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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1941 matches for " Mircea Radu Mihu "
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Histoplasma Virulence and Host Responses
Mircea Radu Mihu,Joshua Daniel Nosanchuk
International Journal of Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/268123
Abstract: Histoplasma capsulatum is the most prevalent cause of fungal respiratory disease. The disease extent and outcomes are the result of the complex interaction between the pathogen and a host's immune system. The focus of our paper consists in presenting the current knowledge regarding the multiple facets of the dynamic host-pathogen relationship in the context of the virulence arsenal displayed by the fungus and the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host.
Histoplasma Virulence and Host Responses
Mircea Radu Mihu,Joshua Daniel Nosanchuk
International Journal of Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/268123
Abstract: Histoplasma capsulatum is the most prevalent cause of fungal respiratory disease. The disease extent and outcomes are the result of the complex interaction between the pathogen and a host's immune system. The focus of our paper consists in presenting the current knowledge regarding the multiple facets of the dynamic host-pathogen relationship in the context of the virulence arsenal displayed by the fungus and the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host. 1. Introduction Histoplasmosis was first described in 1906 by Darling among the workers of the Panama Canal [1], and it is currently the most common cause of fungal respiratory disease with almost 500,000 individuals acquiring the fungus each year [2]. The etiologic agent responsible for histoplasmosis is Histoplasma capsulatum, a thermally dimorphic fungus with worldwide distribution. The fungus is primarily found in soil, where it exists in a mycelia form. In the United States, highly endemic areas include regions along the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys, where seroprevalence studies have shown that up to 80% of individuals are skin test positive for histoplasmin [3]. The entry portal of H. capsulatum is through inhalation of aerosolized of 2–4?μm diameter microconidia [4]. Morphogenesis is initiated after infection with the conidia developing into a 2–4?μm oval yeast form. The fungus is rapidly ingested by macrophages and neutrophils, but manages to avoid intracellular destruction. Intracellular yeast can be transported diffusely via the lymphatics and into the bloodstream. Nevertheless, initial infection is typically contained by innate and adaptive host responses. In immunocompetent individuals, the pulmonary disease is usually subclinical to limited, typically with flu-like symptoms, including fever, cough, headaches, and myalgias. However, lethal disease can occur in otherwise healthy individuals who acquire a large inoculum infection. Additionally, severe primary infection is more common and reactivation of latent infection occurs in immunocompromised persons, particularly in HIV-infected population and transplant recipients. Disseminated disease occurs in a small fraction of infected individuals, but this form of histoplasmosis continues to carry a high fatality rate even in patients receiving appropriate medical treatment [5]. More recently, treatments with inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-α have been shown to place patients at high risk for developing histoplasmosis [6]. 2. H. capsulatum Virulence Factors The characterized virulence determinants of H. capsulatum are mainly
Nitric Oxide Releasing Nanoparticles Are Therapeutic for Staphylococcus aureus Abscesses in a Murine Model of Infection
George Han,Luis R. Martinez,Mircea Radu Mihu,Adam J. Friedman,Joel M. Friedman,Joshua D. Nosanchuk
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007804
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a leading cause of a diverse spectrum of bacterial diseases, including abscesses. Nitric oxide (NO) is a critical component of the natural host defense against pathogens such as SA, but its therapeutic applications have been limited by a lack of effective delivery options. We tested the efficacy of a NO-releasing nanoparticle system (NO-np) in methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) abscesses in mice. The results show that the NO-np exert antimicrobial activity against MRSA in vitro and in abscesses. Topical or intradermal NO-np treatment of abscesses reduces the involved area and bacterial load while improving skin architecture. Notably, we evaluated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that are involved in immunomodulation and wound healing, revealing that NO-np lead to a reduction in angiogenesis preventing bacterial dissemination from abscesses. These data suggest that NO-np may be useful therapeutics for microbial abscesses.
Data on the food composition of a Triturus cristatus (Laur. 1768) population from “Jiului Gorge” National Park, Romania [IN ROMANIAN]
Felicia DOBRE,Daniel-Mircea BUCUR,Roland MIHU,Miron BIRCEANU
Biharean Biologist , 2007,
Abstract: The most important prey taxa for the population of Triturus cristatus from Meri was represented by Nematocera larvae, that were consumed by all of the 33 studied individuals. Beside animal prey, the crested newt consumed vegetal fragments, anorganic elements as well as amphibian and snail eggs. Some differences occur between males and females feeding. Thus, the frequently consumption of big, imobile prey, as amphibian eggs or shed-skin is typical for the females. At the same time, the females consumed more aquatic prey than the males.
Multidimensional optimization algorithms numerical results
Radu SERBAN,Mircea IULIAN,Radu R. SERBAN
Informatica Economica Journal , 2007,
Abstract: This paper presents some multidimensional optimization algorithms. By using the "penalty function" method, these algorithms are used to solving an entire class of economic optimization problems. Comparative numerical results of certain new multidimensional optimization algorithms for solving some test problems known on literature are shown.
Toward the Physical Basis of Complex Systems: Dielectric Analysis of Porous Silicon Nanochannels in the Electrical Double Layer Length Range
Ana Ioanid,Radu Mircea Ciuceanu
Brain. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2011,
Abstract: Dielectric analysis (DEA) shows changes in the properties of a materials as a response to the application on it of a time dependent electric field. Dielectric measurements are extremely sensitive to small changes in materials properties, that molecular relaxation, dipole changes, local motions that involve the reorientation of dipoles, and so can be observed by DEA. Electrical double layer (EDL), consists in a shielding layer that is naturally created within the liquid near a charged surface. The thickness of the EDL is given by the characteristic Debye length what grows less with the ionic strength defined by half summ products of concentration with square of charge for all solvent ions (co-ions, counterions, charged molecules). The typical length scale for the Debye length is on the order of 1 nm, depending on the ionic contents in the solvent; thus, the EDL becomes significant for nano-capillaries that nanochannels. The electrokinetic e ects in the nanochannels depend essentialy on the distribution of charged species in EDL, described by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation those solutions require the solvent dielectric permittivity. In this work we propose a model for solvent low-frequency permittivity and a DEA profile taking into account both the porous silicon electrode and aqueous solvent properties in the Debye length range.
Some biological aspects in Vicia faba L.
Elena TAMAS,Mircea SAVATTI,Radu SESTRAS
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 1998,
Abstract: Vicia faba L. is an annual plant useful both in man's and animal's nutrition. Horsebean seeds are rich in protein thus being an excellent source of lysine. One major drawback with these is the presence of vicins, co-vicins and tannins in the seed cover. Researches were carried out at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca and focused upon certain cytogenetically aspects; also, on the biology of flowering and vegetation period.
THE RESEARCH SYSTEM IN ROMANIA – REFORMING AND FUNDING IT THROUGH PROGRAMS
Rus Mircea-Iosif,Radu Ioana
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2012,
Abstract: Scientific research represents today the most important lever for improving the living standard, health, culture and, in general, the wealth of a society. Therefore, this paper attempts to present the current state of the research system in Romania, as well as several proposals for reforming this system, which would, consequently, lead to a better use of research results, as well as the presentation of ways of funding for research through research programs, both national and European. We should not omit the fact that adequate funding for the research system also has a social impact, by creating new jobs, especially if the research results are implemented in industry.
INOVAREA-COMPONENTA PRINCIPALA A TRIUNGHIULUI CUNOASTERII
Rus Mircea-Iosif,Radu Ioana
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2012,
Abstract: Science has begun to play an increasing role in industrial development not only as a major source of knowledge for new technological activities or scientointensive industries (medicine industry, chemistry, electronics), but also as essential input in testing, evaluation and quality control. Innovation is one of the activities that can generate economic and social progress. Therefore, this paper also approaches the significance of innovative information dissemination, as well as the objectives of this activity in view of the EU Member States. The European Union has prepared two funding programs for innovation activity, Europe 2020 and Horizon 2020.
Do We Need a Powerful E-Government?
Mircea-Radu Georgescu,Iuliana GEORGESCU
Communications of the IBIMA , 2008,
Abstract: Governments worldwide are faced with the challenge of transformation and the need to reinvent government systems in order to deliver efficient and cost effective services, information and knowledge through information and communication technologies. Development of Information and communication technologies catalyzed and led up to E-government. A trend towards reforming the public sector has emerged in many countries, primarily by the aspirations of citizens around the world, who are placing new demands on governments. The success of government leaders is increasingly being measured by the benefits they are creating for their constituents, namely, the private sector, citizens and communities. These ‘clients’ of government demand top performance and efficiency, proper accountability and public trust, and a renewed focus on delivering better service and results. The essence of knowledge management in this context is to provide strategies to get the right knowledge to the right people at the right time and in the right format. One of the important message of this paper is that there are huge disparities in the access and use of information technologies, and that these disparities are not likely to be removed in the near future unless a concerted action is taken at the national, regional and the international levels. In this context, the appropriate use of ICT plays a crucial role in advancing the goals of the public sector and in contributing towards an enabling environment for social and economic growth.
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