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Developing Policy for Suitable Harvest Zone using Multi Criteria Evaluation and GIS-Based Decision Support System
Mohd Hasmadi Ismail
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v1n2p105
Abstract: Natural resources management often entails making choices among alternatives. Decision support tools are instruments for making rational decisions, particularly geographical information system (GIS) technology-incorporates the multi criteria evaluations (MCE) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the suitable forest harvest zone in hill tropical forest in Peninsular Malaysia using MCE and GIS as a tool for decision support system. The implementation of the AHP method for MCE has shown the capabilities of integration of a GIS and decision support system, where the data was prepared spatially in a GIS, an analysis is performed with the systematic evaluation method. The MCE allows both constraint and criteria maps to be combined in arithmetic operation in a suitability analysis, and also allows for criteria maps to be assigned variable weights. From the weights derived from the AHP method, it can be seen that slope and elevation were strong factors in allocating the suitable harvest zone (0.63 and 0.29). The hydrological aspect is the third most important factor, with 0.07. The total suitable area for productive forest zone was 9757.30 ha (96.06%) and the designated protected forest was about 399.20 ha (3.94%). This implies the importance of certain forest land to be classified as a restricted area for logging purposes to ensure the sustainable forest ecosystem and water resources. This result demonstrated that the methodology used has high potential and functionality for determining suitable forest harvest zone from several criteria for hill forest. Finally, it can be concluded that, MCE incorporating GIS provides an ideal tool and essential in modelling with flexibility and the ability for spatial modelling operation for site suitability study in hill forest of Peninsular Malaysia.
Determining and Mapping of Vegetation using GIS and Phytosociological Approach in Mount Tahan, Malaysia
Mohd Hasmadi Ismail
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v2n2p80
Abstract: The study on lowland tropical forest plants is complicated by the extreme species diversity, very complex plant mosaic and time constraints. These impediments however do not occur in mountain forest, where habitat diversity is clearly distinguished by small homogenous plants types. Plant association and composition study were presented in this work from two locations of Mount Tahan, Malaysia the relatively untrampled and the trampled site. In each site, plant species number, vegetation cover, plant height, and species cover and frequency in untrampled and trampled areas were counted or measured. The analysis included a field survey following the relevance method of Braun-Blanquet and mapping using a GIS. The study focused on altitudinal distribution of specific plants communities located between 1900 m and 2140 m altitude. The data from field survey were mapped and analyzed in GIS. The phytosociological classification revealed that untrampled areas in Botak and Puncak sites were high in species more diversified communities compared to the trampled areas. The results showed that Leptospermum flavescens was the dominant species most in both sites (Botak and Puncak), with 48%, specifically at the untrampled site. The abundance class and sociability value are also high for this species with score 4.5 out of 5, respectively. A total number of trees in the area probably play an important role in quantifying the species richness and diversity parameters. From the study it can be concluded that GIS technique useful in developing a tree mapping system and creating a geo-database for spatial analysis. Further studies are recommended to integrate more data into the system for better evaluation.
Use of Remote Sensing and GIS in Monitoring Water Quality
Norsaliza Usali,Mohd Hasmadi Ismail
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v3n3p228
Abstract: The use of remote sensing and GIS in water monitoring and management has been long recognized. This paper however discusses the application of remote sensing and GIS specifically in monitoring water quality parameter such as suspended matter, phytoplankton, turbidity, and dissolved organic matter. In fact the capability of this technology offers great tools of how the water quality monitoring and managing can be operationalised in this country. Potential application and management is identified in promoting concept of sustainable water resource management. In conclusion remote sensing and GIS technologies coupled with computer modelling are useful tools in providing a solution for future water resources planning and management to government especially in formulating policy related to water quality.
Determining and Mapping Soil Nutrient Content Using Geostatistical Technique in a Durian Orchard in Malaysia
Mohd Hasmadi Ismail,Riduan Mohd Junusi
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v1n1p86
Abstract: Soil nutrient are essential for crop growth. Spatial variability of nutrient can be occurred in various scales, between region, field or within field especially in variation in soil properties. Precision farming is a technology currently available for sustainable agriculture. This technology enables farm management is based on small-scale spatial variability of soil and crop parameters in the field. This study was carried out in a Durian Orchard at Bendang Man Agrotourism Project, Sik, Kedah, Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to determine and map soil nutrient content especially Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (NPK) variability in a durian orchard using geostatistical technique. The NPK was analyzed and mapped by Geostatistic Plus (GS++) to quantify the level of spatial nutrient available and predict nutrient values at unsampled location. Results indicated that NPK ranged from < 0.1 to 1.0 % (N), < 3 to > 45 ppm (P) and 0.8 to >1.4 cmol(+)/kg (K), respectively. Nutrient map showed that the area has less sufficient of N, while P and K were sufficient. This study revealed the potential and ability of geostatistical-variogram in determining and mapping soil nutrient content in a durian orchard. Furthermore NPK map can be used to apply fertilizer to an area, where less NPK content for efficient fertilizer management.
A Study on Trend of Logs Production and Export in the State of Sarawak, Malaysia
Mohd Hasmadi Ismail,Pakhriazad Hassan Zaki
International Journal of Marketing Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijms.v2n1p92
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the trend of logs production and export in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia. The trend of logs production in this study referred only to hill and peat swamp forest logs production with their species detailed production. The trend of logs export was divided into selected species and destinations. The study covers the analysis of logs production and export for a period of ten years from 1997 to 2006. Data on logs production and export were collected from statistics published by the Sarawak Timber Industry Development Corporation (Statistic of Sarawak Timber and Timber Product), Sarawak Timber Association (Sarawak Timber Association Review), Hardwood Timber Sdn. Bhd (Warta) and Malaysia Timber Industry Board (MTIB). The trend of logs production and export were analyzed using regression model and times series. In addition, the relation between hill and peat swamp forest logs production with their species and trend of logs export by selected species and destinations were conducted using simple regression model and descriptive statistical analysis. The results depicted that volume of logs production and export by four major logs producer (Sibu division, Bintulu division, Miri division and Kuching division) for hill and peat swamp forest showed a declining trend. Result showed that Sibu division is the major logs producer for hill forest while Bintulu division is the major producer of logs produced for the peat swamp forest. The main species produced by both hill and peat swamp forest is Meranti (Shorea spp.). Eight selected species for the exported logs were Meranti, Kapur, Keruing, Selangan Batu. Sepetir, Nyatoh, Mersawa and Bindang. Among the eight selected species, Meranti is the main logs volume exported by Sarawak. The eight major logs export destinations by Sarawak were Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, India, Thailand and Singapore. The entire eight destinations showed decreasing trend except India. As a conclusion, the trend of logs production and export in the state of Sarawak for 1997 to 2006 showed a declining trend.
Planning of Access Road Using Satellite Technology and Best Path Modeling Mohd Hasmadi Ismail
Mohd Hasmadi Ismail,Jusoff Hj. Kamaruzaman
Modern Applied Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v3n3p83
Abstract: Forest road construction for harvest operation are always been subjected to certain constrictions and limitations. Engineering practices on forest road alignment are hindered by costly environmental and operational assessment. GIS tools and related data such as remote sensing allows in allocating suitable access road by taking consideration of environmental and cost implication. The aim of this study is to present the method of integration of remote sensing data and GIS in allocating access road for forest harvesting using best path modeling. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to allocate the optimal forest roads network in forest operation, and to determine the density of forest road network. Allocating the best paths for forest road access for timber harvesting is a problem that can be solved by computer based approaches using spatial modeling. Spatial modeling is used to compute the indicative factors that suit road allocation. The model developed and designed using GIS to propose feasibility forest road allocation in the hill area. The method was designed to produce road layouts taking topographical features and forest environmental constraints into special consideration. In this study, four grid themes influencing the road construction were identified; elevation, slope, barrier of lake and distance to existing roads. The total of access road aligned and proposed in the respective area was 28,745.35m. Meanwhile the overall density calculated in selected compartments was about 9.93m/ha (0.80%). The densities of road paths presented here were achieved below as outlined by the forestry department. Thus, there is potential to reduce damage to the residual stand and to the ground area disturbance by the harvesting operation. The forest road alignment and information in this study provides an initial foundation on which GIS can be used for this kind of analysis in forest road planning. The result is not only associated with forest transportation, but at the same time is useful to identify a risk of road construction to the environment. This revealed that the minimum density of forest road construction can help mitigate the loss of ecological services of tropical forest subject to logging pressure and lead to greater financial benefit in future operations.
Investigation of Differences of Topographical Map and GIS-derived Spatial Map with Actual Ground Data in Peninsular Malaysia
Mohd Hasmadi Ismail,J.C. Taylor
Modern Applied Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v3n1p81
Abstract: In a geographical information system (GIS), digital maps usually used to show multiple views of geographical objects either through two-dimensional or three-dimensional, which topographical parameters are digitally generated. Digital maps are often used in extensively environmental application without quantifying the effect of their errors. This study was carried out to investigate the difference of elevation and slope of topographical map and GIS-derived spatial map with actual ground data. The analyses of differences were quantified from interpolation process, sampling and measurement in the field. The RMSE of the DEM creation for the test site was 0.62. The result was based on the 10 m DEM resolutions and 20 m contour interval. From the analysis of differences (elevation and slope) of topographical map and actual ground data, it’s showed that the difference is only about 2 % and 28%, respectively. The great differences on slope may be due to error during data collection by different enumerators and also inconsistent reading of slope measurement and target. Despite the difficulty occurs during ground data collection, estimation method was applied and this relatively simple procedure but appears acceptable in regard to sufficient data sets at nominal map scale 1:50000.
Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for Prioritizing and Ranking of Ecological Indicators for Monitoring Sustainability of Ecotourism in Northern Forest, Iran
Godratollah Barzekar,Azlizam Aziz,Manohar Mariapan,Mohd Hasmadi Ismail
Ecologia Balkanica , 2011,
Abstract: Ecotourism has been identified as a form of sustainable tourism which is expected to contribute to both conservation and development. Unfortunately, due to inadequate environmental assessment, many ecotourism destinations tend to be both hazardous and self-destructive. Indicators are an important tool to provide a means toward sustainability. Among all different aspects of indicators, ecological indicators are significant for monitoring and evaluating sustainable management of ecotourism. In this study criteria and indicators were identified by using the Delphi approach through an expert panel from different fields. At the end of the process, a consensus of 9 criteria and 61 indicators was reached. For prioritization and ranking the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Expert choice software was used. The 9 criteria include identified: 1-Conservation of Natural resources & biodiversity; 2-Maintenance of sceneries ,natural &physical features; 3-Conservation of soil & water resources; 4-Maintenance of heritage & cultural diversity; 5-existence of legal, institution, legislation and policy frameworks for empowering Ecotourism; 6-promoting economic benefits & poverty alleviation; 7-Educational affairs and public awareness 8-Maintenance of hygiene& tourist safety; 9-Tourists & local people satisfaction. The results showed that, out of the 9 criteria, the first three, which we labeled as Ecological criteria and comprised 21 indicators, stood as the top highest priority. We also continued the ranking of indicators with related criterion and then all of the indicators were ranked and prioritized by AHP method and using of expert choice software.
A REVIEW ON APPLICATION OF HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING TO FOREST RESOURCES IN MALAYSIA
MOHD HASMADI ISMAIL1,*KAMARUZAMAN JUSOFF2, ALIAS MOHD SOOD1, PAKHRIZAD HASSAN ZAKI1 and MANOHAR MARIAPAN1
Journal of Sustainability Science and Management , 2009,
Abstract: Remote sensing application of hyperspectral imaging is relatively new to Malaysian forestry. Through a wide range of wavelengths of hyperspectral data, precise and narrow bands of spectra are captured. Airborne sensors typically offer greatly enhanced spatial and spectral resolution compared to their satellite counterparts, and are able to control experimental design closely during image acquisition. Hyperspectral imaging for forest inventory in Malaysia was first conducted by The Centre for Precision Agriculture and Bioresource Remote Sensing of Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). The study which was conducted in 2001 used the AISA sensor manufactured in Finland. The main objective was to develop methods that are directly suited for practical tropical forestry application at high level of accuracy. Forest inventory and tree classification including development of single spectral signatures are of important interest. Studies have shown that retrieval of timber volume and tree discrimination using this system is successful and is often better than other remote sensing methods. This article reviews the research and application of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing for forest survey and assessment in Malaysia.
Mapping and Quantification of Land Area and Cover Types with LandsatTM in Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia
J Hj. Kamaruzaman,,I Mohd Hasmadi
Modern Applied Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v3n1p42
Abstract: Information about current land cover type is essential at a certain level to ensure the optimum use of the land resources. Several approaches can be used to estimate land cover area, where remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) is among the method. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate how reliable these technologies in preparing information about land cover in Carey Island, Selangor of Peninsular Malaysia. Erdas Imagine 9.1 was used in digital image processing. A primary data of Landsat TM, with spatial resolution of 30 m was acquired from scene 127/58 on July 2007. Area estimate was calculated using direct expansion method from samples proportion of each segments of land cover type (1 km by 1 km sample size). In this study, four classes of land cover type have been identified and the areas were oil palm, mangrove, water bodies and urban/bare land area. The area estimate for all classes are 11039.28 ha (oil palm), 5242.86 ha (mangrove), 4894.92 ha (water bodies), and 4751.96 ha (urban/bare land), respectively. The overall classification accuracy obtained for this study is 96%. The results showed that the use of direct expansion method for estimating land cover type area is practical to be used with remote sensing approaches.
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