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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5302 matches for " Mohammed Tahiru Bolori "
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Behaviour of People Living with HIV Aids in Northeastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Mohammed Tahiru Bolori, Mary Olubisi Amodu, Isah Muhammad Ahmad, Haruna Yusuph, Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103944
Introduction: Human Behavior is important as one of the determinants of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The risk of getting infected with HIV as well as subsequent developments and reactions after the infection has a direct bearing on human behavior. Positive behavior change of HIV infection prevention is less than the level of awareness and knowledge pertaining the disease among PLWHA. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on PLWHA attending clinic at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data by systematic random sampling technique. The objective of the research was to understand more about the behaviour of PLWHA and make recommendations on how to improve the behavioral change communications among PLWHA to curb the menace of HIV infection. Results: The people living with HIV/AIDs may be knowledgeable and having high awareness on HIV/AIDS but may not necessarily reflect into good behaviors concerning, taking the right steps to prevent menaces of HIV infection. The behavior of PLWHA was found to have gaps that portend danger in regard to making life more miserable to victims and portend more risk of getting others infected. The gaps are mainly related to psychological issues (e.g., lack of enjoyment or with condom use), beliefs, stigma and financial issues. Conclusion: Counselling should be used to inculcate technic, good morals, attitude and practices among PLWHA to prevent them from deliberate or spontaneous attempts to infect others with the virus. Safer and satisfying sex can be promoted through expanding knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS and removing stigma among the general populace through community health education as well as through schools’ curricula. Empowerment of the youths in public and private settings discourages exchanging sexual intercourse for financial gains.
Malnutrition among Children under 5 Does Not Correlate with Higher Socio Economic Status of Parents in Rural Communities  [PDF]
Ahmad Isah Muhammad, Isa Yunusa, Mohammed Tahiru Bolori, Lawrence Uchenna Sunday Ezeanyika, Hamisu Abdullahi Walla, Zulaihat Mukhtar Gidado
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103906
Introduction: Understanding the socioeconomic characteristics of families with undernourished children is very critical to providing solution to the menace especially in rural communities where there is complexity in the relationship between economic activities, education and parental care and the undernutrition. Objectives: The study is aimed at understanding the nutritional status of children under the age of 5 years in relation to the socio economic status of the family so as to determine causes of vulnerability. Methods: Hospital based cross sectional study was carried among 505 children under the age of 5 years, taking measurement of their Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) using standard techniques and also taking records of their families’ socioeconomic data using structured questionnaire. Results: Record of nutritional status of the children sampled shows that undernourished children were 345 (68.3%) and the nourished were 160 (31.7%). The number of times each child felt sick within the last one year shows that out of the total 505 children, 140 (27.72%) fell sick once, 155 (30.69%) fall sick twice in the previous year, 65 (12.87%) felt sick three times, 55 (10.89%) felt sick four times due to either malaria, undernutrition or other factors. Children born to farmers, constituting 51.5% of the sampled children have as high as 69.2% prevalence of undernutrition, compared to those born to beggars (0%). The highest prevalence is recorded in children born to petty traders (80%), followed by government workers and commercial motorcyclist with 75% each. Prevalence of 100% was recorded in the sampled children whose father attains tertiary level of education, followed by those who attain only secondary level of education (68%). Conclusion: There is high prevalence of undernutrition among children in rural communities which is often underestimated for the fact that rural dwellers of Kano are mostly farmers and that they are adequate to provide for their children. Frequency of illnesses among the children of rural dwellers is associated with the nutritional status of the children. Malnutrition is not always dependent on the occupation and educational status of the parents or whether child parents are alive or not. Children of farmers and learned persons are also very susceptible to malnutrition in the rural communities of Kano. Nutritional education and programs should as well target all families with varied socioeconomic status, including farmers, petty traders and those with high educational status without making assumptions that they are less susceptible to malnutrition.
Is There Any Difference of Financial Features between Bidder and Target Banks in Nigeria Mergers and Acquisitions?  [PDF]
Bukar Umar Bolori
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104729
The Nigerian Banking sector has suffered problematic times since 1999, when the sector was facing problems of corporate governance as identified by the Central Bank of Nigeria. However, CBN started embarking on a comprehensive reform agenda since that time and many measures have been taken to bring the sector on the right track by imposing an IMF Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial policies. Mergers and Acquisitions (M & A) is a process “where two or more companies are combined to achieve certain strategic and business objectives”. Therefore, Merger and Acquisition seems as a means of achieving business and strategy objectives. The study examined the differences of financial features among bidder and target banks in the Nigerian commercial banking sector. The findings of paired t-test on financial features among bidder and target banks show that bidders and targets’ mean of each variable and financial features between bidder and target banks for 3 years (2002-2004) average indicates that bidders and targets’ mean of each variable are statistically different at 5%. Similarly, the findings for bidder banks’ performance of 5 years (2000-2004) before and 5 years (2006-2010) after mergers and bidder banks’ performance of 3 years (2002-2004) before and 3 years after mergers (2006-2008) are also statistically different at 5%. The study recommends that managers of large and efficient banks seeking to go for merger and acquisition should halt from targeting small and less efficient banks because it will lead to operational inefficiency.
Susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera:Culicidae) to permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb in Ibadan city, Southwest Nigeria
Kolade Tahiru Ibrahim,Kehinde Olajide Popoola,Oluwatobi Rebecca Adewuyi
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: This study was carried out to assess the resistance/susceptibility level of An.gambiae s.l, a major malaria vector in Ibadan metropolis, south west Nigeria, to two classes of insecticides approved by World Health Organization (WHO) for vector control. Anopheles larvae were collected from two communities (Ojoo and Bodija) within the metropolis and reared to adults. Two to three-day old, non-engorged female mosquitoes were exposed to discriminating dosages of 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin and 0.1% bendiocarb using WHO protocols and susceptibility test kits. Knockdown effect was recorded every 10 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Species identification was by morphological characteristics only. The study revealed that the major malaria vector in Nigeria, An.gambiae s.l,An.gambiae s.l, were susceptible (mortality rate of 98.8%) to deltamethrin in Ojoo community, while Bodija recorded marginal susceptibility (87.5%). Both sites showed reduced susceptibility to permethrin and resistance to bendiocarb with 24 h post exposure mortalities ranging from 83.5% to 87.7% and 70.0% and 52.5%, respectively. The median knockdown time (KDT50) from 22-44.2 min for the pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin), while that of carbamates (bendiocarb) range from 35.2 to 49.5 min. Resistance recorded in the field populations of An.gambiae s.l in Ibadan to bendiocarb was not observed in same population exposed to the pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) but with differential susceptibility. Therefore Bendiocarb may not be suitable as alternatives to mitigate pyrethroid resistance. A rationalised use of these insecticides coupled with regular monitoring of resistance status is essential to improve and evaluate the efficacy of the current vector control tools (ITN and IRS).
Correlation of Endoscopic Findings with Various Helicobacter pylori Tests among Dyspeptic Patients  [PDF]
Mohammed O. Mohammed
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.519151
Abstract: Background: Helicobacter pylori is the most common chronic bacterial infection, and a significant etiological factor in acid peptic diseases and gastric cancer. Dyspepsia is a common gastrointestinal disorder, and the most common indication for gastroscopy. Detection of H. pylori during endoscopy has become standard clinical practice. Elevated levels of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), are associated with pathological changes, and hence give useful information for exact diagnosis and therapy. Objectives: To determine the relationship between endoscopic findings, highly sensitive C-reactive protein level (hs-CRP) and H. pylori infection among dyspeptic patients using serological tests, stool antigen for H. pylori and antral histology. Methods: This was a prospective study; patients with dyspepsia, who referred to Kurdistan Teaching Center of Gastroenterology & Hepatology in Sulaimani City were assessed, during the period of December 2012 to March 2014. They underwent gastroscopy, and biopsies were taken from the corpus and antral portions of antral portion for histopathological exam. Patients’ serum samples were tested for H. pylori infection using ELISA method to detect (IgG & IgA) anti-bodies and stool samples were examined using rapid immunoassay method to detect H. pylori antigens. hs-CRP was assessed using ELISA. Results: One hundred dyspeptic patients were included in the study. The mean age was 34.2 years and male comprised 54% of the study samples. The common findings in oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) examination were antral gastropathy (59%) and duodenal ulcer (21%). A statistically significant (P < 0.01) correlation was found between hs-CRP and H. pylori IgG and IgA levels (titer). There was a highly significant (P < 0.01) correlation between the level of H. pylori IgG and the endoscopic findings. The highest serum level of H. pylori IgG was found in duodenal ulcer and antral gastritis, (88.86 ± 42.0) and (70.05 ± 35.2) Au/ml, respectively. There was a highly significant correlation (P < 0.01) between endoscopic findings and H. pylori positive antral biopsy, in duodenal ulcer, antral gastritis and duodenitis was 100%, 94.9% and 75% respectively. Also duodenal ulcer and antral gastritis showed high mean and percentage but no significant differences in both H. pylori IgA and stool Antigen.
General Periodic Boundary Value Problem for Systems  [PDF]
Mohammed Elnagi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.38130
Abstract: The paper deals with the existence of nonzero periodic solution of systems, where k∈(0, π/T), α, β are n×n real nonsingular matrices, μ=(μ1…μn), f(t, u)=(f1(t, u),…,fn(t, u))∈C([0, T]×□n+,□+) is periodic of period T in the t variable are continuous and nonnegative functions. We determine the Green’s function and prove that the existence of nonzero periodic positive solutions if one of . In addition, if all i=(1…n)where λ1 is the principle eigenvalues of the corresponding linear systems. The proof based on the fixed point index theorem in cones. Application of our result is given to such systems with specific nonlinearities.
Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus: Achievements and challenges in the citrus industry: A review  [PDF]
Mohammed Yesuf
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.47046

Citruses are the worlds’ second fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of citrus. Literature reviews have been made by searching the available information on leaf and fruit spot of citrus. Journal articles, research papers, workshop proceedings, Thesis research, manuals, and quarantine regulations were among the information sources of the review. The disease is widespread in 22 African countries including Ethiopia with a single report around Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. Scattered research efforts have been made by different researchers in Africa mainly dealing with its geographic distribution, biology, and management practices. Fungicides, plant extracts/essential oils, and host resistance are among the research efforts made for the control of P. angolensis. Even though the disease is not yet reported to the rest of the world, it becomes a serious concern as an important quarantine pest thereby critically affecting the world trade and germplasm exchange of the citrus industry. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compile the scattered information on various aspects of leaf and fruit spot of citrus mainly to avail the information for researchers, development workers and policy people. Moreover, this review will suggest future research and development direction towards better understanding and sustainable management practices of the disease.

Variation of the Spectrum of Operators in Infinite Dimensional Spaces  [PDF]
Mohammed Yahdi
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.37080

The paper investigates the variation of the spectrum of operators in infinite dimensional Banach spaces. Consider the space of bounded operators on a separable Banach space when equipped with the strong operator topology, and the Polish space of compact subsets of the closed unit disc of the complex plane when equipped with the Hausdorff topology. Then, it is shown that the unit spectrum function is Borel from the space of bounded operators into the Polish space of compact subsets of the closed unit disc. Alternative results are given when other topologies are used.

A New Expression for Rhotrix  [PDF]
Abdul Mohammed
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2014.42011
This paper presents a new technique for expressing rhotrices in a generalize form. The method involves using multiple array indexes as analogous to matrix expressions, unlike the earlier method in the literature, which can only be functional in a single array computational environment. The new rhotrix look will encourage the study of rhotrix algebra and analysis from a better perspective. In addition, computing efficiency and accuracy will also be improved, particularly when the operations in rhotrix space over the new expression are algorithmatized for computing machines.
Nature of Centennial Global Climate Change from Observational Records  [PDF]
Mohammed Anwer
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.44027
Abstract: In order to provide a better benchmark for climate simulation programs, climate data at Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) and Global Summary of the Day (GSOD) archived by the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) are used to ascertain the nature of climate change over the last century. After data validation, about 6000 stations are considered globally to determine the change in mean temperature, and about 5000 stations to determine that change in maximum and minimum temperatures. Global nature of temperature and its change are presented separately for January and July. Both maximum and minimum daily temperatures are used in the analysis. Trend of global change in annual precipitation is also reported here. Least square linear regression is used to ascertain the nature of these changes. Global nature of temperatures in both January and July show bimodal distributions, with the geographical region between the tropics in one mode and the region outside the tropic in another mode. The individual distributions of temperatures of both these regions show separate and similar histograms. Results indicate that over the last century, temperature in January increased more than that during July. Furthermore the minimum temperature in each case increased more than the maximum temperature. Ten separate estimates of temperature change are obtained from the data presented here using different methods. Considering all these estimates, the mean rise in temperature during January was 2.19°C, and during July was 1.72°C. The geographical nature of the rise in temperature shows that though it rises in most locations, the temperature also reduces along eastern Asia, some parts of central Russia, along south-eastern Australia, and along the east coast of the United States. Predominant rise in temperature is mostly over Europe, and in the arctic. Change in precipitation shows that though there is significant reduction rainfall globally, rainfall increases along the equator, in areas around the Gulf of Mexico, along eastern Asia, along the western coast of India, and along the eastern coast of Australia.
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