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CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides protect mice from Burkholderia pseudomallei but not Francisella tularensis Schu S4 aerosols
Rozak David A,Gelhaus Herbert C,Smith Mark,Zadeh Mojgan
Journal of Immune Based Therapies and Vaccines , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-8518-8-2
Abstract: Studies have shown that CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODN) protect mice from various bacterial pathogens, including Burkholderia pseudomallei and Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS), when administered before parenteral challenge. Given the potential to develop CpG ODN as a pre-treatment for multiple bacterial biological warfare agents, we examined survival, histopathology, and cytokine data from CpG ODN-treated C57BL/6 mice to determine whether previously-reported protection extended to aerosolized B. pseudomallei 1026b and highly virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 infections. We found that, although CpG ODN protected mice from aerosolized B. pseudomallei challenges, the immunostimulant failed to benefit the animals exposed to F. tularensis Schu S4 aerosols. Our results, which contrast with earlier F. tularensis LVS studies, highlight potential differences in Francisella species pathogenesis and underscore the need to evaluate immunotherapies against human pathogenic species.
Induction of intestinal pro-inflammatory immune responses by lipoteichoic acid
Mojgan Zadeh, Mohammad W Khan, Yong Goh, Kurt Selle, Jennifer L Owen, Todd Klaenhammer, Mansour Mohamadzadeh
Journal of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-9-7
Abstract: To better understand the molecular mechanisms utilized by the intestinal microbiota and their gene products to induce or subvert inflammation, specifically the effect(s) of altered surface layer protein expression on the LTA-mediated pro-inflammatory response, the Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein (Slp) genes encoding SlpB and SlpX were deleted resulting in a SlpB- and SlpX- mutant that continued to express SlpA (assigned as NCK2031).Our data show profound activation of dendritic cells by NCK2031, wild-type L. acidophilus (NCK56), and purified Staphylococcus aureus-LTA. In contrary to the LTA-deficient strain NCK2025, the LTA-expressing strains NCK2031 and NCK56, as well as S. aureus-LTA, induce pro-inflammatory innate and T cell immune responses in vivo. Additionally, neither NCK2031 nor S. aureus-LTA supplemented in drinking water protected mice from DSS-colitis, but instead, induced significant intestinal inflammation resulting in severe colitis and tissue destruction.These findings suggest that directed alteration of two of the L. acidophilus NCFM-Slps did not ameliorate LTA-induced pro-inflammatory signals and subsequent colitis.The intestinal immune system must co-exist with resident commensal microorganisms while maintaining the ability to defend against potential microbial challenge. This immune tolerance is a highly regulated process comprised of a myriad of biological checkpoints necessary to maintain homeostasis between the host and the gut microbiota [1]. In instances of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), this tolerance between immune cells and intestinal bacteria is disrupted; however, causes of this tolerance breakdown have not yet been determined [2,3]. Although the etiology of IBD is still unknown, exaggerated inflammation induced by activated innate immune cells via their interaction with the microbiota and their gene products, as well as infiltrating CD4+ IFNγ+ T cells, likely play key roles in uncontrolled inflammation and tissue dest
Colonic Immune Stimulation by Targeted Oral Vaccine
Mahesh Kathania, Mojgan Zadeh, Yaíma L. Lightfoot, Robert M. Roman, Bikash Sahay, Jeffrey R. Abbott, Mansour Mohamadzadeh
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055143
Abstract: Background Currently, sufficient data exist to support the use of lactobacilli as candidates for the development of new oral targeted vaccines. To this end, we have previously shown that Lactobacillus gasseri expressing the protective antigen (PA) component of anthrax toxin genetically fused to a dendritic cell (DC)-binding peptide (DCpep) induced efficacious humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses against Bacillus anthracis Sterne challenge. Methodology/Principal Finding In the present study, we investigated the effects of a dose dependent treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing the PA-DCpep fusion protein on intestinal and systemic immune responses and confirmed its safety. Treatment of mice with different doses of L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep stimulated colonic immune responses, resulting in the activation of innate immune cells, including dendritic cells, which induced robust Th1, Th17, CD4+Foxp3+ and CD8+Foxp3+ T cell immune responses. Notably, high doses of L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep (1012 CFU) were not toxic to the mice. Treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep triggered phenotypic maturation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and macrophages. Moreover, treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep enhanced antibody immune responses, including IgA, IgG1, IgG2b, IgG2c and IgG3. L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep also increased the gene expression of numerous pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and NOD-like receptors. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep has substantial immunopotentiating properties, as it can induce humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses upon oral administration and may be used as a safe oral vaccine against anthrax challenge.
Power Quality Consideration for Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems  [PDF]
Mojgan Hojabri, Arash Toudeshki
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.55039

Necessity of electricity access in remote area is the main reason for expanding decentralized energy system such as stand-alone power systems. The best electrical power supply must provide a constant magnitude and frequency voltage. Therefore, good power quality is an important factor for the reliable operation of electrical loads in a power system. However, the current drawn by most of electronic devices and non-linear loads are non-sinusoidal, which can result in a poor power quality, especially in off-grid power systems. Poor power quality is characterized by electrical disturbances such as transients, sags, swells, harmonics and even interruptions in the power supply. Off-grid power systems worldwide often struggle with system failures and equipment damage due to poor power quality. In this paper, MAT- LAB/Simulink is used to model and analyses power quality in an off-grid renewable energy system. The results show high voltage transient when the inductive loads were switched OFF. The voltage and current harmonics are also determined and compared for various types of loads.

On the Cozero-Divisor Graphs of Commutative Rings  [PDF]
Mojgan Afkham, Kazem Khashyarmanesh
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.47135
Abstract: Let R be a commutative ring with non-zero identity. The cozero-divisor graph of R, denoted by\"\" , is a graph with vertices in \"\", which is the set of all non-zero and non-unit elements of R, and two distinct vertices a and b in \"\" are adjacent if and only if \"\"and \"\". In this paper, we investigate some combinatorial properties of the cozero-divisor graphs \"\"and \"\"such as connectivity, diameter, girth, clique numbers and planarity. We also study the cozero-divisor graphs of the direct products of two arbitrary commutative rings.
Colonic Immune Suppression, Barrier Dysfunction, and Dysbiosis by Gastrointestinal Bacillus anthracis Infection
Yaíma L. Lightfoot, Tao Yang, Bikash Sahay, Mojgan Zadeh, Sam X. Cheng, Gary P. Wang, Jennifer L. Owen, Mansour Mohamadzadeh
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100532
Abstract: Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax results from the ingestion of Bacillus anthracis. Herein, we investigated the pathogenesis of GI anthrax in animals orally infected with toxigenic non-encapsulated B. anthracis Sterne strain (pXO1+ pXO2?) spores that resulted in rapid animal death. B. anthracis Sterne induced significant breakdown of intestinal barrier function and led to gut dysbiosis, resulting in systemic dissemination of not only B. anthracis, but also of commensals. Disease progression significantly correlated with the deterioration of innate and T cell functions. Our studies provide critical immunologic and physiologic insights into the pathogenesis of GI anthrax infection, whereupon cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in immune cells may play a central role in promoting dysfunctional immune responses against this deadly pathogen.
Impaired renal tubular function in pediatric patients with β-thalassemia major
Mojgan Mazaheri
Koomesh , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction: β-thalassemia major due to ineffective erythrocyte life span leads to severe anemiarequiring regular transfusion, which it can lead to major organs damage. Renal damage can beattributed to chronic anemia, iron over load and or defferoxamin toxicity. The object of this study wasto analyze renal tubular and glomerular function in pediatric patients with beta-thalassemia major.Materials and Methods: 39 patients with β -thalassemia major whose mean ages were 11.8 yr and22 sex and age matched healthy children as control group were studied. Blood rine samplesand uwereobtained for measuring biochemical markers. Urinary N-Acetyl-β.D.glucosaminidase (NAG) andurine NAG to creatine ratio (U Cr /NAGratio) were measuredResults: No significant differences were found between serum BUN, creatinine, and also creatinineclearance between both groups. Also there were no significant differences in urine osmolality betweenpatients and controls. Urine NAG was significantly higher in thalassemic patients than control group(p< 0.000). There was positive relation between urinary NAG and duration of illness(r = 0314,p<0.01). There was no significant relationship between urinary NAG and serum ferritin. Finally, nosignificant difference was found in GFR of both groups.Conclusion: Our study showed renal tubular function is impaired in in patients with β-thalassemiamajor as indicated with increased urinary NAG. Further, we have found a positive relationshipbetween urinary NAG and duration of disease. Thus, in spite of normal GFR and other biochemicalmarker such as BUN and creatinine, increased urinary NAG may be as an early marker of renaldisease in patients with β-thalassemia majo.
The Effect of Sound on the Immune System
Mojgan Shaygan
Audiology , 1999,
Abstract: The immune system protects body against disturbing factors such as pathogens and tumor cells by means of its special cell and biological structures. It has been divided based on its components and soluble factors into two groups of specific and non-specific immune system. Since sound is considered as a stressor it can affect dramatically on the immune system. Stress caused by noise can reduce the immune system response to chemical stimulators have decreased. In Stead, deep relaxation has consistently been proven to be very effective at increasing T-Cells and strengthening the immune system. In the current article, we want to have a look on the adverse effects of sound on the immune system.
Petrology, Geochemistry and Mineral Chemistry of Extrusive Alkalic Rocks of the Southern Caspian Sea Ophiolite, Northern Alborz, Iran: Evidence of Alkaline Magmatism in Southern Eurasia
Mojgan Salavati
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The alkalic basalts of the SCO ophiolite are made up of olivine, clinopyroxene (salite), plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxides. They show a narrow range of SiO2 (45.2-48.85 wt. %) and MgO (3.59-4.85 wt. %) and are relatively enriched in TiO2 (3.13-3.82 wt. %). The rocks are enriched in incompatible trace elements such as Zr, Nb and Y. There is no evidence of significant crustal contamination; this may be related to the rapid ascent of the parental magma. Normalized trace element patterns and diagnostic elemental ratio are very similar to those of modern Ocean-Island Basalts (OIB) a feature which suggests that the mantle source region was the asthenosphere. Comparison with the different types of OIB indicates that the basalts may be derived from a high U/Pb (HIMU) source with slightly elevated K and Ba contents. The overall chemical characteristics suggest that the alkali basalts of the SCO were derived from a fertile mantle source and suggest that the magma was produced by a small-degree partial melting of a garnet lherzolite source. As inferred from geochemical and tectonic data, alkali rocks of the SCO were generated from a plume in a local extension regime.
Parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder and control group
Mojgan Karahmadi
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Parental communication patterns influence children's personality. This study investigated effects of parental interaction patterns on children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). METHODS: There were 50 male children, 7-12 years old, selected in two groups. The first group included students with ADHD referred to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan-based on diagnostic scale of DSM-IV (25 subjects). The second group involved healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan (25 subjects) from September 2005 to March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them. RESULTS: Mean scores of parental interaction patterns in healthy children were all higher than those in ADHD children except for “aggression control” and “lack of aggressive attachment”. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of ADHD signs has negative relationship with parental "admission" and parental "control" patterns. It also has positive relationship with “lack of aggressive/attachment” and “aggressive/control” patterns. KEY WORDS: Parental interaction patterns, ADHD.
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