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Spawning, intracapsular development and production potential of viable juveniles of a murex Chicoreus virgineus var. ponderosa Sowerby under laboratory conditions  [PDF]
I. Jagadis, K. Shunmugasundaram, Md. Sathakkathulla, T. Mohanraj
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.45035
Abstract:

Muricids are commercially important gastropods and are exploited primarily for shell craft industries. They also occupy a niche in ornamental keeping. Studies on the larval development of muricids in Indian waters are few. Hence, an attempt was made to study with a focus on the optimum requirements for captive brood maintenance; regional variation in egg laying, intracapsular development and to estimate production potential of individual brooder (the length/ weight ranged from 80 - 110 mm/49 - 169 g (average 94.875 ± 3.980 mm/111.625 ± 14.870 g) of Chicoreus virgineus var. ponderosa collected off Tuticorin coast, Gulf of Mannar. Experimental airlift water circulation system fitted in 1 t FRP tanks having an overturn of 300% water is found suitable for long term maintenance and maturation of brooders with near cent percent survival over a year. Spontaneous breeding commenced from June ’09. Eggs cases were ‘vase’ shaped and measured 1.2 - 1.5 cm in height. Egg case numbers varied between 110 and 140 and got reduced to 10 - 40 during October and increased in Nov & December. Number of eggs within the egg case was highly variable ranging from 100 - 380. Eggs were spherical, embedded in jelly mass within the egg case and measured 510 - 608 μ (578 μ). Intra capsular development is detailed and compared with the earlier report on this species from other areas of Indian coast. Development took nearly 20 days and only few free living juveniles measuring between 1.7 - 1.9 mm emerged and the rest of the eggs have functioned as “Nurse eggs”. Average net production potential of a single viable egg case was estimated to be 6.7 nos for Chicoreus virgineus var. ponderosa of Tuticorin coast of Gulf of Mannar.

Dielectric Study on Fly Ash Blended Cement
G. Sivakumar,K. Mohanraj,S. Barathan
Journal of Chemistry , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/785038
Abstract:
Behaviour of steel tubular stub and slender columns filled with concrete using recycled aggregates
E K Mohanraj,S Kandasamy,R Malathy
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: This paper is based on a study that was done by utilising construction and demolition debris that had been effectively recycled, in structural members. The steel tubular columns were filled with different types of waste material, as well as recycled aggregate concrete, instead of normal conventional concrete. The results were subsequently analysed. The behaviour of circular and square concrete-filled steel tubular sections (CFSTs) under axial load, in which coarse aggregate had been partially replaced by recycled aggregates, is presented. The effects of steel tube dimensions, shapes and the confinement of concrete are also examined. Measured column strengths are compared with the values predicted by Eurocode 4, Australian Standards and American Codes. Twelve specimens were tested with 20 MPa concrete and steel sections with diameter-to-thickness ratios of 18,5, 25,3 and 36,0. The columns were of two different shapes - a circular-shaped set with diameters of 76 mm and 89 mm, and a square-shaped set with sizes 72 mm and 91 mm. The circular-shaped columns of 76 mm diameter and the square-shaped columns with 72 mm diameter are 900 mm long. The circular columns with a diameter of 89 mm and the square columns of 91 mm diameter are 350 mm long. Eurocode 4 (EC4) gives the best estimation for both conventional and recycled aggregate concrete. However, the American Concrete Institute (ACI) / Australian Standards (AS) equation predicted lower values than measured during the experiments. Hence the ACI/AS equation has been modified by introducing a multiplying factor 'k' to predict good results for columns of L/D < 12. The values of k factor for L/D ratio varying from 4 to 12 are suggested in this study. From the results it has been noted that square columns save 30% of steel when compared with circular columns. It was also observed that the ultimate load of steel tubular columns filled with recycled aggregate concrete is higher than that of conventional concrete and columns filled with recycled aggregate concrete, and can result in a 10% saving in the cost of concrete. This research therefore proposes a solution for effective solid waste management, which will also prove to be cost effective.
1-Acetyl-t-3-ethyl-r-2,c-6-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)piperidin-4-one
K. Ravichandran,S. Ponnuswamy,R. Rajesh,V. Mohanraj
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2010, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536809054737
Abstract: In the title compound, C23H27NO4, the piperidine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. The methoxy groups lie in the plane of benzene rings to which they are attached [maximum deviations of 0.014 (3) and 0.007 (3) ]. The benzene rings are oriented at angles of 67.2 (1) and 87.0 (1)° with respect to the best plane through the four co-planar atoms of the piperidine ring.
Formulation development and in vitro evaluation of nanosuspensions loaded with Atorvastatin calcium
Arunkumar N,Deecaraman M,Rani C,Mohanraj K
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize nanosuspensions of a poorly soluble drug (Atorvastatin calcium) in order to enhance its solubility and dissolution characteristics. Nanosuspensions were prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. They were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), solubility, and in vitro drug release studies. The absence of atorvastatin peaks in PXRD profiles of nanosuspensions suggests the transformation of crystalline drug into an amorphous form. TGA examination suggested that the drug was converted into anhydrous form from the original trihydrate form. DSC curves also compliment the result obtained by TGA and PXRD. The effect of particle size was found to be significant on the saturation solubility of the drug. The in vitro drug release studies showed a significant increase in the dissolution rate of nanosuspensions as compared with pure drug. This study has shown that initial crystalline state is reduced following particle size reduction and that the dissolution characteristics of atorvastatin nanosuspensions were significantly increased in regards to the pure drug. The method being simple and easily scaled up, this approach should have a general applicability to many poorly water-soluble drug entities.
Exploitation of Marine Perciformes Fishery Resources off Tuticorin, Gulf of Mannar
T. Mohanraj,C. Veerabahu
Journal of Fisheries International , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/jfish.2012.46.50
Abstract: Tuticorin is an important marine fish landing centre in India. This study was carried out between the months of June, 2008 to May, 2010. The fishes which belong to perciformes order were taken up for this research. The average annual catch of teleosts during the period 2008-2010 was 33808.1 tonnes. Perciformes contribute major teloest catches 64.2% (23658.34 tonnes) and 63.06% (23341.02 tonnes) for the period of 2008-09 and 2009-10, respectively. The perciformes fishery distinguishes with 41 families that come under 9 orders. The important families Carangidae (13.98%), Lethrinidae (5.565%), Leiognathidae (8.29%), Nemipteridae (5.33%), Scombridae (6.56%) and Sphyraenidae (5.25%) were noted. Selar crumenophthalmus, Lethrinus nebulosus, Leiognathus dussumieri, Nemipterus delagoae, Rastrelliger kanagurta and Sphyraena jello were contributed in a peculiar level on perciformes fishery.
PERFORMANCE OF A FORCED CONVECTION SOLAR DRIER INTEGRATED WITH GRAVEL AS HEAT STORAGE MATERIAL FOR CHILI DRYING
M. MOHANRAJ,P. CHANDRASEKAR
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: An indirect forced convection solar drier integrated with different sensible heat storage maternal has been developed and tested its performance for drying chili under the metrological conditions of Pollachi, India. The system consists of a flat plate solar air heater with heat storage unit, a drying chamber and a centrifugal blower. Drying experiments have been performed at an air flow rate of 0.25 kg/s. Drying of chili in a forced convection solar drier reduces the moisture content from around 72.8% (wet basis) to the final moisture content about 9.1% in 24 h. Average drier efficiency was estimated to be about 21%. The specific moisture extraction rate was estimated to be about 0.87 kg/kWh.
Performance Evaluation and Simulation of Pressurized Gasification
C. Mohanraj,J. Kesavan
International Journal on Theoretical and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: The emergence of biomass based energy warrants the evaluation of syn-gas from biomass gasification as a fuel for power systems. The earlier investigations reveal that the operating parameters strongly affect the syn gas quality. The gasifier performance was investigated with different operating pressure. The downdraft gasifier has tested with silver oak woodchips of size approximately 12mm×12mm×12mm. The total feed of 8-8.5kg of wood was fed into the system and an airflow rate of 130 lpm supplied by compressor and the gasifier was tested different pressure conditions. The main variables namely oxidation zone temperature, combustible gas contents (H2, CO & CH4), calorific value, gas production rate and conversion efficiency was studied. The percentage of total combustible gas is varied between 30.60% - 35.97% and the average composition is N2 = 44.29% – 54.78%, CH4 = 0.62% – 1.51%, H2 = 15.7% – 25.48%, CO = 7.96% – 11.4%, CO2 = 11.37% – 19.70%. The calorific value of syn gas was found to vary between 3.860 MJ/m3 – 4.374.94 MJ/m3. The conversion efficiency varied between 86.8% - 73.7%.Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used to predict the performance of the down draft biomass gasifier. For simulation purpose the combustion zone of the gasifier was separately modeled and analyzed.
A Novel Forager Agent Based Approach to Capture the Future Browsing Pattern of Online Users
Mohanraj Vijayakumar,Lakshmipathi R
Computer and Information Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/cis.v3n3p105
Abstract: A big challenge for the web master of any e-commerce website is to match user needs and keep them continuously to browse their site. It is easy for any unsatisfied user to reach out the counterpart site in a single click. Many Web usage mining methods were adopted to work on web server log and capture the future browsing pattern of user. However, the accuracy of the methods can’t satisfy the user especially in huge site. This paper presents the novel Forager agent based architecture that uses its collective intelligence for identifying the future browsing pattern of user. Our practical implementation shows that accuracy and coverage measures are very much improved than existing methods.
Nanoparticles - A review
V J Mohanraj, Y Chen
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2006,
Abstract: For the past few decades, there has been a considerable research interest in the area of drug delivery using particulate delivery systems as carriers for small and large molecules. Particulate systems like nanoparticles have been used as a physical approach to alter and improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of various types of drug molecules. They have been used in vivo to protect the drug entity in the systemic circulation, restrict access of the drug to the chosen sites and to deliver the drug at a controlled and sustained rate to the site of action. Various polymers have been used in the formulation of nanoparticles for drug delivery research to increase therapeutic benefit, while minimizing side effects. Here, we review various aspects of nanoparticle formulation, characterization, effect of their characteristics and their applications in delivery of drug molecules and therapeutic genes.
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