Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
A geothermal resource can be defined as a reservoir inside the Earth from which heat can be extracted economically Geothermal resources are classified on the basis of different aspects, such as heat source, heat transfer, reservoir tem perature, physical state, commercial utilization and geological settings. Unfortunately most of the current classifications that are used for geothermal systems are not complete. So, a combinational terminology of geological and tempera ture-based classifications would be more complete. This terminology can explain all geological situations, temperature and physical state of geothermal reservoir altogether. According to geological settings, in combinational terminology (from left to right), the class of geothermal resource’s name would be placed at first, then the physical state of reservoir (Liquid-dominated or Two-phase or Vapor-dominated) would be written and finally the class of the geothermal reser voir which is related to its temperature, is written.
Sediment core samples were collected from
the Salinas de San Pedro to assess the pollutant deposition processes in response
to extensive human activities. Analysis of the sediment samples for heavy metals
and some trace elements was conducted with ICP-OES for 20 sites showing enrichment
for some of trace and heavy metals. The results demonstrated that heavy metal concentrations
in mud varied greatly for each metal, with concentration values (mg/g) ranging from 1.05 - 4.8 (Al); 0.003 - 0.011(As); 0.001 - 0.005 (Cd); 0.02 to 0.82 (Cr); 0.085 - 0.47 (Cu); 5.98 - 14.22 (Fe); 0.06 - 0.19 (Mn); 0.03 - 0.67 (Ni); 0.05 - 0.38 (Pb); <0.008 - 0.069 (Se); 0.18 - 0.63 (Ti); 0.040 - 0.091 (V) and 0.149 - 0.336 (Zn). The Index of Geo-accumulation
factor showed highest values for Pb, Mn, As, and Cu. Enrichment factors >1for
these elements suggest anthropogenic inputs for most metals. The bioavailability
of metals in lagoon sediments has the potential to be highly dynamic with local
waste and natural H2S discharge from existing fault line.
We investigated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on biogeochemistry of marsh sediment including speciation of selected heavy metals in Salinas de San Pedro mudflat in California. The Salinas de San Pedro mudflat has higher carbon (C) content than the vast majority of fully-vegetated salt marshes even with the higher tidal action in the mudflat. Sources for CO2 were identified as atmospheric CO2 as well as due to local fault degassing process. We measured carbon dioxide, methane, total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and heavy metal concentration in various salt marsh locations. Overall, our results showed that CO2 concentration ranging from 418.7 to 436.9 (ppm), which are slightly different in various chambers but are in good agreement with some heavy metal concentrations values in mudflat at or around the same location. The selected metal concentration values (ppm) ranging from 0.003 - 0.011 (As); 0.001 - 0.005 (Cd); 0.04 - 0.02 (Cr); 0.13 - 0.38 (Cu); 0.11 - 0.38 (Pb); 0.0009 - 0.020 (Se); and 0.188 - 0.321 (Zn). The low dissolved oxygen (ppm) in the pore water sediment indicated suboxic environment. Additionally, CO2 (ppm) and loss on ignition (LOI) (%) correlated inversely; the higher