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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5206 matches for " Mohammed Akrim "
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Fathiah Zakham,Oufae Lahlou,Mohammed Akrim,Nada Bouklata
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2012.
Abstract: Background: Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem and the rapid diagnosis and appropriate chemotherapy become the first priority and a serious challenge to improve TB treatment. In the objective of early TB diagnosis and rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in the clinical specimens, the utility of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using the Insertion Sequence 6110 (IS6110) as target was compared to conventional methods. Methods: Out of 305 patients with different clinical manifestations: suspected, new, drug relapse, drug failure and chronic cases were enrolled in this study and tested by mycobacteriological and PCR techniques for the investigation about the tubercle bacilli. Results: The results of the in house IS6110 PCR showed a good sensitivity (92, 42%) and high specificity (98%), the positive and negative predictive values were 96.4 % and 95.3 % respectively. Conclusion: This study showed clearly that the PCR testing using the IS6110 in the routine analysis is a potential tool for the rapid TB diagnosis, especially for critical cases and would be of great interest to help the clinician in the misdiagnosed critical cases by the traditional radiology.
L’hypermédia Géo-terrain : un outil pertinent au service des apprentissages en géologie de terrain
Laila Lamarti,Abdelmjid Ben Bouziane,Hammad Akrim,Mohammed Talbi
Revue Internationale des Technologies en Pédagogie Universitaire , 2009,
Abstract: [Fran ais] Conscient de l’apport des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication dans l’amélioration de l’enseignement et l’apprentissage, le ministère de l’éducation nationale marocain a insisté, dans la Charte nationale d’éducation et de formation, sur leur utilisation. étant donné l’évolution rapide des technologies, il y a une remise en question des modes de transmission, d’acquisition et de restitution des savoirs qui entra ne non seulement des changements dans la sélection et l’articulation des objectifs ainsi que dans les contenus d’apprentissage, mais également une réflexion sur la manière de concevoir et de mettre en uvre les situations d’enseignement-apprentissage. Dans ce sens, l’enseignant des sciences de la Terre, qui se base en premier lieu sur le réel naturel, utilise des documents substituts qui rapprochent cette réalité de l’apprenant, et ce, à travers les représentations graphiques, iconiques, les moyens audiovisuels, etc. C’est dans cette perspective que le logiciel Géo-terrain est con u, pour essayer de combler un vide largement ressenti dans nos établissements. [English] Conscious of the contributions of the new information and communication technologies to improve teaching and learning, the Moroccan Ministry of Education insisted, through the educational and training national charter, on their use. Given the fast evolution of these technologies, “the school” has to question the modes of transmission, acquisition and restoration of knowledge. This entails not only changes in the selection and linkage of the objectives as well as in the contents of learning, but also a reflection on the way of conceiving and implementing education teaching. The teacher in sciences is based first of all on the natural real, he can use documents, which substitute this reality and approach the learner through graphics, iconic representations and audiovisual means, and it is in this perspective that the software Géo-terrain is built.
La place de l’évaluation dans la réforme du système éducatif marocain : questions pour la recherche
Hamadi Akrim,Gérard Figari,Lucie Mottier-Lopez,Mohammed Talbi
Questions Vives : Recherches en éducation , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/questionsvives.323
Abstract: Existe-t-il des modèles applicables à la définition d’une politique d’évaluation accompagnant la réforme d’un système éducatif ? Cet article propose de répondre à cette question en l’appliquant au système marocain d’éducation et de formation. A travers la littérature existante, il formule, à la fois, la problématique de l’évaluation des dispositifs et des programmes dans une perspective aussi bien stratégique que méthodologique et celle de l’évaluation des apprentissages en concordance avec l’introduction de l’approche par compétences. L’intérêt de cette revue réside dans le fait de contribuer à la recherche de modèles d’évaluation pouvant aider au choix d’une politique évaluative au niveau des micro et méso-structures. Are there models for defining a policy assessment to accompany the reform of the education system? This article aims at examining this question through the Moroccan system of education and training. The evaluation of programs and devices is discussed from a strategic and methodological perspective. The assessment of students’ learning is also explored according to the implementation of the “Competency-based Approach”. The interest of this review is to contribute to defining assessment models that could help to choose a policy-level evaluation with regard to micro and meso-structures.
The Genotypic Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Moroccan Patients Reveals a Predominance of Euro-American Lineages
Ouafae Lahlou, Julie Millet, Imane Chaoui, Radia Sabouni, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Mohammed Akrim, Mohammed El Mzibri, Nalin Rastogi, Rajae El Aouad
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047113
Abstract: Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Morocco. Characterization of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypic lineages, important to understand the dynamic of the disease, was hereby addressed for the first time at a national level. Methodology/Principal Findings Spoligotyping was performed on a panel of 592 M. tuberculosis complex strains covering a 2-year period (2004–2006). It identified 129 patterns: 105 (n = 568 strains) corresponded to a SIT number in the SITVIT2 database, while 24 patterns were labeled as orphan. A total of 523 (88.3%) strains were clustered vs. 69 or 11.7% unclustered. Classification of strains within 3 large phylogenetical groups was as follows: group 1– ancestral/TbD1+/PGG1 (EAI, Bovis, Africanum), group 2– modern/TbD1?/PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS), group 3– evolutionary recent/TbD1?/PGG2/3 (Haarlem, X, S, T, LAM; alternatively designated as the Euro-American lineage). As opposed to group 3 strains (namely LAM, Haarlem, and T) that predominated (86.5% of all isolates), 6 strains belonged to group 2 (Beijing n = 5, CAS n = 1), and 3 strains (BOV_1 n = 2, BOV_4-CAPRAE) belonged to ancestral group 1 (EAI and AFRI lineage strains were absent). 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing of the Casablanca subgroup (n = 114 strains) identified 71 patterns: 48 MITs and 23 orphan patterns; it allowed to reduce the clustering rate from 72.8% to 29.8% and the recent transmission rate from 64% to 20.2%. Conclusion The M. tuberculosis population structure in Morocco is highly homogeneous, and is characterized by the predominance of the Euro-American lineages, namely LAM, Haarlem, and T, which belong to the “evolutionary recent” TbD1?/PGG2/3 phylogenetic group. The combination of spoligotyping and MIRUs decreased the clustering rate significantly, and should now be systematically applied in larger studies. The methods used in this study appear well suited to monitor the M. tuberculosis population structure for an enhanced TB management program in Morocco.
HIV-1 Subtype distribution in morocco based on national sentinel surveillance data 2004-2005
Mohammed Akrim, Sanae Lemrabet, Elmir Elharti, Rebecca R Gray, Jean Tardy, Robert L Cook, Marco Salemi, Patrice Andre, Taj Azarian, Rajae Aouad
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-9-5
Abstract: While subtype B is still the most prevalent, 23.3% of samples represented non-B subtypes, the majority of which were classified as CRF02_AG (15%). Molecular clock analysis confirmed that the initial introduction of HIV-1B in Morocco probably came from Europe in the early 1980s. In contrast, the CRF02_AG strain appeared to be introduced from sub-Saharan Africa in two separate events in the 1990s.Subtype CRF02_AG has been emerging in Morocco since the 1990s. More information about the factors introducing HIV subtype-specific transmission will inform the prevention strategy in the region.HIV-1 variability remains a formidable challenge for designing a protective vaccine or an effective cure. The HIV-1 is divided into 4 groups: M, N, O and P. Group M is responsible for the current pandemic and includes more than 49 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), 9 subtypes, 5 sub-subtypes, and unique recombinant forms (URFs) [1,2]. HIV genetic diversity is generated by the high rate of virus mutation, rapid viral turnover and frequent recombination events between subtypes [3]. Furthermore, there is an unequal geographic distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs around the world characterized by different epidemic behaviours and growth rates [4]. For instance, in western Europe and North America, subtype B is the most prevalent whereas in sub-Saharan Africa subtypes A, C, D and CRF02_AG predominate [5-7]. This geographic distribution of HIV-1 subtypes could result from migration, travel, or geographic accessibility. These factors may contribute to the transmission of these clades outside the regions where they are most prevalent [8,9]. The increasing diversity of HIV-1 underscores the need for diagnostics, patient monitoring tools, and treatment options that are effective across the full spectrum of known groups, subtypes, and recombinant forms.The first reported case of HIV/AIDS in Morocco occurred in 1986. Up to December 2010, a cumulative total of 2,914 persons have been diagnose
Correlation of Endoscopic Findings with Various Helicobacter pylori Tests among Dyspeptic Patients  [PDF]
Mohammed O. Mohammed
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.519151
Abstract: Background: Helicobacter pylori is the most common chronic bacterial infection, and a significant etiological factor in acid peptic diseases and gastric cancer. Dyspepsia is a common gastrointestinal disorder, and the most common indication for gastroscopy. Detection of H. pylori during endoscopy has become standard clinical practice. Elevated levels of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), are associated with pathological changes, and hence give useful information for exact diagnosis and therapy. Objectives: To determine the relationship between endoscopic findings, highly sensitive C-reactive protein level (hs-CRP) and H. pylori infection among dyspeptic patients using serological tests, stool antigen for H. pylori and antral histology. Methods: This was a prospective study; patients with dyspepsia, who referred to Kurdistan Teaching Center of Gastroenterology & Hepatology in Sulaimani City were assessed, during the period of December 2012 to March 2014. They underwent gastroscopy, and biopsies were taken from the corpus and antral portions of antral portion for histopathological exam. Patients’ serum samples were tested for H. pylori infection using ELISA method to detect (IgG & IgA) anti-bodies and stool samples were examined using rapid immunoassay method to detect H. pylori antigens. hs-CRP was assessed using ELISA. Results: One hundred dyspeptic patients were included in the study. The mean age was 34.2 years and male comprised 54% of the study samples. The common findings in oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) examination were antral gastropathy (59%) and duodenal ulcer (21%). A statistically significant (P < 0.01) correlation was found between hs-CRP and H. pylori IgG and IgA levels (titer). There was a highly significant (P < 0.01) correlation between the level of H. pylori IgG and the endoscopic findings. The highest serum level of H. pylori IgG was found in duodenal ulcer and antral gastritis, (88.86 ± 42.0) and (70.05 ± 35.2) Au/ml, respectively. There was a highly significant correlation (P < 0.01) between endoscopic findings and H. pylori positive antral biopsy, in duodenal ulcer, antral gastritis and duodenitis was 100%, 94.9% and 75% respectively. Also duodenal ulcer and antral gastritis showed high mean and percentage but no significant differences in both H. pylori IgA and stool Antigen.
General Periodic Boundary Value Problem for Systems  [PDF]
Mohammed Elnagi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.38130
Abstract: The paper deals with the existence of nonzero periodic solution of systems, where k∈(0, π/T), α, β are n×n real nonsingular matrices, μ=(μ1…μn), f(t, u)=(f1(t, u),…,fn(t, u))∈C([0, T]×□n+,□+) is periodic of period T in the t variable are continuous and nonnegative functions. We determine the Green’s function and prove that the existence of nonzero periodic positive solutions if one of . In addition, if all i=(1…n)where λ1 is the principle eigenvalues of the corresponding linear systems. The proof based on the fixed point index theorem in cones. Application of our result is given to such systems with specific nonlinearities.
Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus: Achievements and challenges in the citrus industry: A review  [PDF]
Mohammed Yesuf
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.47046

Citruses are the worlds’ second fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of citrus. Literature reviews have been made by searching the available information on leaf and fruit spot of citrus. Journal articles, research papers, workshop proceedings, Thesis research, manuals, and quarantine regulations were among the information sources of the review. The disease is widespread in 22 African countries including Ethiopia with a single report around Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. Scattered research efforts have been made by different researchers in Africa mainly dealing with its geographic distribution, biology, and management practices. Fungicides, plant extracts/essential oils, and host resistance are among the research efforts made for the control of P. angolensis. Even though the disease is not yet reported to the rest of the world, it becomes a serious concern as an important quarantine pest thereby critically affecting the world trade and germplasm exchange of the citrus industry. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compile the scattered information on various aspects of leaf and fruit spot of citrus mainly to avail the information for researchers, development workers and policy people. Moreover, this review will suggest future research and development direction towards better understanding and sustainable management practices of the disease.

Variation of the Spectrum of Operators in Infinite Dimensional Spaces  [PDF]
Mohammed Yahdi
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.37080

The paper investigates the variation of the spectrum of operators in infinite dimensional Banach spaces. Consider the space of bounded operators on a separable Banach space when equipped with the strong operator topology, and the Polish space of compact subsets of the closed unit disc of the complex plane when equipped with the Hausdorff topology. Then, it is shown that the unit spectrum function is Borel from the space of bounded operators into the Polish space of compact subsets of the closed unit disc. Alternative results are given when other topologies are used.

A New Expression for Rhotrix  [PDF]
Abdul Mohammed
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2014.42011
This paper presents a new technique for expressing rhotrices in a generalize form. The method involves using multiple array indexes as analogous to matrix expressions, unlike the earlier method in the literature, which can only be functional in a single array computational environment. The new rhotrix look will encourage the study of rhotrix algebra and analysis from a better perspective. In addition, computing efficiency and accuracy will also be improved, particularly when the operations in rhotrix space over the new expression are algorithmatized for computing machines.
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