This paper reinterprets the economic input-output equation as a description of a realized situation without considering decision making. This paper uses the equation that the self-sufficiency rate is added to the Leontief type, and discusses its solvability. The equation has a unique solution if and only if each part of the relevant society satisfies the space-time openness condition. This condition means that commodities which a part of the relevant society possesses are not all inputted to its inside. Moreover, if the process of input and output is time irreversible, each part of the relevant society satisfies the space-time openness condition. Therefore, the solvability of the equation is guaranteed by time irreversibility. This proposition seems to be relevant to the grandfather paradox which is a type of time paradox.

A real square matrix whose non-diagonal elements are non-positive is called a Z-matrix. This paper shows a necessary and sufficient condition for non-singularity of two types of Z-matrices. The first is for the Z-matrix whose row sums are all non-negative. The non-singularity condition for this matrix is that at least one positive row sum exists in any principal submatrix of the matrix. The second is for the Z-matrix which satisfies where . Let be the ith row and the jth column element of , and be the jth element of . Let be a subset of which is not empty, and be the complement of if is a proper subset. The non-singularity condition for this matrix is such that or such that for . Robert Beauwens and Michael Neumann previously presented conditions similar to these conditions. In this paper, we present a different proof and show that these conditions can be also derived from theirs.

Abstract:
The essence of money circulation is that money continues to transfer among economic agents eternally. Based on this recognition, this paper shows a money circulation equation that calculates the quantities of expenditure, revenue, and the end money from the quantity of the beginning money. The beginning money consists of the possession at term beginning, production and being transferred from the outside of the relevant society. The end money consists of the possession at term end, disappearance and transferring to the outside of the relevant society. This equation has a unique solution if and only if each part of the relevant society satisfies the space-time openness condition. Moreover, if money is transferred time irreversibly, each part of the relevant society satisfies the space-time openness condition. Hence, the solvability of the equation is guaranteed by time irreversibility. These solvability conditions are similar to those of the economic input-output equation, but the details are different. An equation resembling our money circulation equation was already shown by Mária Augustinovics, a Hungarian economist. This paper examines the commonalities and differences between our equation and hers. This paper provides the basis for some intended papers by the author.

Abstract:
In a monetary economy, expenditure induces revenue for each agent. We
call this the revenue induction phenomenon. Moreover, in a special case, part
of the expenditure by an agent returns as their own revenue. We call this the
expenditure reflux phenomenon. Although the existence of these phenomena is
known from the olden days, this paper aims to achieve a more precise quantification
of them. We first derive the revenue induction formula through solving the
partial money circulation equation. Then, for a special case, we derive the
expenditure reflux formula. Furthermore, this paper defines the revenue induction
coefficient and the expenditure reflux coefficient, which are the key concepts
for understanding the two formulas, and examines their range.

Abstract:
This paper aims to inquire into an objectively authentic budget constraint in a monetary economy through showing two missing problems of the monetary budget constraint and their solutions. To start with, we show the first missing problem that money is “missing” if all agents expend their total budgets under the simple budget constraint. This problem shows that the simple budget constraint is inadequate as an objective monetary budget constraint. A deficiency of the simple budget constraint exists partly in that it does not reflect money circulation. To improve this deficiency, we incorporate the expenditure reflux formula into the simple constraint. The first missing problem is partially solved by the application of this reflux budget constraint, but another problem occurs. The new problem is that infinite expenditure is permitted under this constraint. This is the second missing problem. The second problem appears to be a variation of the solvability problem of the money circulation equation. Referring to the proof of the solvability, we incorporate a time irreversible disposal into the budget constraint. This irreversibility budget constraint brings us a provisional solution of the missing problems. However, it should not be called a perfect solution. We also examine the relationships between our research and two previous studies: the finance constraint and the cash-in-advance model.

Abstract:
Traffic engineering and topology design considering multilayer configuration have become more important. While multilayer design studies usually discuss the traffic engineering issue or reliability, this paper focuses on network construction cost in studying multilayer topology design. The number of ports for the IP layer and the maximum number of Wavelength Division Multiplexers (WDM) for the optical layer are used as construction cost factors. Given a traffic matrix for the IP layer, 1) the number of ports is minimized to obtain a topology and a traffic matrix for the optical link, and 2) the maximum number of WDMs is minimized to configure the optical layer topology. It is shown that both the IP and Optical path layers have been given economic topologies. We present LP formulations of this scheme and the results of a simulation of the full-mesh traffic of 5 nodes, which shows that both layers are successfully optimized.

Abstract:
Prolinamido-glycoside catalyzed asymmetric aldol reaction in aqueous media is reported. The reactions are rapid and highly stereoselective when water is used as solvent. The stereoselectivities were under influence of configurations of a prolyl residue of the catalyst and α-chiral aldehydes. Water soluble prolinamido-glycoside catalysts are easily separable from reaction mixture and can be recycled and re-used several times.

Abstract:
The revelation effect is a phenomenon wherein performing a cognitive task before a recognition judgment induces “old” responses. One of the theories for the occurrence mechanism of the revelation effect is the criterion shift account (Niewiadomski & Hockley, 2001). This account explains that because working memory is occupied when people solve a cognitive task, they adopt a more liberal criterion for recognition judgments immediately after a cognitive task than those with no preceding cognitive task. However, no studies of the revelation effect in which manipulation of working memory was intended have been conducted. We examined whether working memory load and capacity are related to the revelation effect. The results showed that neither the occurrence of the revelation effect nor its degree was affected by working memory load or capacity. As the results suggest working memory is not related to the revelation effect, a partially or entirely alternative account that can explain the revelation effect is needed.

Disaster mitigation
and reconstruction plan due to tsunami can be implemented with various actions. An integration of spatial analysis through Geographical Information System (GIS) application and multi-criteria analysis through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the
methods for tsunami inundation and impact assessment. In this study, vulnerability, inundation and impact assessment due to tsunami hazard
in Ofunato city, Iwate Prefecture, Japan was carried out. Appropriate input parameters
were derived from Digital Elevation Model data, and satellite remote sensing and field data were
analyzed through GIS. We applied the parameter
of elevation and slope created from Aster GDEM version
2, coastline distance created from vector map of the study area and vegetation
density created from ALOS ANVIR-2 image. We applied AHP process for weighting the
parameter through pair-wise comparison using five iterations of normalized matrix.
Five classes of vulnerability were defined and analyzed for tsunami inundation mapping.
We used weighted overlay through spatial analyst in GIS to create the final map
of tsunami vulnerability. The assessment results indicate that 7.39 square kilometer
of the study area was under the high vulnerability zone due to tsunami, and 8.13
square kilometer of building area was under the inundation area. Our result showed good agreement with the observed data and historical map. The result presented here can aid as preliminary information
for the coastal zone management related to disaster mitigation and for the evacuation process and management
strategy during disaster.

Abstract:
In this paper, the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation Moving Vector with Kalman filter (GSMaP_MVK) was evaluated and corrected at daily time scales with a spatial resolution of 0.1°; latitude/longitude. The reference data came from thirty-four rain gauges on Kyushu Island, Japan. This study focused on the GSMaP_MVK’s ability to detect heavy rainfall patterns that may lead to flooding. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the GSMaP_MVK data both quantitatively and qualitatively. The statistical analysis included the relative bias (B), the mean error (E), the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (CNS), the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the correlation coefficient (r). In addition, Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were used to conduct GSMaP_MVK data correction. The results of these analyses indicate that GSMaP_MVK data have lower values than observed data and may be significantly underestimated during heavy rainfall. By applying GAM to bias correction, GSMaP_MVK’s ability to detect heavy rainfall was improved. In addition, GAM for bias correction could effectively be applied for significant underestimates of GSMaP_ MVK (i.e., bias of more than 55%). GAM is a new approach to predict rainfall amount for flood and landslide monitoring of satellite base precipitation, especially in areas where rain gauge data are limited.