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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5299 matches for " Mohammed Yesuf "
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Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus: Achievements and challenges in the citrus industry: A review  [PDF]
Mohammed Yesuf
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.47046

Citruses are the worlds’ second fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of citrus. Literature reviews have been made by searching the available information on leaf and fruit spot of citrus. Journal articles, research papers, workshop proceedings, Thesis research, manuals, and quarantine regulations were among the information sources of the review. The disease is widespread in 22 African countries including Ethiopia with a single report around Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. Scattered research efforts have been made by different researchers in Africa mainly dealing with its geographic distribution, biology, and management practices. Fungicides, plant extracts/essential oils, and host resistance are among the research efforts made for the control of P. angolensis. Even though the disease is not yet reported to the rest of the world, it becomes a serious concern as an important quarantine pest thereby critically affecting the world trade and germplasm exchange of the citrus industry. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compile the scattered information on various aspects of leaf and fruit spot of citrus mainly to avail the information for researchers, development workers and policy people. Moreover, this review will suggest future research and development direction towards better understanding and sustainable management practices of the disease.

Wound healing and antiinflammatory properties of Allophylus abyssinicus (Hochst.) Radlk
Adem Yesuf, Kaleab Asres1*
Phytopharmacology , 2013,
Abstract: The leaves of Allophylus abyssinicus (Hochst.) Radlk. (Sapindaceae) are used for the treatment of wounds, burns, skin diseases and to arrest bleeding in the Ethiopian folk medicine. In this study, the hydroalcoholic extract and the different solvent fractions obtained from the leaves of A. abyssinicus were evaluated for their wound healing and antiinflammatory activities. Wound healing activity was studied using excision, incision and dead space wound models whilst carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema model was used to evaluate antiinflammatory activity. The methanolic fraction levigated in simple ointment at concentrations of 5% and 10% was found to be the most active in the excision wound model. Also, the same fraction exhibited good healing effect in incision and dead space models in a dose dependant manner. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, all the test substances except the chloroform fraction exerted significant antiinflammatory effects when compared to the control, the methanolic fraction being the most active. The present study supports the folkloric use of the plant for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory conditions.
Correlation of Endoscopic Findings with Various Helicobacter pylori Tests among Dyspeptic Patients  [PDF]
Mohammed O. Mohammed
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.519151
Abstract: Background: Helicobacter pylori is the most common chronic bacterial infection, and a significant etiological factor in acid peptic diseases and gastric cancer. Dyspepsia is a common gastrointestinal disorder, and the most common indication for gastroscopy. Detection of H. pylori during endoscopy has become standard clinical practice. Elevated levels of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), are associated with pathological changes, and hence give useful information for exact diagnosis and therapy. Objectives: To determine the relationship between endoscopic findings, highly sensitive C-reactive protein level (hs-CRP) and H. pylori infection among dyspeptic patients using serological tests, stool antigen for H. pylori and antral histology. Methods: This was a prospective study; patients with dyspepsia, who referred to Kurdistan Teaching Center of Gastroenterology & Hepatology in Sulaimani City were assessed, during the period of December 2012 to March 2014. They underwent gastroscopy, and biopsies were taken from the corpus and antral portions of antral portion for histopathological exam. Patients’ serum samples were tested for H. pylori infection using ELISA method to detect (IgG & IgA) anti-bodies and stool samples were examined using rapid immunoassay method to detect H. pylori antigens. hs-CRP was assessed using ELISA. Results: One hundred dyspeptic patients were included in the study. The mean age was 34.2 years and male comprised 54% of the study samples. The common findings in oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) examination were antral gastropathy (59%) and duodenal ulcer (21%). A statistically significant (P < 0.01) correlation was found between hs-CRP and H. pylori IgG and IgA levels (titer). There was a highly significant (P < 0.01) correlation between the level of H. pylori IgG and the endoscopic findings. The highest serum level of H. pylori IgG was found in duodenal ulcer and antral gastritis, (88.86 ± 42.0) and (70.05 ± 35.2) Au/ml, respectively. There was a highly significant correlation (P < 0.01) between endoscopic findings and H. pylori positive antral biopsy, in duodenal ulcer, antral gastritis and duodenitis was 100%, 94.9% and 75% respectively. Also duodenal ulcer and antral gastritis showed high mean and percentage but no significant differences in both H. pylori IgA and stool Antigen.
Implementing ward based clinical pharmacy services in an Ethiopian University Hospital
Mekonnen AB,Yesuf EA,Odegard PS,Wega SS
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2013,
Abstract: Background: Clinical pharmacy practice has developed internationally to expand the role of a pharmacist well beyond the traditional roles of compounding, dispensing and supplying drugs to roles more directly in caring for patients. Studies on the activities of the clinical pharmacist in an inpatient ward in resource constrained settings are scarce, however.Objective: To assess ward based clinical pharmacy services in an internal medicine ward of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Methods: The study was carried out in the internal medicine ward from March to April, 2011 at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The study design was a prospective observational study where pharmaceutical care services provided by clinical pharmacists for inpatients were documented over a period of two months. Interventions like optimization of rational drug use and physician acceptance of these recommendations were documented. Clinical significance of interventions was evaluated by an independent team (1 internist, 1 clinical pharmacologist) using a standardized method for categorizing drug related problems (DRPs). Results: A total of 149 drug related interventions conducted for 48 patients were documented; among which 133(89.3%) were clinical pharmacists initiated interventions and 16(10.7%) interventions were initiated by other health care professionals. The most frequent DRPs underlying interventions were unnecessary drug therapy, 36(24.2%); needs additional drug therapy, 34(22.8%) and noncompliance, 29(19.5%). The most frequent intervention type was change of dosage/instruction for use, 23(15.4%). Acceptance rate by physicians was 68.4%. Among the interventions that were rated as clinically significant, 46(48.9%) and 25(26.6%) had major and moderate clinical importance respectively. Conclusion: Involving trained clinical pharmacists in the healthcare team leads to clinically relevant and well accepted optimization of medicine use in a resource limited settings. This approach can likely be generalized to other health care settings in the country to improve medication outcomes.
Birth in a Health Facility –Inequalities among the Ethiopian Women: Results from Repeated National Surveys
Elias Ali Yesuf, Mirkuzie Woldie Kerie, Ronit Calderon-Margalit
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095439
Abstract: Background Uptake of health facilities for delivery care in Ethiopia has not been examined in the light of equality. We investigated differences in institutional deliveries by urbanity, administrative region, economic status and maternal education. Methods This study was based on nation-wide repeated surveys undertaken in the years 2000, 2005, and 2011. The surveys used a cluster sampling design. Women of reproductive age were interviewed on the place of their last delivery. Data was analyzed using logistic regressions to estimate the weighted association between birth in a health facility and study's predictors. Results Utilization of health institutions for deliveries has improved throughout the study period, however, rates remain low (5.4%,2000 and 11.8%,2011). Compared with women from rural places, women from urban areas had independent OR of a health facility delivery of 4.9 (95% CI: 3.4, 7.0), 5.0 (95% CI: 3.6, 6.9), and 4.6 (95% CI: 3.5, 6.0) in 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively. Women with secondary/higher education had more deliveries in a healthcare facility than women with no education, and these gaps widened over the years (OR: 35.1, 45.0 and 53.6 in 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively). Women of the upper economic quintile had 3.0–7.2 times the odds of healthcare facility deliveries, compared with the lowest quintile, with no clear trend over the years. While Addis-Ababa and Dire Dawa remained with the highest OR for deliveries in a health facility compared with Amhara, other regions displayed shifts in their relative ranking with Oromiya, SNNPR, Afar, Harari, and Somali getting relatively worse over time. Conclusions The disparity related to urbanity or education in the use of health facility for birth in Ethiopia is staggering. There is a small inequality between most regions except Addis Ababa/Dire Dawa and sign of abating inequity between economic strata except for the richest households.
Availability of Adequately Iodized Salt at Household Level and Associated Factors in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia
Hailay Gebrearegawi Gebremariam,Melkie Edris Yesuf,Digsu Negese Koye
ISRN Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/160582
Abstract: Background. Iodine deficiency has serious effects on body growth and mental development. This study assessed availability of adequately iodized salt at household level and associated factors in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was carried out among households in Gondar town during August 15–25, 2012. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire by a face-to-face interview technique. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to check associations and control confounding. Results. A total of 810 participants were participated. The availability of adequately iodized salt (≥15 parts per million) in the study area was 28.9%. Multivariate analysis showed that using packed salt (AOR (95% CI) = 9.75 (5.74, 16.56)), not exposing salt to sunlight (AOR (95% CI) = 7.26 (3.73, 14.11)), shorter storage of salt at household (AOR (95% CI) = 3.604 (1.402, 9.267)) and good knowledge of participants about iodized salt (AOR (95% CI) = 1.94 (1.23, 3.05)) were associated with availability of adequately iodized salt at household level. Conclusions. Availability of adequately iodized salt at household level was very low. Hence, households should be sensitized about importance of iodized salt and its proper handling at the household level. 1. Background Iodine is essential in small amounts for normal physiologic function. It is a critical component of thyroid hormones, which are necessary for controlling metabolic rate, growth, and development of body structures, as well as neuronal function and development. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended intake (population requirement) of iodine is 150?μg/day for adults and adolescents 13 years of age and older, 200?μg/day for women during pregnancy and lactation, 120?μg/day for children 6–12 years of age, and 90?μg/day for children 0–59 months of age [1]. Healthy humans require iodine, an essential component of the thyroid hormones, thyroxin, and triiodothyronine. Failure to have adequate iodine leads to insufficient production of these hormones, which affect many different parts of the body, particularly muscle, heart, liver, kidney, thyroid gland, and the developing brain. Inadequate hormone production adversely affects these tissues resulting in the disease states known collectively as iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). These include mental retardation, defects in development of the nervous system, goiter, physical sluggishness, growth retardation, reproductive failure, increased childhood mortality, and
General Periodic Boundary Value Problem for Systems  [PDF]
Mohammed Elnagi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.38130
Abstract: The paper deals with the existence of nonzero periodic solution of systems, where k∈(0, π/T), α, β are n×n real nonsingular matrices, μ=(μ1…μn), f(t, u)=(f1(t, u),…,fn(t, u))∈C([0, T]×□n+,□+) is periodic of period T in the t variable are continuous and nonnegative functions. We determine the Green’s function and prove that the existence of nonzero periodic positive solutions if one of . In addition, if all i=(1…n)where λ1 is the principle eigenvalues of the corresponding linear systems. The proof based on the fixed point index theorem in cones. Application of our result is given to such systems with specific nonlinearities.
Variation of the Spectrum of Operators in Infinite Dimensional Spaces  [PDF]
Mohammed Yahdi
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.37080

The paper investigates the variation of the spectrum of operators in infinite dimensional Banach spaces. Consider the space of bounded operators on a separable Banach space when equipped with the strong operator topology, and the Polish space of compact subsets of the closed unit disc of the complex plane when equipped with the Hausdorff topology. Then, it is shown that the unit spectrum function is Borel from the space of bounded operators into the Polish space of compact subsets of the closed unit disc. Alternative results are given when other topologies are used.

A New Expression for Rhotrix  [PDF]
Abdul Mohammed
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2014.42011
This paper presents a new technique for expressing rhotrices in a generalize form. The method involves using multiple array indexes as analogous to matrix expressions, unlike the earlier method in the literature, which can only be functional in a single array computational environment. The new rhotrix look will encourage the study of rhotrix algebra and analysis from a better perspective. In addition, computing efficiency and accuracy will also be improved, particularly when the operations in rhotrix space over the new expression are algorithmatized for computing machines.
Nature of Centennial Global Climate Change from Observational Records  [PDF]
Mohammed Anwer
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.44027
Abstract: In order to provide a better benchmark for climate simulation programs, climate data at Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) and Global Summary of the Day (GSOD) archived by the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) are used to ascertain the nature of climate change over the last century. After data validation, about 6000 stations are considered globally to determine the change in mean temperature, and about 5000 stations to determine that change in maximum and minimum temperatures. Global nature of temperature and its change are presented separately for January and July. Both maximum and minimum daily temperatures are used in the analysis. Trend of global change in annual precipitation is also reported here. Least square linear regression is used to ascertain the nature of these changes. Global nature of temperatures in both January and July show bimodal distributions, with the geographical region between the tropics in one mode and the region outside the tropic in another mode. The individual distributions of temperatures of both these regions show separate and similar histograms. Results indicate that over the last century, temperature in January increased more than that during July. Furthermore the minimum temperature in each case increased more than the maximum temperature. Ten separate estimates of temperature change are obtained from the data presented here using different methods. Considering all these estimates, the mean rise in temperature during January was 2.19°C, and during July was 1.72°C. The geographical nature of the rise in temperature shows that though it rises in most locations, the temperature also reduces along eastern Asia, some parts of central Russia, along south-eastern Australia, and along the east coast of the United States. Predominant rise in temperature is mostly over Europe, and in the arctic. Change in precipitation shows that though there is significant reduction rainfall globally, rainfall increases along the equator, in areas around the Gulf of Mexico, along eastern Asia, along the western coast of India, and along the eastern coast of Australia.
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