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Substance Use and Associated Factors among University Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Gezahegn Tesfaye,Andualem Derese,Mitiku Teshome Hambisa
Journal of Addiction , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/969837
Abstract: Studies indicate that substance use among Ethiopian adolescents is considerably rising; in particular college and university students are the most at risk of substance use. The aim of the study was to assess substance use and associated factors among university students. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1040 Haramaya University students using self-administered structured questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was used to select students. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were done. About two-thirds (62.4%) of the participants used at least one substance. The most commonly used substance was alcohol (50.2%). Being male had strong association with substance use (AOR (95% CI), 3.11 (2.20, 4.40)). The odds of substance use behaviour is higher among third year students (AOR (95% CI), 1.48 (1.01, 2.16)). Being a follower of Muslim (AOR (95% CI), 0.62 (0.44, 0.87)) and Protestant (AOR (95% CI), 0.25 (0.17, 0.36)) religions was shown to be protective of substance use. Married (AOR (95% CI), 1.92 (1.12, 3.30)) and depressed (AOR (95% CI), 3.30 (2.31, 4.72)) students were more likely to use substances than others. The magnitude of substance use was high. This demands special attention, emergency preventive measures, and targeted information, education and communication activity. 1. Introduction The use of substances such as alcohol, khat, and tobacco has become one of the rising major public health and socioeconomic problems worldwide [1]. The global burden of disease attributable to alcohol and illicit drug accounts 5.4% of the total burden of disease. Another 3.7% of the global burden of disease is attributable to tobacco use. And disorders due to psychoactive substance use including alcohol, drug, and tobacco dependence are the main underlying conditions ultimately responsible for the largest proportion of the global burden of disease attributable to substance use [2]. The rapid economic, social, and cultural transitions that most countries in sub-Saharan Africa are now experiencing have created a favorable condition for increased and socially disruptive use of drugs and alcohol [3]. Substance misuse is a growing problem in Ethiopia, as in many developing countries. Alcohol and khat are the most frequent substances of abuse [4]. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2011, the prevalence of alcohol use among men and women is 53% and 45%, respectively, and 11% of women and 28% of men ever chewed khat [5]. Studies indicate that substance use among Ethiopian adolescents is considerably rising
Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia
Gezahegn Tesfaye,Mitiku Teshome Hambisa,Agumasie Semahegn
Journal of Pregnancy , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/295732
Abstract: Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. 1. Introduction World Health Organization (WHO) defines unsafe abortion as a procedure for terminating unwanted pregnancy either by people lacking the necessary skills or in an environment lacking minimal medical standards or both [1]. According to WHO, worldwide unsafe abortions were estimated to be 21.6 million, almost all in developing countries. Each year, throughout the world, approximately 210 million women became pregnant and around one in 10 pregnancies ends in an unsafe abortion. The estimated annual number of unsafe abortions in Sub-Saharan Africa is 5.5 million. Although unsafe abortions are preventable, they continue to pose undue risks to a woman’s health [2]. Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5, announced in 2001, is an internationally agreed-upon imperative to reduce maternal mortality by 75% from its 1990 level by the year 2015. As a significant proportion of mortality is due to unsafe abortion, this goal probably cannot be met without specific and direct programmatic efforts to reduce the impact of unsafe abortion [3]. Unsafe abortion accounts for 13% of maternal deaths worldwide and as much as 25% in some countries [4]. Over 40% of the total deaths due to unsafe
Determinants of Mortality among HIV Positives after Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Western Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Retrospective Cohort Study
Mitiku Teshome Hambisa,Ahmed Ali,Yadeta Dessie
ISRN AIDS , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/491601
Abstract: Studies revealed that there are various determinants of mortality among HIV positives after ART initiation. These determinants are so variable with context and dynamic across time with the advancement of cares and treatments. In this study we tried to identify determinants of mortality among HIV positives after initiating ART. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 416 ART attendees enrolled between July 2005 to January 2012 in Nekemte Referral Hospital, Western Ethiopia. Actuarial table was used to estimate survival of patients after ART initiation and log rank test was used to compare the survival curves. Cox proportional-hazard regression was applied to determine the independent determinants of time to death. The estimated mortality was 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, and 7% at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months respectively with mortality incidence density of 1.89 deaths per 100 person years (95% CI 1.74, 3.62). Forty years and above AHR = 3.055 (95% CI 1.292, 7.223), low baseline hemoglobin level (AHR = 0.523 (95% CI .335, 0.816)), and poor ART adherence (AHR 27.848 (95% CI 8.928, 86.8)) were found to be an independent determinants of mortality. These determinants of mortality have to be taken into account to enhance better clinical outcomes of ART attendees. 1. Introduction HIV/AIDS remains one of the leading causes of death globally. It is projected to continue as a significant cause of premature mortality [1]. According to the joint 2011 HIV/AIDS report of WHO, UNAIDS, and UNICEF, an estimated 34 million people were living with HIV/AIDS globally with 2.7 million new HIV infections in 2010. Of these, 68% were residing in sub-Saharan Africa [2]. Ethiopia is one of the seriously affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa with a large number of people (approximately 800,000) that are living with HIV/AIDS and 44,751 AIDS-related deaths. An estimated number of 249,174 adults (86% of eligible) are on ART treatment [3–5]. The average life expectancy at birth is low,? ?51 years for males and 53 years for females. It is expected to further decline if the present HIV infection rates continue [3]. Different studies from different countries reported that WHO clinical staging, viral load, age, gender, CD4 cell count, total lymphocyte count (TLC), body mass index (BMI), ART adherence, and baseline hemoglobin level were determinants of mortality [6–10]. Even though studies had identified these determinants of mortality, they are so variable with context and dynamic across time with advancement of care and treatments as many years are being spent on highly active
Determinants of alcohol drinking and its association with sexual practices among high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Cross sectional study  [PDF]
Dawit Teshome, Teferi Gedif
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.36057
Abstract: Introduction: Alcohol drinking and risky sexual practices have become serious public health problem among teenagers and young adults globally, including many developing countries. The available reports are sparse, especially there is a lack of recent and representative data for high school students in developing countries including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, identify determinants, and examine the association of alcohol drinking with sexual practices among high school students in Addis Ababa, capital city of Ethiopia. Methods: School based cross sectional study was conducted from November to December 2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between students’ background characteristics and alcohol use, and alcohol use and sexual practices. Results: Among 2551 students surveyed, lifetime and current (past month) alcohol drinking was reported by 1166 (45.7%) and 676 (26.5%) students, respectively. Having sexual intercourse at least once in their lifetime was reported by 412 (16.2%) with151 (5.9%) of them being sexually active during a month prior to the survey. Having multiple sexual partners (52.5%), drinking alcohol before sexual intercourse (26.4%), and having sexual intercourse without the use of condom (47.3%) were also common among sexually active students. In adjusted logistic regression model, age (18 and 19 and older), living with 2 parents, getting pocket money, having alcohol drinking friends and attending general secondary school (grade 9-10) were positive predictors of current alcohol drinking. Nergative predictors of current alcohol drinking were being Protestant Christian and living with relatives or siblings. Conclusion: Alcohol drinking before sexual intercourse was a major problem among high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Male gender, older age and higher school grade, friends influence, religious affiliation, living with parents and getting pocket money were significant predictors of current alcohol drinking. Educating about substance use and risky sexual behaviors, engaging students in extracurricular activities and restrict access to alcohol to high school students may help in solution of these problems on a local scale.
In Vitro Callus Induction and Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explants of Glinus lotoides (L.)—An Important Medicinal Plant  [PDF]
Shiferaw Teshome, Tileye Feyissa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.69132
Abstract: G. lotoides L. is a threatened plant that is frequently harvested for medicinal purpose. However, its distribution in the world is limited because of short period of seed viability and poor seed germination. The objective of this study was to develop in vitro propagation protocol for G. lotoides through callus induction. For callus induction, different concentrations of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and BAP (6-benzyl amino purine) were used. Seeds were sown on growth regulator-free MS medium and shoots from the in vitro germinated seedlings were excised and cultured on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP. Young leaves from these shoots were used as explant for callus induction and shoot regeneration. Maximum callus induction (100%) was observed on medium containing 2,4-D (0.5, 2.0, 3.5 mg/l) or NAA (2.0, 2.5 mg/l) in combination with 0.5 mg/l BAP. However, 2,4-D was the best in overall callus induction. The highest regeneration (20%) frequency was achieved on the medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP. Highest number of shoot (2.83 ± 1.22) and shoot length (2.16 ± 0.87 cm) per explant were obtained in the presence of 0.25 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l KIN (Kinetin). In shoot multiplication media, maximum mean (6.43 ± 0.87) of shoot was observed on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP. The best shoot length (1.70 ± 0.14 cm) was recorded on control medium. The highest (95%), maximum root number (14.10 ± 1.47) and root length (1.01 ± 0.10 cm) were obtained on a medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). All the plants (100%) were survived after acclimatization in greenhouse. The present study can be useful for callus induction and indirect shoot regeneration form G. lotoides.
High Density Solvent Based Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Technique for Simultaneous and Selective Extraction of Multiclass Pesticide Residues in Water and Sugarcane Juice Samples  [PDF]
Teshome Tolcha, Negussie Megersa
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2018.94018
Abstract: In this study, a miniaturized analytical technique based on high density solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (HD-DLLME) was developed for extraction of trace residues of multiclass pesticides including three striazine herbicides, two organophosphate insecticides and two organochlorine fungicides from environmental water and sugarcane juice samples. The analytical method was validated and found to offer good linearity: R2 ≥ 0.991; repeatability varied from 0.73% - 5.28%; reproducibility varied from 1.14% - 8.74% and limit of detection ranged from 0.005 to 0.02 μg/L. Moreover, accuracy of the optimized method was evaluated and the recovery was varied from 80.39% - 114.05%. Analytical applications of this method to environmental waters and sugarcane juice samples indicate the presence of trace residues of ametryn in the lake water and sugarcane juice samples. Atrazine and ametryn were also detected in irrigation water.
Estimation of Open Channel Flow Parameters by Using Genetic Algorithm  [PDF]
Ebissa Gadissa, Asirat Teshome
Open Journal of Optimization (OJOp) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojop.2018.73003
Abstract: The present study involves estimation of open channel flow parameters having different bed materials invoking data of Gradual Varied Flow (GVF). Use of GVF data facilitates estimation of flow parameters. The necessary data base was generated by conducting laboratory. In the present study, the efficacy of the Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization technique is assessed in estimation of open channel flow parameters from the collected experimental data. Computer codes are developed to obtain optimal flow parameters Optimization Technique. Applicability, adequacy and robustness of the developed code are tested using sets of theoretical data generated by experimental work. A simulation model was developed to compute GVF depths at preselected discrete sections for given downstream head and discharge rate. This model is linked to an optimizer to estimate optimal value of decision variables. The proposed model is employed to a set of laboratory data for three bed materials. Application of proposed model reveals that optimal value of fitting parameter ranges from 1.42 to 1.48 as the material gets finer and optimal decision variable ranges from 0.015 to 0.024. The optimal estimates of Manning’s n of three different bed conditions of experimental channel appear to be higher than the corresponding reported/Strickler’s estimates.
Pattern of severe and complicated malaria in children admitted in GCMS hospital at paediatric ward 1995-2000
Kassahun Mitiku Desta
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2002;16(1): 53-59]
Prevalence and causes of blindness in Merhabete, North Shoa, Ethiopia
Tiliksew Teshome
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2002;16(1): 71-76]
Media and multi-party elections in Africa: The case of Ethiopia
Wondwosen Teshome
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: In any democratic country the media serves as a watch dog of events and decisions and assists citizens to be informed about what is going on in the country. Free media also plays a very important role to conduct democratic elections. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of the media in the African democratization process particularly in the multi-party elections that widely emerged in the continent in the 1990s. The paper investigates the contributions of the media in the emerging African democracies by using the performance of the media in the 2005 multi-party parliamentary election in Ethiopia as a case study. The paper also attempts to assess the Ethiopian press laws of 1992 and 2008, which are the only press laws in the history of the country.
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