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Ethical problems faced in villages of rural bengal while conducting researches on chronic diseases like diabetes
Mitra Analava,Bhattacharya D
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: India is facing an explosion of diabetes and related diseases. Health infrastructure in rural India is very poor. A large number of rural Indians are below poverty line. To overcome the problem of insulin resistance in rural India, the authors conducted studies with nutraceuticals and came across many sociocultural, socio-political and socioeconomic constraints to faithfully following ethical guidelines of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). This paper deals with some of the constraints and it is strongly felt that the ICMR should review its guidelines in the context of the existing situation.
Impedimetric characterization of human blood using three-electrode based ECIS devices
Rangadhar Pradhan,Analava Mitra,Soumen Das
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance , 2012, DOI: 10.5617/jeb.238
Abstract: In this study, three-electrode based electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) devices were used to study the electrical properties of blood and its constituents using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The three-electrode based ECIS devices were fabricated using micromachining technology with varying sizes for working, reference, and counter electrodes. The blood and its constituents such as serum, plasma, and red blood cells (RBCs) were prepared by conventional methods and stored for impedance measurement using fabricated microdevices. Equivalent circuits for blood, serum, plasma, and RBCs were proposed using the software package ZSimpWin to validate the experimental data. The proposed equivalent circuit models of blood and its components have excellent agreement up to a frequency of 1 MHz. It is evident from the experimental results that blood and its components have specific impedance signatures that decrease with the increase of frequency. Blood shows higher impedance than the other samples in the lower frequency range (<50 kHz). It was also found that above 50 kHz, the impedance value of RBCs is nearly the same as whole blood. The impedance of serum and plasma steadily decreases with the increase of frequency up to 100 kHz and flattens out after that. The minimum impedance value achieved for serum and plasma is much less than the value obtained for whole blood.
A comparative study of alpha amylase inhibitory activities of common anti-diabetic plants at Kharagpur 1 block
Dineshkumar B,Mitra Analava,Manjunatha M
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: In India, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on the increase and needs to be addressed appropriately. In this study area, herbal remedies are considered convenient for management of Type 2 diabetes with postprandial hyperglycemia due to their traditional acceptability and availability, low costs, lesser side effects. Comparative evaluation of alpha amylase inhibitory activities of selected plants extracts. Kharagpur is situated in the Midnapur West district of West Bengal in India. In this district, diabetes prevalence is comparatively high. Ten common plants in IIT Kharagpur 1 Block namely, Acalypha indica, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Musa sapientum, Mangifera indica, Murraya, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus and Tinospora cordifolia were tested for their alpha amylase inhibitory activities to establish anti-diabetic potentials. The plant extracts were prepared sequentially with petroleum ether, hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous. The extracts obtained were subjected to in vitro alpha amylase inhibitory assay using starch azure as a substrate and porcine pancreatic amylase as the enzyme. Statistical difference and linear regression analysis were performed by using Graphpad prism 5 statistical software. Ethanol extracts of Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica and petroleum ether extract of Murraya koenigii (at a concentrations 10-100μg/ml) showed maximum percentage inhibition on alpha amylase activity with an IC 50 value of 37.86 ± 0.32μg/ml, 62.99 ± 1.20μg/ml and 59.0 ± 0.51μg/ml respectively when compared with acarbose (IC 50 value 83.33 ± 0.75μg/ml). The results showing that Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica and Murraya koenigii might be effective in lowering post prandial hyperglycemia.
Mechanistic studies of lifestyle interventions in type 2 diabetes
Analava Mitra,Debasis Dewanjee,Baishakhi Dey
World Journal of Diabetes , 2012, DOI: 10.4239/wjd.v3.i12.201
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the effect of lifestyle interventions in the non-pharmacological management of type 2 diabetes via a mechanistic approach. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was carried out on 60 type 2 diabetic male and female volunteers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with their proper consent and permission of the International Electrotechnical Commission for 1 year. 30 patients were included in the test group and 30 patients in the control group. Demographic details, anthropometrical status, physical activity, food habits and blood glucose lipid profile of the volunteers were recorded at baseline, the test group was directed for lifestyle intervention and final blood glucose lipid data were collected at the end of one year of patient follow-up. RESULTS: After 1 year, the test group who had a lifestyle intervention was found to show a significant improvement in blood glucose lipid profile. The fasting plasma glucose level (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose level (PPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) values of the test group were reduced significantly, up to 145 ± 2.52, 174 ± 2.59, 6.3 ± 0.32 and 25 ± 0.41 respectively at the end of the study period, in comparison to the control group where FPG, PPG, HbA1c and BMI values were 193 ± 3.36, 249 ± 4.24, 7.2 ± 0.42 and 26 ± 0.65 respectively. Improvement in the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) values of the test group was also remarkable in comparison to the control group. The TC, TG, HDL and LDL values of the test group were reduced significantly, up to 149 ± 3.32, 124 ± 2.16, 58 ± 0.62 and 118 ± 2.31, respectively. CONCLUSION: The significant improvement in the blood glucose lipid profile of the test group after 1 year signifies the value of non-pharmacological management of type 2 diabetes via lifestyle intervention strategies.
Studies on the anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic potentials of mangiferin (Xanthone Glucoside) in streptozotocin-induced Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic model rats
B Dineshkumar,Analava Mitra,M Manjunatha
International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.5138/154
Abstract: Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) stem bark contains a rich content of mangiferin and is used traditionally in Indian Ayurvedic system to treat diabetes. To investigate anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of mangiferin in type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats models. Streptozotocin was used to induce type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats. Mangiferin (at a dose 10 and 20mg/kg) was administrated intra-peritoneally in type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats daily up to 30 days. Biochemical parameters notably fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were estimated. In addition, in vitro alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory effects of mangiferin were performed and IC50 values were determined. Mangiferin exhibited significant (P<0.05) anti-diabetic as well as hypolipidemic effects by lowering FBS, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL levels; but also with elevation of HDL level in type 2 diabetic model rats. In addition, mangiferin showed appreciable alpha amylase inhibitory effect (IC50 value 74.35±1.9μg/ml) and alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect (IC50 41.88±3.9μg/ml) when compared with standard drug acarbose (IC50 83.33±1.2μg/ml). Mangiferin showed anti-diabetic as well as hypolipidemic potentials in type 2 diabetic model rats. Therefore, mangiferin possess beneficial effects in the management of type 2 diabetes with hyperlipidemia. Keywords: Mangiferin, Anti-diabetic, Hypolipidemic, Type 2 diabetes
Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid) from murraya koenigii (rutaceae) leaves
B. Dineshkumar,Analava Mitra,Manjunatha Mahadevappa
International Journal of Phytomedicine , 2011,
Abstract: Murraya koenigii leaves (Rutaceae) are used traditionally in Indian Ayurvedic system to treat diabetes. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid from Murraya koenigii leaves) on blood glucose and serum lipid profiles on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (45mg/kg). Mahanimbine (50 and 100mg/kg) were administrated as a single dose per week to the diabetic rats for 30 days. The control group received 0.3% w/v sodium carboxy methyl cellulose for the same duration. Fasting blood sugar and serum lipid profiles were measured in the diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In addition, in vitro alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory effects of mahanimbine were performed. Results: In the diabetic rats, the elevated fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein levels were reduced and high density lipoprotein level was increased by mahanimbine at a dose of 50 and 100mg/kg (i.p). In addition, mahanimbine showed appreciable alpha amylase inhibitory effect and weak alpha glucosidase inhibitory effects when compared with acarbose. Conclusions: The present study indicated that mahanimbine possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-lipidemic effects. Thus results suggesting mahanimbine has beneficial effect in the management of diabetes associated with abnormal lipid profile and related cardiovascular complications. Keywords: Streptozotocin; Hypoglycemic; Hypolipidemic; Mahanimbine
Why the Big Bang Model Cannot Describe the Observed Universe Having Pressure and Radiation  [PDF]
Abhas Mitra
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.212177
Abstract: It has been recently shown that, since in general relativity (GR), given one time label t, one can choose any other time label t → t*= f(t), the pressure of a homogeneous and isotropic fluid is intrinsically zero (Mitra, Astrophys. Sp. Sc. 333, 351, 2011). Here we explore the physical reasons for the inevitability of this mathematical result. The essential reason is that the Weyl Postulate assumes that the test particles in a homogeneous and isotropic spacetime undergo pure geodesic motion without any collisions amongst themselves. Such an assumed absence of collisions corresponds to the absence of any intrinsic pressure. Accordingly, the “Big Bang Model” (BBM) which assumes that the cosmic fluid is not only continuous but also homogeneous and isotropic intrinsically corresponds to zero pressure and hence zero temperature. It can be seen that this result also follows from the relevant general relativistic first law of thermodynamics (Mitra, Found. Phys. 41, 1454, 2011). Therefore, the ideal BBM cannot describe the physical universe having pressure, temperature and radiation. Consequently, the physical universe may comprise matter distributed in discrete non-continuous lumpy fashion (as observed) rather than in the form of a homogeneous continuous fluid. The intrinsic absence of pressure in the “Big Bang Model” also rules out the concept of a “Dark Energy”.
An Astrophysical Peek into Einstein’s Static Universe: No Dark Energy  [PDF]
Abhas Mitra
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2011.14024
Abstract: It is shown that in order that the fluid pressure and acceleration are uniform and finite in Einstein’s Static Universe (ESU), , the cosmological constant, is zero. being a fundamental constant, should be same everywhere including the Friedman model. Independent proofs show that it must be so. Accordingly, the supposed acceleration of the universe and the attendant concept of “Dark Energy”(DE) could be an illusion; an artifact of explaining cosmological observations in terms of an oversimplified model which is fundamentally inappropriate. Indeed observations show that the actual universe is lumpy and inhomogeneous at the largest scales. Further in order that there is no preferred centre, such inhomogeneity might be expressed in terms of infinite hierarchial fractals. Also, the recent finding that the Friedman model intrinsically corresponds to zero pressure (and hence zero temperature) in accordance with the fact that an ideal Hubble flow implies no collision, no randomness (Mitra, Astrophys. Sp. Sc., 333,351, 2011) too shows that the Friedman model cannot represent the real universe having pressure, temperature and radiation. Dark Energy might also be an artifact of the neglect of dust absorption of distant Type 1a supernovae coupled with likely evolution of supernovae luminosities or imprecise calibration of cosmic distance ladders or other systemetic errors (White, Rep. Prog. Phys., 70, 883, 2007). In reality, observations may not rule out an inhomogeneous static universe (Ellis, Gen. Rel. Grav. 9, 87, 1978).
Kruskal Dynamics for Radial Geodesics  [PDF]
Abhas Mitra
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2012.23021
Abstract: The total spacetime manifold for a Schwarzschild black hole (BH) is believed to be described by the Kruskal coordi-nates and , where r and t are the conventional Schwarzschild radial and time coordinates re-spectively. The relationship between r and t for a test particle moving along a radial or non-radial geodesic is well known. Similarly, the expression for the vacuum Schwarzschild derivative for a geodesic, in terms of the constants of motion, is well known. However, the same is not true for the Kruskal coordinates; and, we derive here the expression for the Kruskal derivative for a radial geodesic in terms of the constants of motion. In particular, it is seen that the value of ) is regular on the Event Horizon of the Black Hole. The regular nature of the Kruskal derivative is in sharp contrast with the Schwarzschild derivative, , at the Event Horizon. We also explicitly obtain the value of the Kruskal coordinates on the Event Horizon as a function of the constant of motion for a test particle on a radial geodesic. The physical implications of this result will be discussed elsewhere.
Kruskal Coordinates and Mass of Schwarzschild Black Holes: No Finite Mass Black Hole at All  [PDF]
Abhas Mitra
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2012.24031
Abstract: When one presumes that the gravitational mass of a neutral massenpunkt is finite, the Schwarzschild coordinates \"\"appear to fail to describe the region within the event horizon (EH), \"\" of a Schwarzschild Black Hole (SBH). Accordingly, the Kruskal coordinates \"\" were invented to map the entire spacetime associated with the SBH. But it turns out that \"\" at the EH (Mitra, IJAA, 2012), and the radial timelike geodesic of a point particle would become null. Physically this would mean that, the EH is the true singularity, i.e., M = 0, and this zero mass BH could only be a limiting static solution which must never be exactly realized. However, since in certain cases \"\", here we evaluate this derivative in such cases, and find that, for self-consistency, one again must have \"\" at the EH. This entire result gets clarified by noting that the integration constant appearing in the vacuum Schwarzschild solution (and not for a finite object like the Sun or a planet), is zero (Mitra, J. Math. Phys., 2009). Thus though the Schwarzschild solution for a point mass is formally correct even for a massenpunkt, such a point mass or a BH cannot be formed by physical gravitational collapse. Instead, physical gravitational collapse may result in finite hot quasistatic objects asymptotically approaching this ideal mathematical limit (Mitra & Glendenning, MNRAS Lett. 2010). Indeed the discussion of physical behavior of black holes, classical or quantum, is only of academic interest (Narlikar & Padmanbhan, Found. Phys. 1989).
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