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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1628 matches for " Mohamad Sophiabadi "
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Noradrenergic System Increases Miniature Excitatory Synaptic Currents in the Barrel Cortex
Hashem Haghdoost Yazdi,Mohamad Reza Esmaili,Mohamad Sophiabadi,Christian Stricker
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction: Neurons in layer II and III of the somatosensory cortex in rats show high frequency (33 ± 13 Hz) of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) that their rates and amplitudes are independent of sodium channels. There are some changes in these currents in neurodegenerative and psychological disorders. Regarding to well known roles of the neuromodulatory brain systems in these disorders, study the effects of these systems on the miniature currents provides data to understand more precisely pathogenesis of this disorders. Because cortical neurons receive very dense noradrenergic innervations, we examined effects of noradrenergic system on these currents. Methods: Whole cell patch clamp recordings were made on pyramidal neurons of the barrel cortex from brain slices that continuously superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) containing tetrodotoxin, sodium channel blocker and picrotoxin, blocker of the GABA receptors. Results: Application of noradrenalin significantly increased frequency and decreased amplitude of the mEPSCs. Using specific agonists and antagonists of the noradrenergic system, it was determined that the effects are mostly mediated by α1 receptor. Conclusion: Our results showed that noradrenergic system controls sodium channel independent synaptic transmission which can be of importance in regulation and induction of many physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
Norharman exacerbates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s disease but cannot establish it alone
Hashem Haghdoost-Yazdi,Mohadeseh Movahedi,Ayda Faraji,Mohamad Sophiabadi
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: β-carbolines (BCs) are heterocyclic indole alkaloids found in human body, grilled meat, alcoholic beverages and tobacco smoke. Based on the present reports, there are controversies about the role of these compounds in the pathophysiology of Parkinson' disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of norharman, a BC, in the prevention, exacerbation or creation of PD in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. Methods: In the first part of this study, PD was established in rats by stereotaxic injection of 6-OHDA into the striatum. At the 2nd and 4th weeks post-surgery, apomorphine-induced rotational test was performed. Just before the surgery to the 4th week, after that rats received i.p. daily injections of norharman or its solvent at different doses. In the second part of the study, other groups of rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of norharman at different doses without prior injections of 6-OHDA. Fifteen and 30 days after the beginning of the injections, apomorphine-induced rotational and elevated body swing tests were performed. Results: In the 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonism rats, daily injection of norharman at doses of 200 and 1000, but not 100 μg/kg, significantly increased apomorphine-induced rotations compared to the control group at the 4th week postsurgery. In the intact rats, daily injection of norharman at doses of 200, 500 and 1000 μg/kg could not produce any PD symptoms in the apomorphine-induced rotational and elevated body swing tests. Conclusion: Longtime exposure to BCs can exacerbate PD but it cannot create the disease.
Ischemic Monomelic Neuropathy after a Brachio-Cephalic AVF Creation: A Case Report and Review of Literature  [PDF]
Mohamad Taha
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2017.73004
Abstract: Ischemic monomelic neuropathy (IMN) is an under-diagnosed and disabling complication of upper extremity hemodialysis access. The hemodynamic disturbance that occurs during the time of access creation can lead to both neurologic and ischemic complications. These complications are most commonly seen following proximal procedures involving the upper limbs. Diagnosis and treatment are often delayed, and even with early intervention, neurologic dysfunction may be irreversible. IMN can lead to significant long-term disability. Almost all cases of IMN occur with brachial artery-based access, procedures and the vast majority of patients are diabetic and females. I report a case of IMN after left BC AVF operation which was treated successfully by early access ligation, providing a review of the literature.
High intake of folic acid attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonism
Hashem Haghdoost-Yazdi,Negin Fraidouni,Mohammad Sarookhani,Mohammad Sophiabadi
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: High levels of homocysteine (Hcy) might accelerate dopaminergic cell death through oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. Folate plays an important role in the control of plasma levels of Hcy. In this study, effect of supplementation with folic acid on the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinsonism in rat and also serum level of Hcy was investigated. Methods: Rats were fed with folic acid supplements from 1 month before stereotaxic injection of 6-OHDA until to the end of experiments. 6-OHDA was injected into the striatum and development and severity of the Parkinsonism were assessed by conventional behavioral tests. Serum levels of Hcy before surgery and at the end of the behavioral tests were measured. Results: Our results show that 10-fold supplementation, but not 2-fold supplementation of folic acid, significantly attenuates severity of 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonism. 5-fold supplementation of folic acid also slightly decreased behavioral symptoms of Parkinsonism. Measurement of Hcy levels of sera before surgery show that high intake of folate has no effect on the plasma concentrations of Hcy. However, Hcy in the group of rats that received 10-fold supplement of folic acid was significantly higher than the control group at the end of the behavioral tests. Conclusion: Our results indicate that high intake of folic acid provides anti-Parkinsonism effect in a dose dependent manner, but this effect is not mediated by lowering plasma Hcy.
A Framework for Intelligent Decision Support System for Traffic Congestion Management System  [PDF]
Mohamad K. Hasan
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.24037
Abstract: Traffic congestion problem is one of the major problems that face many transportation decision makers for urban areas. The problem has many impacts on social, economical and development aspects of urban areas. Hence the solution to this problem is not straight forward. It requires a lot of effort, expertise, time and cost that sometime are not available. Most of the existing transportation planning software, specially the most advanced ones, requires personnel with lots practical transportation planning experience and with high level of education and training. In this paper we propose a comprehensive framework for an Intelligent Decision Support System (IDSS) for Traffic Congestion Management System that utilizes a state of the art transportation network equilibrium modeling and providing an easy to use GIS-based interaction environment. The developed IDSS reduces the dependability on the expertise and level of education of the transportation planners, transportation engineers, or any transportation decision makers.
Parkinson’s Disease Treatment as Seen from a Mechanical Point of View  [PDF]
Sarah Gebai, Mohamad Hammoud
Advances in Parkinson's Disease (APD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/apd.2016.54012
Abstract: Tremor is considered as the most common faced abnormal involuntary movement disorder and the source of functional disability. Parkinson disease (PD) is a slowly progressive degenerative disorder of the central nervous system caused by the lack in the level of dopamine. Levodopa is the most effective dopaminergic medication used to manage Parkinson symptoms. However, it will be the source of the motor fluctuation after several years. An uncommon type of medication is suggested to suppress the resting tremor of PD patients. In this paper, a vibration absorber is used as a mechanical treatment and designed to reduce critical angular displacement amplitude at the resonance frequency. Human hand is modeled dynamically at the musculoskeletal level to reflect Parkinsonism. Motion is considered due to shoulder, elbow, Biceps brachii and wrist muscles activation. Absorber’s geometry, materials properties and parameters are well chosen to satisfy the tuning condition. The solution to the equation of motion for the hand is shown in the frequency and time domains to check the performance of the absorber in reducing the flexion angular motion at the wrist joint. Results show that the absorber was very effective over a good frequency bandwidth. It was able to reduce 93% of tremors amplitude at the wrist joint in the frequency domain. This type of absorber has low cost, can operate without power requirements, and has a simple design. Since its effectiveness was proved when tested numerically, it is recommended to proceed to the manufacturing process and the experimental study.
Identifying the Effectiveness of Active Learning Strategies and Benefits in Curriculum and Pedagogy Course for Undergraduate TESL Students  [PDF]
Jamila Shaaruddin, Maslawati Mohamad
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.814158
Abstract: The teachers nowadays are trained properly, competently enough, excel academically with high grades but still considered as “incapable” or “unfit” to teach. There are still many problems and weaknesses among young graduates, despite the initiatives taken by the government to address the issue. The adoption and practice of active learning approaches into the component of course design offered in higher institutions is a common practice nowadays and is crucial in addressing these weaknesses among our young graduates. This case study identifies the effectiveness of active learning strategies and benefits in curriculum and pedagogy course which is a central concept of student-centred learning, derived from the constructivist approach. This article aims to ensure?the course efficacy by integrating active learning to support their practice?of active learning brought to learners by micro teaching, peer-reflections/feedbacks and self-reflections. Data were collected from documents in a form of e-reflections in ifolio and telephone interviews via WhatsApp Mobile Phone application. This qualitative study reports in detail the experience of 10 undergraduate students. The findings reveal the effectiveness of the three commonly used strategies associated with active learning strategies in this study. Among the beneficial of imparting active learning strategies are as follows; creates positive learning environment, allows direct interaction between lecturers and students, promotes open minded ideology, learn to respect someone else opinion, enhance communication skill, allows students to personally engaged with the learning activities and encourage participation. The findings and discussion of this study would be able to help the pertinent parties such as policy maker, teachers, facilitators and students with better guidance for utilising and maximizing different other selections of active learning strategies that could benefit teaching and learning process in the higher education scenario.
Application of International Freight Simultaneous Transportation Equilibrium Model to Sultanate of Oman  [PDF]
Mohamad K. Hasan
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2017.106043
Abstract: An implementation of the International Freight Simultaneous Transportation Equilibrium Model (IFSTEM) that developed in United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), to the goods trade through the ports and lands of Sultanate of Oman is presented. Although some socio-economic variables, which are not available, were required for IFSTEM model calibration, some reasonable assumptions were made and it was good enough to draw the following main findings: the proposed alternative enhancement scenarios were 4 nested scenarios, i.e., each scenario included the previous one plus an additional enhancement. Scenario 1 involved reducing the number of documents from 8 to 4, and scenario 2 involved scenarios 1 plus reducing the time for port and terminal handling to 1 day (instead of 2 days for imports and 3 days for exports as estimated for 2012 by the World Bank trading across borders report 2013). Scenario 3 involved scenarios 1 and 2 plus reducing the international maritime transport times and costs by 20% (i.e., to become equal to that of the United Arab Emirate (UAE) according to the application assumptions), and scenario 4 involved scenarios 1 and 2 plus reducing the international maritime transport times and costs by 40% (i.e., to become 20% less than that of UAE according to the application assumptions). These 4 enhancement scenarios were analyzed against and compared with scenario (0), i.e., the reference “Do nothing” scenario.The prediction results revealed that the estimated international trade flows (imports, exports and re-exports) for Oman for scenarios 4 would increase by more than 504% by 2040 ( i.e., around 187 million tons) compared to the present situation of the base year 2012 (i.e., around 37 million tons). This increase would represent around 70% compared to the “do nothing” reference scenario by the year 2040 (i.e., around 110 million tons) assuming that the average increase of international trade flows in the “do nothing” case would be around 4% annually during the analysis period from 2012 to 2040. The predictions of average total trip time and total cost per ton revealed an estimated decrease for scenario 4 compared to the reference scenario by around 25% and 20% respectively. These results are internally consistent and represented reasonably significant improvements compared to the “Do nothing” reference scenario.
A State-of-the-Art Survey on Semantic Web Mining  [PDF]
Qudamah K. Quboa, Mohamad Saraee
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2013.51002
Abstract: The integration of the two fast-developing scientific research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining is known as Semantic Web Mining. The huge increase in the amount of Semantic Web data became a perfect target for many researchers to apply Data Mining techniques on it. This paper gives a detailed state-of-the-art survey of on-going research in this new area. It shows the positive effects of Semantic Web Mining, the obstacles faced by researchers and propose number of approaches to deal with the very complex and heterogeneous information and knowledge which are produced by the technologies of Semantic Web.
Price and Income Elasticities of Gasoline Demand in Iran: Using Static, ECM, and Dynamic Models in Short, Intermediate, and Long Run  [PDF]
Vahid Mohamad Taghvaee, Parviz Hajiani
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.59087
Abstract:

Price and income elasticities of gasoline demand show whether the price policy, pursued by the Iranian government, can decrease the high gasoline consumption sufficiently or not. Since the two oil price shocks in 1970 and 1973, interest in the study of oil products demand has increased considerably, especially on gasoline. High gasoline consumption is a serious crisis in Iran, posing economically, politically, and environmentally threats. In this study, the elasticities are estimated over three intervals, short run, intermediate run, and long run in Iran during 1976-2010, by putting the estimates of Error Correction Model (ECM), static model, and dynamic model in an increasing order, respectively. The short run, intermediate run, and long run price elasticities are -0.1538, -0.1618, and -0.3612 and the corresponding income elasticities are 0.2273 - 0.3581, 0.4636, and 0.7284, respectively. Not only do these elasticities imply that the gasoline demand is price and income inelastic but also the adjustment velocity, estimated by ECM, is a low point at -0.1942. Based on the estimations, the gasoline demand responds to the changes of price and income slightly and slowly. Therefore, policy makers should develop more strategies to reduce gasoline consumption, for example, substitute goods, public transportation systems, and environmental standards settings.

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