals the relationship and impact between the ideology of socialism of the xxi century and the websites of venezuelan institutions responsible for health and nutrition. child malnutrition is seen as a benchmark for disease manifestations and consequences for public health but that circumvents state web to promote its ideological discourse. in this article we examine the contents of child malnutrition in the three government websites for health and nutrition, identifying common features and cross sections characterize the political discourse concerning socialism. and assesses the government communication strategies from the conceptual analysis to determine the most important ideologizing elements that exist in the semantic field of government website.
Programa de educación ambiental para la cuenca del río mucujún: una ventana de extensión universitaria
Educere , 2006,
Abstract: this article shows the first results of the first year of execution of the environmental education program for the mucujún ’s river basin, which took place with 27 students from the 4th year of forestry engineering, in the area of extension and community involvement, school of forestry and environmental sciences of the university of los andes, with the financial help of the company “aguas de mérida ”. the program aims to contribute to the conservation of the mucujún river basin, which has a vital role in supplying water to the city of mérida, creating an environmental conscience in the youth population. this program was designed for 155 students from seven schools along the basin. nine specific projects were implemented, designed according to the problems that are worsening our natural resources, especially those that afect the quality and quantity of water and according to the possibilities and interests expressed by the teachers and coordinators in the schools. the results show a 36% of execution of activities above the planned ones (75 of 55). also, the work done through these projects gained enthusiasm and allowed for a dynamic and interactive education which helped the forestry students and the children from the participating schools in the acquisition of knowledge, understanding new concepts, developing positive attitudes for the conservation of the environment, as well as other skills. the program brought academia into solving problems in the real world and allowed the use of the basin area as an open classroom for teaching and application of rural extension courses. also, 5 structures for earthworm farming and 3 compost structures were installed.
Estudios Gerenciales , 2000,
Abstract: el desarrollo organizacional (do) ha surgido de las exigencias de un ambiente cambiante y del conocimiento originado por la evolución de las ciencias sociales aplicadas. los cambios rápidos dentro del entorno organizacional han exigido procesos y estructuras organizacionales que sean mucho más flexibles y que brinden mayor capacidad de respuesta que las estructuras tradicionales. se requieren nuevas capacidades individuales y organizacionales que puedan impulsar las iniciativas individuales y la disposición para asumir riesgos. igualmente, debemos considerar que existen marcadas diferencias entre las características individuales de los gerentes, las características individuales de los profesionales del desarrollo organizacional, sus habilidades y conocimientos y los estilos de las intervenciones del desarrollo organizacional. todas estas diferencias hacen que sea virtualmente imposible predecir con precisión el curso y los resultados de las intervenciones en las organizaciones cliente. en este documento presento un resumen de lecturas acerca del desarrollo organizacional como facilitador del cambio; y expongo un marco de referencia para la comprensión de los factores determinantes de la relación entre las intervenciones del do y los cambios organizacionales con el fin de mejorar la predictabilidad y la efectividad de los esfuerzos de cambio de sus intervenciones. el propósito central de este documento es dotar a los agentes de cambio de conocimiento y herramientas para que comprendan las características del cambio, los métodos de aprendizaje tanto de las organizaciones como de la gente y de cómo los agentes de cambio deben dise?ar sus intervenciones y posteriormente mejorar los resultados de las mismas.
Estudios Gerenciales , 2000,
Abstract: existen varios enfoques motivacionales que se inclinan más hacia las causas próximas del comportamiento que hacia las necesidades y características (la suposición básica es que las personas se sienten más motivadas cuando sus valores, sus necesidades y su carácter se ajustan al contexto laboral y organizacional que cuando no lo están). los enfoques de causas próximas al comportamiento se centran principalmente en las creencias que la gente tiene acerca de su propio desempe?o, como por ejemplo lo que están tratando de hacer, desean hacer, piensan que pueden hacer, o realmente esperan hacer. estos enfoques específicos se basan en el supuesto de que las creencias propias acerca de las actividades futuras de una persona (y las propias interpretaciones de actividades pasadas) influyen en sus acciones en el presente. en esta última categoría se incluyen las teorías del establecimiento de metas, la auto-eficacia y las expectativas. estas teorías se asemejan en cuanto a que cada concepto requiere que la gente piense y juzgue su desempe?o futuro con base en las experiencias pasadas y su valoración del momento. las metas tienden a reflejar lo que la gente desea hacer, la auto-eficacia refleja lo que la gente piensa que puede hacer y las expectativas reflejan el "mejor estimativo" que tiene la gente sobre las consecuencias de sus acciones. en este documento se revisan criterios para comprender la relación entre el establecimiento de metas y el desempe?o, incluyendo definiciones, diferentes medidas, perspectivas, enfoques, mediadores y moderadores, sobre diferentes investigaciones prácticas acerca del establecimiento de metas. finalmente, este escrito proporciona la base para propuestas de investigación específicas concernientes a la confiabilidad y validez de la medida y la posibilidad de generalizar esta teoría para distintas tareas (por ejemplo, labores complejas, dificultad de las metas, trabajos novedosos), para diversas organizaciones (por ejemplo, trabajadores independie
Sociabilidad y redes político-intelectuales: Algunos casos entre 1800 y 1852
Cuadernos del CILHA , 2011,
Abstract: the aim of this paper is to address same modifications of the social relations in context of revolutionary process and the later construction of the provincial states, because produced a political development within the community links, wich modified certain values, popular conceptions and collective behaviors. we deal with a number of associative practices and forms of sociability in order to observe your roll in the conformation of the political and intellectual networks. we affirm that the networks conferred material and symbolical resources at your members four a prominent action on the public and political sphere.
Visiones del regionalismo y la regionalización en América del Sur en el nuevo milenio
Revista Venezolana de Economía y Ciencias Sociales , 2007,
Abstract: this article aims to revise the concepts of regionalism and regionalization within the particular context of south america. four waves of regionalization or integration are distinguished, beginning in the 1960s and culminating with the current tendencies. in its course the article examines the changes in mercosur and the andean community, together with the process of construction and negotiation of the incipient south american community of nations.
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