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Survey of special needs in physically disabled people: A qualitative research
Ali Farhoudian,Leila Soleimaninia,Masoud Gharib,Mohammad Hassan Farhadi
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: After sanction of "the rights of disabled people convention" United Nations Organization have been stressed more on dealing with this group's needs. Therewith, most of countries in the world have been committed in this field. Therefore with consideration of importance of identifying the needs in disabled people and making policies for them, this study conducted in order to identify the special needs in physically disabled people.Material and Methods: This article is a part of a qualitative research with grounded theory method. 15 physically disabled people of Tehran were selected through a purposeful sampling participated in study. The main method for collecting data was semi-structured interview that continued until theoretical saturation of information. Data was analyzed with Strauss & Corbin coding manner or continued comparison and the assessor's viewpoints method is used for validity promotion of data.Results: Totally, most important domains of special needs in disabled group were: family and relatives, education, movement and transportation, building and places (houses and public places), social participation and occupation, treatment and rehabilitation services, and people's attitude toward their problems.Conclusion: The results indicated that for promoting social participation and function independency in disabled people, should be emphasis on "equality of opportunities" in society rather than "disability". Thus, public systems and services should be available equally for all, such as physical environments and places, housing, transport system, educational and vocational opportunities, and socio-cultural life like equipments for sport and amusement. Then, physically disabled people can reach to a life with more quality and same with others.
Association between cigarette smoking and suicide in psychiatric inpatients
Hooman Sharifi,Zahra Hessami,Safa Mitra,Hassan Farhadi Mohammad
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-11-5
Abstract: Introduction Cigarette smoking is the single largest preventable cause of death and disability in the industrialized world and it causes at least 85% of lung cancers, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In addition smokers are at a higher risk from psychiatric co-morbid illness such as depression and completed suicide. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in which we targeted all patients with serious mental illness (SMI) who were admitted in Razi mental health Hospital in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 984 participants, who were receiving services from Razi mental health Hospital and hospitalized for at least two days between 21 July to 21 September, 2010. Nine hundred and fifty patients out of this figure were able to participate in our study. Results The final study sample (n = 950) consisted of 73.2% males and 26.8% females. The mean age was 45.31 (SD=13.7). A majority of participants (70%) was smoker. A history of never smoking was present for 25.2% of the study sample; while 4.8% qualified as former smokers and 70.0% as occasional or current smokers. Two hundred and nineteen participants had attempted suicide amongst them 102 (46.6%) once, 37 (16.9%) twice, and 80 (36.5%) attempted more than two times in their life time. In regression model, gender, age, and cigarette consumption were associated with previous suicide attempts and entered the model in this order as significant predictors. Conclusion There is an association of cigarette smoking and suicide attempt in psychiatric inpatients. Current smoking, a simple clinical assessment, should trigger greater attention by clinicians to potential suicidality and become part of a comprehensive assessment of suicide risk.
Evaluation of Bcl-2 Family Gene Expression in Hippocampus of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine Treated Rats
Sara Soleimani Asl,Mohammad Hassan Farhadi,Kazem Mousavizadeh,Ali Samadikuchaksaraei
Cell Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an illicit, recreational drugthat causes cellular death and neurotoxicity. This study evaluates the effects of differentdoses of MDMA on the expression of apoptosis–related proteins and genes in the hippocampusof adult rats.Materials and Methods: In this expremental study,a total of 20 male Sprague Dawley rats(200-250 g ) were treated with MDMA (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg i.p. twice daily) for 7 days. Sevendays after the last administration of MDMA, the rats were killed. Bax and Bcl-2 genesin addition to protein expressions were detected by western blot and reverse transcriptionpolymerasechain reaction (RT-PCR).Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA andp≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Our results showed that MDMA caused dose dependent up-regulation of Baxand down-regulation of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus. There was a significant alteration inbcl-2 and bax genes density.Conclusion: Changes in apoptosis-related proteins and respective genes relating to Baxand Bcl-2 might be involved in the molecular mechanism of MDMA-induced apoptosis.
Auditory Neuropathy: Findings of Behavioral, Physiological and Neurophysiological Tests
Mohammad Farhadi,Saeed Mahmoudian
Audiology , 2006,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy (AN) can be diagnosed by abnormal auditory brainstem response (ABR), in the presence of normal cochlear microphonic (CM) and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs).The aim of this study was to investigate the ABR and other electrodiagnostic test results of 6 patients suspicious to AN with problems in speech recognition. Materials and Methods: this cross sectional study was conducted on 6 AN patients with different ages evaluated by pure tone audiometry, speech discrimination score (SDS) , immittance audiometry. ElectroCochleoGraphy , ABR, middle latency response (MLR), Late latency response (LLR), and OAEs. Results: Behavioral pure tone audiometric tests showed moderate to profound hearing loss. SDS was so poor which is not in accordance with pure tone thresholds. All patients had normal tympanogram but absent acoustic reflexes. CMs and OAEs were within normal limits. There was no contra lateral suppression of OAEs. None of cases had normal ABR or MLR although LLR was recorded in 4. Conclusion: All patients in this study are typical cases of auditory neuropathy. Despite having abnormal input, LLR remains normal that indicates differences in auditory evoked potentials related to required neural synchrony. These findings show that auditory cortex may play a role in regulating presentation of deficient signals along auditory pathways in primary steps.
An Efficient Numerical Method and Parametric Study for Electrolyte Transport in the Renal Medulla  [PDF]
Maryam Saadatmand, Mohammad J. Abdekhodaie, Mahmoud R. Pishvaie, Fathollah Farhadi
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.79068
Abstract: Mathematical models of the mamalian urine concentrating mechanism consist of a large system of coupled, nonlinear and stiff equations. An efficient numerical orthogonal collocation method was employed to solve the steady-state formulation of urine concentrating mechanism. This method was used to solve the stiff and high order equations of electrolyte transport in a central core, single nephron model of the renal outer medulla. The presented results were in good agreement with implicit finite difference method’s results, but this new method was faster and more stable. Due to the greater stability and larger convergence domain of collocation method over Newton’s method, a parametric study on concentrated urine was investigated. The results showed that this model was sensitive to non-ideal countercurrent exchange between medulla interstitium and vasa recta. Although distal tubule lies in the cortex interstitium, it affects on the inflow to the collecting duct. This study showed that the effect of changing membrane transport properties of distal tubule wall on properties of outflow from the outer medulla collecting duct was considerable.
Numerical Analysis of Electromagnetic Control of the Boundary Layer Flow on a Ship Hull  [PDF]
Mohammad Bakhtiari, Hassan Ghassemi
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2014.41006
Abstract: In this article, electromagnetic control of turbulent boundary layer on a ship hull is numerically investigated. This study is conducted on the geometry of tanker model hull. For this purpose, a combination of electric and magnetic fields is applied to a region of boundary layer on stern so that produce wall parallel Lorentz forces in streamwise direction as body forces in stern flow. The governing equations including RANS equations with SST k-ω turbulent model coupled with electric potential equation are numerically solved by using Ansys Fluent codes. Accuracy of this turbulent model of Fluent in predicting Turbulent flow around a ship is also tested by comparing with available experimental results that it shows a good agreement with experimental data. The results obtained for ship flow show that by applying streamwise Lorentz forces that are large enough, flow is accelerated. The results are caused to delay or avoid the flow separation in stern, increase the propeller inlet velocity, create uniform flow distribution behind the ship’s hull in order to improve the propeller performance, and finally decrease the pressure resistance and total resistance.
Numerical Simulation of Non-Newtonian Pseudo-Plastic Fluid in a Micro-Channel Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method  [PDF]
Hossein Hamedi, Mohammad Hassan Rahimian
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2011.15029
Abstract: In this paper, the power-law model for a non-Newtonian (pseudo-plastic) flow is investigated numerically. The D2Q9 model of Lattice Boltzmann method is used to simulate the micro-channel flow with expansion geometries. This geometry is made by two squared or trapezoid cavities at the bottom and top of the channel which can simulate an artery with local expansion. The cavities are displaced along the channel and the effects of the displacements are investigated for inline structures and staggered ones (anti-symmetric expansion). The method is validated by a Poiseuille flow of the power-law fluid in a duct. Validation is performed for two cases: The Newtonian fluid and the shear thinning fluid (pseudo-plastic) with n = 0.5. The results are discussed in four parts: 1) Pressure drop; It is shown that the pressure drop along the channel for inline cavities is much more than the pressure drop along the staggered structures. 2) Velocity profiles; the velocity profiles are sketched at the centerline of the cavities. The effects of pseudo-plasticity are discussed. 3) Shear stress distribution; the shear stress is computed and shown in the domain. The Newtonian and non-Newto- nian fluids are discussed and the effect of the power n on shear stress is argued. 4) Generated vortices in the cavities are also presented. The shape of the vortices is depicted for various cases. The results for these cases are talked over and it is found that the vortices will be removed for flows with n smaller than 0.5.
Contrast Agents and Contrast-Induced Nephropathy  [PDF]
Mohammad Hassan Ghadiani, Pooneh Dehghan
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.67059
Abstract:
Recent advances in medical sciences, especially in imaging, have dramatically increased the use of contrast agents. The constantly changing nature of medicine and the availability of new information, such as new pharmaceutical formulations, have necessitated periodic revisions and drafting of new guidelines for the safe use of intravenous contrast agents in radiology. This study examined the majority of guidelines, articles, and authoritative references available on the use of intravenous contrast agents in adults to reduce the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy. The search engines of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar were used, and relevant English articles cited at least twice between 1979 and 2014 were studied. Review of the collected papers showed no consensus among them for guidelines on the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients at risk. Different formulas were used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate, which could be problematic in some cases. Further studies are needed for unification of existing guidelines.
Protective and Susceptible HLA Class I Genes in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease
Peyman Poor Davood,Naser Farhadi,Mohammad Najafizadeh
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The role of the HLA system in the pathophysiology of primary renal disease is intriguing, but not completely resolved. According to the results of studies links between HLA haplotype and renal failure has been reported. This study was conducted to determine protective and susceptible role of HLA class I genes in end stage renal disease patients. Subjects of this study were 77 individuals from Azerbaijan republic referred to Iran Red Crescent Society clinic in Baku of which were assigned into 2 group, case and control, based on renal disease. Case group were 26 patients with end stage renal disease candidate for renal transplant and controls were 51 healthy subjects. Typing of HLA class I was performed by serologic method. There was no significant difference in age and sex between control and patient groups. The most frequent detected HLA antigens were A2 (41.6%), A3(28.6%), A24(26%) from A loci and B35 (46.8%), B51 (29.9%), B18 (13%) from B loci. Significant association was found between susceptibility to ESRD and HLA-A33, A11, B49 (p<0.05). The findings support the idea that polymorphism of HLA class I may influence the susceptibility to ESRD. We suggested HLA antigen distribution will identify the high-risk patients who are candidates for transplantation.
Role of Liver Ultrasound in Diagnostic Process of Hepatitis C Disease: Comparison with Serum Inflammatory Indices Level and T-Helper 1 Cytokine Responses
Mohammad Najafizadeh,Zaker Karayev,Naser Farhadi
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: To diagnose of Hepatitis generally an ultrasound of the abdominal area should be performed. The most useful laboratory tests, particularly for screening evidence of liver disease, are serum aminotranspherases and alkaline phosphatase levels. Undoubtedly, cell-mediated immune responses of antiviral cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of liver injury associated with Hepatitis C. This study aimed to evaluate role of liver ultrasonography in detecting HCV-infected patients and comparison it with serum inflammatory indexes level and with serum T-helper 1 cytokines level. Fifty four serologically confirmed HCV-infected patients and 31 healthy controls were enrolled using sequential sampling method. Ultrasonography (US) (using Medison 8000, Korea) was performed by one radiologist for investigation the liver echogenicity after the patients and control groups underwent an overnight fast. Serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 cytokines was checked in all participants, using ELISA. Serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP were also determined (using Photometer) in both patients and control group. T-test was used to test the differences between the patients and control groups. Associations between the quantitative data were studied by correlation analysis. Data analysis of US results for liver echogenicity showed significant differences between patient and control groups (p<0.05). About 47.1% of patients had elevated serum ALT level and 74.5% of them had also elevated serum ALP levels. Serum levels of cytokines were higher in patient group than control but it was only significant for TNF-α. Serum AST level in increased liver echogenicity group was higher than normal group. There was no other significant relationship between liver US results and serum inflammatory indexes or cytokines level. According to considerable proportion of agreement in liver ultrasonography results and relationship between liver echogenicity and serum AST levels, we concluded that sonography may play an important role in the detection, characterization and management of Hepatitis C.
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