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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20300 matches for " Min "
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The Exploration of Implementation of Emissions Trading System in China  [PDF]
Min HU
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.24032
Abstract: This paper studies the route, steps and measures of the implementation of the emissions trading system in China. It combines desk research and case study. The desk research aims to explore the inherent discipline of emissions trading system, so as to disclose its nature and features while the case study involves the one-year field research conducted by the author, and provides the pilot emission systems in some provinces, together with the difficulties in its implementation. There are possibilities of comprehensive coverage of emission trading system, which can only be protected by a law relevant to environmental property protection (issued by the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress). And there is necessity for China to set up a quota system for different pollutions. After the initial allocation among provinces, the quota will be divided among enterprises, partial paid and partial for free, under the principle of “Giving priority to efficiency with due consideration to fairness”. It is useful to establish an efficient secondary market of emis-sion trading system.
Research on Video on Demand Based on P2P Network  [PDF]
Min Cui
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2010.25041
Abstract: A P2P approaches to extend the ability of Video on Demand systems to serve more users. In the proposed system users share with each other the media data obtained and the media server is no longer the only source to get data from, thereby, the load on the media server could be greatly alleviated and the overall system capacity increases and more users could be served. The P2P streaming system introduces efficient searching; data transfer dynamically monitoring and initial buffering to maintain a high quality of playback. Its provider selection policy helps to reduce the load of the underlying network by avoiding remote data transfer.
On the Spectrum of Asymptotic Expansions for an Asymptotic Normal Sequence  [PDF]
Min Tsao
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.21010
Abstract: We present a family of formal expansions for the density function of a general one-dimensional asymptotic normal sequence Xn. Members of the family are indexed by a parameter τ with an interval domain which we refer to as the spectrum of the family. The spectrum provides a unified view of known expansions for the density of Xn. It also provides a means to explore for new expansions. We discuss such applications of the spectrum through that of a sample mean and a standardized mean. We also discuss a related expansion for the cumulative distribution function of Xn.
A new geometrical and mechanical relation in the respiratory system with airflow limitation—From the perspective of analytical respiratory mechanics  [PDF]
Kyongyob Min
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2013.32009
Abstract: Classic respiratory mechanics is a branch of vectorial mechanics, which aims to recognize all forces acting on the respiratory system. Another branch of mechanics, analytical mechanics, has been used for analyzing the motions of complicated systems with constraints through equilibrium among scalar quantities such as kinetic energy and potential energy. However, until now, there have not been any studies concerning about analytical respiratory mechanics. In this paper, the author has obtained two types of motion equations (linear and nonlinear) for the airflow limitation from formulation of the analytical respiratory mechanics. Reconstructed flow-volume trajectories of the linear equation revealed a new relationship among the slope of the linear portion of trajectory, the coefficient of the dissipation function and the coefficient of the potential function. Reconstructed trajectories of the nonlinear equation suggested that a curved flow-volume trajectory would be caused by the emergence of regional hypoventilated clusters with airtrapped lobules. In conclusion, analytical respiratory mechanics will provide the basis for analyzing the mechanical properties of the respiratory system con cerning pulmonary functional images made by newly developed technologies.
A Stochastic Optimal Control Theory to Model Spontaneous Breathing  [PDF]
Kyongyob Min
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.411208
Abstract: Respiratory variables, including tidal volume and respiratory rate, display significant variability. The probability density function (PDF) of respiratory variables has been shown to contain clinical information and can predict the risk for exacerbation in asthma. However, it is uncertain why this PDF plays a major role in predicting the dynamic conditions of the respiratory system. This paper introduces a stochastic optimal control model for noisy spontaneous breathing, and obtains a Shrödinger’s wave equation as the motion equation that can produce a PDF as a solution. Based on the lobules-bronchial tree model of the lung system, the tidal volume variable was expressed by a polar coordinate, by use of which the Shrödinger’s wave equation of inter-breath intervals (IBIs) was obtained. Through the wave equation of IBIs, the respiratory rhythm generator was characterized by the potential function including the PDF and the parameter concerning the topographical distribution of regional pulmonary ventilations. The stochastic model in this study was assumed to have a common variance parameter in the state variables, which would originate from the variability in metabolic energy at the cell level. As a conclusion, the PDF of IBIs would become a marker of neuroplasticity in the respiratory rhythm generator through Shr?dinger’s wave equation for IBIs.
Self-Similarities of Pulmonary Arterial Tree and a New Integrated Model of Pulmonary Circulation with the Name of Fractal Phasic Perfusion (FPP) Model  [PDF]
Kyongyob Min
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.512173

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has become an important topic of basic and clinical research in recent years. Morphologic researches have shown that specific PAH-lesions are located in the lobular small muscular arteries and correlate with hemodynamic measurements. However, it still remains to be shown how pathological changes of the small arteries in the lobule develop to PAH. Based on both fractal properties of pulmonary arterial tree and asynchronous phasic contractions of lobular arterial muscles under the evenness of the pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP) in the lung, the author has constructed an integrated model of pulmonary circulation which has produced a mathematical relationship between the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) and the cardiac output (CO). By use of the expression between MPAP and CO, it has been able to explain the pathogenesis of PAH in terms of statistical changes among regional and temporal perfusions in the lung. In order to detect clinically the early stage of PAH, the author has suggested that it is important to establish the pulmonary functional imaging of regional and temporal perfusions.

Evaluating Collaborative Innovation Ability of School-Enterprise Cooperation  [PDF]
Min Yang
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2015.31008
Abstract: This paper mainly evaluates and analyzes the collaborative innovation ability of school-enterprise cooperation through the construction of key evaluation index system and model of the application. First, we construct the general evaluation index system. After screening with characteristics of group decision making method, we get the key evaluation index system. And then, we construct the two-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model to evaluate the influence degree of the key indicators. Finally, the practicability with the instance data has been tested. And based on the results of comprehensive evaluation, we carry on the specific two-level analysis of the data on knowledge collaborative innovation ability, technology collaborative innovation ability and information collaborative innovation ability. Through the development degree of every collaborative innovation abilities, the causes and effects of the factors have been analyzed and got.
Intercultural Competence in Intercultural Business Communication  [PDF]
Min Zheng
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.33029
Abstract: With the development of the integration of the world and the language and culture, the cultivation of intercultural communicative competence has become the ultimate goal of the foreign language teaching. This paper begins by analyzing personal understandings of successful Intercultural Business Communication skills and importance of learning Intercultural Business Communication skills, followed by four stages in experiencing a new culture skills, and at last it brings forward four action plans to improve the skills.
Statistical Significance of Geographic Heterogeneity Measures in Spatial Epidemiologic Studies  [PDF]
Min Lian
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.51006
Abstract: Assessing geographic variations in health events is one of the major tasks in spatial epidemiologic studies. Geographic variation in a health event can be estimated using the neighborhood-level variance that is derived from a generalized mixed linear model or a Bayesian spatial hierarchical model. Two novel heterogeneity measures, including median odds ratio and interquartile odds ratio, have been developed to quantify the magnitude of geographic variations and facilitate the data interpretation. However, the statistical significance of geographic heterogeneity measures was inaccurately estimated in previous epidemiologic studies that reported two-sided 95% confidence intervals based on standard error of the variance or 95% credible intervals with a range from 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles of the Bayesian posterior distribution. Given the mathematical algorithms of heterogeneity measures, the statistical significance of geographic variation should be evaluated using a one-tailed P value. Therefore, previous studies using two-tailed 95% confidence intervals based on a standard error of the variance may have underestimated the geographic variation in events of their interest and those using 95% Bayesian credible intervals may need to re-evaluate the geographic variation of their study outcomes.
Entropy Change of Lungs: Determinant of the Static Properties of the Lungs  [PDF]
Kyongyob Min
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.68111
Abstract: The static properties of the lungs have been explained by energy-change considerations on the elasticity, but this article explains the elasticity of the lungs by entropy-change considerations. Entropy of the individual lobule was defined by application of stochastic geometry on aggregated alveolar polyhedrons. Entropy of the lungs is the result of integrating a number of lobular entropies through the fractal bronchial tree. Entropy of the lungs was thus determined by the individual lobular entropy and the connectivity of the bronchial tree to the lobular bronchioles. Thermody-namic considerations on the static conditions of the pulmonary system composed of the lungs and the chest wall have provided a theoretical approach to understand the subdivisions of lung volume as the entropy-change of lungs. Entropy-change considerations on the elasticity of the lungs have shown that alveolar collapse and subsequent alveolar induration as the primary pathway for the loss of elasticity in the lungs is an acceptable hypothesis.
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