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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23564 matches for " Mohammed U. Kawu "
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Ameliorative Effect of Vitamin C on Alterations in Thyroid Hormones Concentrations Induced by Subchronic Coadministration of Chlorpyrifos and Lead in Wistar Rats
Suleiman F. Ambali,Chinedu Orieji,Woziri O. Abubakar,Muftau Shittu,Mohammed U. Kawu
Journal of Thyroid Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/214924
Abstract: The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of vitamin C on alteration in thyroid hormones induced by low-dose subchronic coadministration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and lead (Pb). Forty Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each. Groups I and II were administered soya oil (2?mL/kg) and vitamin C (100?mg/kg), respectively. Group III was coadministered CPF (4.25?mg/kg ~1/20th LD50) and Pb (250?mg/kg ~1/20th LD50), respectively. Group IV was pretreated with vitamin C (100?mg/kg) and then coadministered with CPF (4.25?mg/kg) and Pb (250?mg/kg), 30?min later. The regimens were administered by gavage for a period of 9 weeks. The marginal decrease in serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine and the significant increase in the concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone and malonaldehyde in the group coadministered with CPF and Pb were ameliorated by vitamin C partly due to its antioxidant properties. 1. Introduction Man and animals are exposed to a “soup” of chemical contaminants in the environment, which directly or indirectly affect their health and well-being. Pesticides and heavy metals are the most common environmental contaminants because of their respective widespread use in agriculture and industries. Hitherto, most studies on these chemical contaminants have centered on the examination of one single agent and therefore, current understanding of the toxicity of many environmental toxicants/pollutants is based primarily on toxicity studies performed on laboratory animals exposed to a single toxic agent [1, 2]. However, the environment is heavily contaminated with many chemicals, which interact with each other in such a way that modify their toxic response in humans and animals. Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used insecticides accounting for 50% of global insecticidal use [3] while Pb is the most widespread heavy metal contaminants with wide applications [4]. Occupational and environmental Pb exposure continues to be among the most significant public health problems [4–7]. Due to their persistent nature in the environment and their toxicodynamics, CPF and Pb have resulted in deleterious effects in man and animals [8]. The toxicity of Pb remains a matter of public health concern [9] due to its pervasiveness in the environment and the awareness about its toxic effects [10] at exposure levels lower than what was previously considered harmful [11]. Reproductive consequences of Pb exposure are widespread [12], affecting almost all aspects of reproduction [13]. Pb induces decreased sperm count and motility and increased
Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes Evaluation in Lactating Female Albino Rats Following Supplementation with Fermented Soya Bean and Vitamin C  [PDF]
I. S. Malgwi, Y. Tanko, M. U. Kawu, E. D. Eze, H. A. Salami, N. S. Emmanuel, A. Mohammed
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2017.52003
Abstract: In mammals, lactation is the most energetically demanding period of a female’s reproductive life. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of fermented Soya bean and Vitamin C supplement on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in lactating albino rats. Thirty five (35) adult female rats were used for this study. At parturition, the animals were randomly divided into five groups of five (5) rats each. Except group four (4) that was subdivided into three (3) sub groups of five animals each (n = 5). Treatment was carried out as follows: Group I: (Normal control) was given normal feed and distilled water, orally (1 ml/kg), Group II: metoclopramide (5 mg/kg), Group III: 100 mg/kg of Vitamin C. The three (3) sub groups under group four (4) received 10%, 20% and 40% soya bean, respectively, Group V: was co-administered with 20% soya bean supplement and Vitamin C (100 mg/kg). Treatment was done for the period of ten (10) days at 06:00 h daily. Although there was an increase in serum MDA concentrations in all the treated groups compared to the control, lipid peroxidation was however significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the metoclopramide group relative to the soya bean supplemented groups. This study has shown that supplementation with soya bean induces a mild antioxidant effect by increasing serum level of superoxide dismutase. There was however a significant decrease in serum SOD in the 10% SB group compared to the control. There was a significant difference in serum catalase activity in the group treated with METCL (46.20 ± 1.53), SB 10% (44.00 ± 1.14) and SB 20% (45.20 ± 1.28) compared to the control (52.00 ± 0.71) (P < 0.05). Serum level of glutathione peroxidase GPx showed a significant difference in the group treated with VIT C, SB 10% and SB 20% compared to the control (P < 0.05).
Effect of Yeast Probiotic on Growth, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Concentration of Broiler Chickens
Tagang Aluwong,Mohammed Kawu,Moshood Raji,Tavershima Dzenda,Felix Govwang,Victor Sinkalu,Joseph Ayo
Antioxidants , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/antiox2040326
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on hybrid Hubbard broiler chickens ( n = 200). Two-hundred day-old chicks were randomly selected and distributed into four groups of 50 day-old chicks each: Control, C, and treatment groups comprising T 1, T 2 and T 3 administered with 0.25 mL, 0.5 mL and 1.0 mL yeast probiotic, respectively. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet for the first 28 days of age, followed by pelleted finisher diet from 29 to 42 days. Chickens in T 1 had a significantly ( p < 0.01) higher body weight at 4th week of age when compared with the control. SOD activity in all treatment groups was not significantly ( p > 0.05) different when compared with the control. GPx activity was significantly ( p < 0.01) higher in T 1, when compared with the control. GPx activity in T 2 was higher ( p < 0.01) when compared with the control. There was no significant ( p > 0.05) difference in MDA level in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, administering yeast probiotic supplement increased body weight and enhanced serum anti-oxidant enzyme activities of broiler chickens.
Synthesis and Characterization of Mass Produced High Quality Few Layered Graphene Sheets via a Chemical Method  [PDF]
Mohammed Khenfouch, U. Buttner, Mimouna Ba?toul, Malik Maaza
Graphene (Graphene) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/graphene.2014.32002
Abstract:

Graphene is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. It is a zero band gap semimetal with very unique physical and chemical properties which make it useful for many applications such as ultra-high-speed field-effect transistors, p-n junction diodes, terahertz oscillators, and low-noise electronic, NEMS and sensors. When the high quality mass production of this nanomaterial is still a big challenge, we developed a process which will be an important step to achieve this goal. Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Scanning tunneling microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray system were investigated to characterize and examine the quality of this product.

Impact of Swelling Indices of Sokoto Clays on the Moulding Properties of the Clays in Sand Mixtures  [PDF]
Ihom A. Paul, Suleiman U. Mohammed, Nyior G. Bem
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.1110109
Abstract: The Impact of Swelling Indices of Sokoto Clays on the Moulding Properties of the Clays in Sand Mixtures was investi- gated. Four clays (labeled A, B, C, D) from different locations in Sokoto state of Nigeria were sampled. The sampling method was that for each deposit five samples were taken at different positions and then mixed together. At the labora- tory they were washed to remove organic matter and then dried at 110°C in the oven. A laboratory ball mill was used to grind the dried clays. Each of the clay was then sampled for the determination of its swelling index. The determination of the moulding properties of the clays then followed. Only green compression strength, dry compression strength and green permeability, moulding properties were determined. The analysis of the result revealed that clay B has the highest green and dry strength values it had the highest green compression strength of 71.7 KN/m2 and the highest dry com- pression strength of 3225.75 KN/m2. Clay B also has the highest swelling index of 60% and very high degree of expan- siveness when compared to the other three clays. Clay B was followed by clay A with swelling index of 25%; the clay has high green and dry compression strength and a moderate degree of expansiveness. The inability of clay D with swelling index of 40% to be the next clay to clay B which has the highest swelling index of 60% among the four clays in terms of good moulding properties is an indication that high swelling index does not always mean good moulding properties in clay binders.
Etiology and antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired urinary tract infections in J N M C Hospital Aligarh, India
Mohammed Akram, Mohammed Shahid, Asad U Khan
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-6-4
Abstract: Urinary isolates from symptomatic UTI cases attending to the JN Medical College and hospital at Aligarh were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. Isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporin were tested for ESBL production by double disk synergy test method.Of the 920 tested sample 100 samples showed growth of pathogens among which the most prevalent were E. coli (61%) followed by Klebsiella spp (22%). The majority (66.66%) of the isolates were from female while the remaining were from male. Among the gram-negative enteric bacilli high prevalence of resistance was observed against ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. Most of the isolates were resistant to 4 or more number of antibiotics. Forty two percent of isolates were detected to produce ESBL among which 34.42 % were E. coli isolates.This study revealed that E. coli was the predominant bacterial pathogen of community acquired UTIs in Aligarh, India. It also demonstrated an increasing resistance to Co-trimoxazole and production of extended spectrum β-lactamase among UTI pathogens in the community. This study is useful for clinician in order to improve the empiric treatment.Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second most common infectious presentation in community practice. Worldwide, about 150 million people are diagnosed with UTI each year, costing the global economy in excess of 6 billion US dollars [1]. UTI may involve only the lower urinary tract or may involve both the upper and lower tract. The term cystitis has been used to describe lower UTI, which is characterized by a syndrome involving dysuria, frequency, urgency and occasionally suprapubic tenderness. However, the presence of symptoms of lower tract without upper tract symptoms does not exclude upper tract infection, which is also often present [2].UTIs are often treated with different broad-spectrum antibiotics when one with a narrow spectrum of activity may
Pattern and presentation of spine trauma in Gwagwalada Abuja, Nigeria
A Ahidjo Kawu
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: The objective was to demonstrate the correlations and effects of age, gender, and cause of accident on the type of vertebral fracture as well as on the likelihood to sustain neurological deficit following trauma in Nigeria. Background: Spinal column injury is a well documented problem but literature has been mute on this problem in Nigeria unlike the many papers on spinal cord injury. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of spinal cord injured (SCI) patients was performed. Age, sex, cause and level of injury, fracture pattern and distribution, and neurologic presentation of SCI patients from 1997 to 2007 were studied from case notes. Results: There were 202 patients with male preponderance and a mean age of 38.9 ± 11.4 years over the 11 year period. The most common cause of spine injury was road traffic injury (79.7%). Cervical spine injury (10.4%) accounted for the highest number of cases with complete neurologic deficit. The majority of patients, 119 (58.9%) sustained a type A fracture, 37 (18.3%) a type B fracture, and 41(20.3%) patients experienced a type C fracture. All patients had neurologic deficits. Age (P=0.032) and road traffic injury (P=0.029) were independently associated with type of fracture after multivariate analysis. Age (P=0.038), road traffic injury (P=0.027), and cervical spine fracture (P=0.009) were also independently associated with neurologic deficit. Conclusion: These data showed the correlation between trauma mechanism and the type of fracture seen, and also the type of fracture and the incidence of neurologic deficit. The predictors of fracture types are age and road traffic injury while age, road traffic injury, and cervical spine fractures predict neurologic deficit.
The Use Of A Proforma Improves The Assessment Of Spinal Cord Injury In Abuja, Nigeria
Kawu Ahidjo A.,Kawu-ahidjo HO , Esenwah Vc
International Journal of Biological and Medical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: To determine how the use of a proforma affects the completeness of assessment of spinal cord injured patients at the casualty of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital Gwagwalada, Abuja. Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a well documented problem. Assessment protocol of SCI has not been fully established in the casualty of most major trauma centre in Nigeria and where it is used there has not been any report of its efficacy in the literature. Our hypothesis is that proforma based assessment protocol use would improve the assessment of patients with spinal cord injury. Methods: Data on all spinal cord injured patients were prospectively documented over a 12 month period of 2009. The University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH) Gwagwalada spine assessment proforma lists all items considered to be essential for a complete assessment of spinal cord injured patients in the casualty. This was then compared to the data obtained from patients admitted for spinal cord injury from 1997 to 2007 before the introduction of the proforma in December 2008. Results: Preproforma, 202 patients were assessed and 196 (97%) had one or more items missing from their reports compared to only 10/86 (11.6%) patients postproforma (p=0.001). Prehospital care, mechanism of injury, extrication, evacuation, fracture pattern, bulbocavernous reflex and standardized neurologic assessment were the items most often absent, being significantly more frequently reported after the proforma . Conclusion: Proforma based assessment protocol would help in accurate data collection and provide adequate data for informed, objective and standardized management of spinal cord injured patients.
Facet joints infiltration: A viable alternative treatment to physiotherapy in patients with low back pain due to facet joint arthropathy
AA Kawu, A Olawepo, AOO Salami
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2011,
Abstract: Background: There is a paucity of information on treatment options and outcome of treatment of patients that have MRI findings of FJA presenting with low back pain in the developing country. This prospective cohort study conducted mainly in the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital Gwagwalada, Abuja Nigeria is to compare the short-term clinical outcome between two groups, one having undergone facet joints infiltration (FJI) and the other physiotherapy for facet joint arthropathy (FJA). Materials and Methods: All patients with clinical lower back pain (LBP) and MRI features of FJA were recruited into this prospective study randomly. All the FJI patients had depot methylprednisolone and the physiotherapy patients had McKenzie regimen. Outcome questionnaires comprising Oswentry disability index scores (ODI), visual analogue scores (VAS), and patient satisfaction scores (PSS) were completed at all clinic visits. Follow-up was for 6 months for both groups. The results were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Result: There were 10 FJI patients and 8 physiotherapy patients (1.25: 1). The outcome scores comprised the following ODI, VAS, and PSS. The FJI group had a better score compared to the physiotherapy group at short-term evaluation and this difference was statistically significant. The female patients in both groups fare better compared to the male counterparts. Conclusions: FJI offered added benefit over physiotherapy in LBPs diagnosed with FJA. Patients with FJI have a significant reduction in pain symptom than the patients in the physiotherapy group. Though majority of the patients reported satisfactory outcome, the FJI patients group had a better outcome.
Synthetic fiber from a teddy bear causing keratitis and conjunctival granuloma: case report
Mohammed K Farooq, Jan U Prause, Steffen Heegaard
BMC Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-11-17
Abstract: Case stories with histopathological analysis. 1) A two-year-old girl developed a severe case of keratitis and corneal ulceration. The initial treatment with various antibiotics gave no improvement and eventually the patient developed spontaneous perforation of the cornea. The corneal swabs contained no bacteria or fungi. Corneal grafting was performed and the corneal button was sent for histopathological examination. 2) A five-year-old girl presented with ocular irritation in her left eye. Examination revealed a conjunctival granuloma in the inferior fornix. The lesion was excised and histopathologically examined.Microscopy revealed synthetic fibers embedded in the cornea and in the conjunctival granuloma. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of marked birefringence of the synthetic fibers. Microscopical examination of synthetic fibers from two different types of fur (whiskers and face hairs) from the two-year-old girl's teddy bear was performed. Hairs from the face of the teddy bear were morphologically and microscopically identical with the fibers causing the severe corneal ulceration in the two-year-old girl.Doctors should especially in small children be aware of the risk of ocular consequences of close exposure of synthetic fibers from stuffed toy animals. Corneal ulceration, clinically presenting as corneal infection with negative culturing and staining, should lead to a different clinical strategy and treatment. The treatment of conjunctival synthetic fiber granuloma is excision and antibiotic eye drops.A close exposure of the eyes of stuffed toy animals and blankets made of synthetic material may cause penetration of the conjunctiva or the cornea by synthetic fibers [1,2]. Usually, foreign bodies are removed from the ocular surface by the eye protective mechanisms as blinking and tearing. However, foreign bodies may be retained and encapsulated by the mucous and initiate a local inflammatory response [3-5]. This may cause granuloma formation in the co
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