Abstract:
In supersymmetric quantum mechanics the emergence of a singularity may lead to the breakdown of isospectrality between partner potentials. One of the regularization recipes is based on a topologically nontrivial, multisheeted complex deformations of the line of coordinate x giving the so called quantum toboggan models (QTM). The consistent theoretical background of this recipe is briefly reviewed. Then, certain supersymmetric QTM pairs are shown exceptional and reducible to doublets of non-singular ordinary differential equations a.k.a. Sturm-Schr dinger equations containing a weighted energy E→EW(x) and living in single complex plane.

Abstract:
In paper [Znojil M., Phys. Rev. D 78 (2008), 085003, 5 pages, arXiv:0809.2874] the two-Hilbert-space (2HS, a.k.a. cryptohermitian) formulation of Quantum Mechanics has been revisited. In the present continuation of this study (with the spaces in question denoted as H^{(auxiliary)} and H^{(standard)}) we spot a weak point of the 2HS formalism which lies in the double role played by H^{(auxiliary)}. As long as this confluence of roles may (and did!) lead to confusion in the literature, we propose an amended, three-Hilbert-space (3HS) reformulation of the same theory. As a byproduct of our analysis of the formalism we offer an amendment of the Dirac's bra-ket notation and we also show how its use clarifies the concept of covariance in time-dependent cases. Via an elementary example we finally explain why in certain quantum systems the generator H^{(gen)} of the time-evolution of the wave functions may differ from their Hamiltonian H.

Abstract:
One-dimensional unitary scattering controlled by non-Hermitian (typically, PT-symmetric) quantum Hamiltonians H ≠ H is considered. Treating these operators via Runge-Kutta approximation, our three-Hilbert-space formulation of quantum theory is reviewed as explaining the unitarity of scattering. Our recent paper on bound states [Znojil M., SIGMA 5 (2009), 001, 19 pages, arXiv:0901.0700] is complemented by the text on scattering. An elementary example illustrates the feasibility of the resulting innovative theoretical recipe. A new family of the so called quasilocal inner products in Hilbert space is found to exist. Constructively, these products are all described in terms of certain non-equivalent short-range metric operators Θ ≠ I represented, in Runge-Kutta approximation, by (2R–1)-diagonal matrices.

Abstract:
Among ${cal P}$-pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians $H ={cal P}^{-1} H^dagger {cal P}$ with real spectra, the ''weaklypseudo-Hermitian" ones (i.e., those employing non-self-adjoint ${cal P} neq {cal P}^dagger$) form a remarkable subfamily. Welist some reasons why it deserves a special attention. Inparticular we show that whenever ${cal P} neq {cal P}^dagger$,the current involutive operator of charge ${cal C}$ getscomplemented by a nonequivalent alternative involutive quasiparityoperator ${cal Q}$. We show how, in this language, the standardquantum mechanics is restored via the two alternative innerproducts in the physical Hilbert space of states, with $langle psi_1 |{cal PQ}| psi_2 rangle = langle psi_1 | {cal CP} | psi_2 rangle $.

Abstract:
A discrete $N-$point Runge-Kutta version $H^{(N)}({\lambda})$ of one of the simplest non-Hermitian square-well Hamiltonians with real spectrum is studied. A complete set of its possible hermitizations (i.e., of the eligible metrics $\Theta^{(N)}({\lambda})$ defining its non-equivalent physical Hilbert spaces of states) is constructed, in closed form, for any coupling ${\lambda}\in (-1,1)$ and any matrix dimension $N$.

Abstract:
One-dimensional unitary scattering controlled by non-Hermitian (typically, ${\cal PT}$-symmetric) quantum Hamiltonians $H\neq H^\dagger$ is considered. Treating these operators via Runge-Kutta approximation, our three-Hilbert-space formulation of quantum theory is reviewed as explaining the unitarity of scattering. Our recent paper on bound states [Znojil M., SIGMA 5 (2009), 001, 19 pages, arXiv:0901.0700] is complemented by the text on scattering. An elementary example illustrates the feasibility of the resulting innovative theoretical recipe. A new family of the so called quasilocal inner products in Hilbert space is found to exist. Constructively, these products are all described in terms of certain non-equivalent short-range metric operators $\Theta\neq I$ represented, in Runge-Kutta approximation, by $(2R-1)$-diagonal matrices.

Abstract:
Sturmian bound states emerging at a fixed energy and numbered by a complete set of real eigencouplings are considered. For Sturm-Schroedinger equations which are manifestly non-Hermitian we outline the way along which the correct probabilistic interpretation of the system can constructively be re-established via a new formula for the metric. PT-symmetrized Coulomb potential is chosen for illustration purposes.

Abstract:
Certain complex-contour (a.k.a. quantum-toboggan) generalizations of Schroedinger's bound-state problem are reviewed and studied in detail. Our key message is that the practical numerical solution of these atypical eigenvalue problems may perceivably be facilitated via an appropriate complex change of variables which maps their multi-sheeted complex domain of definition to a suitable single-sheeted complex plane.

Abstract:
For quantum (quasi)particles living on complex toboggan-shaped curves which spread over N Riemann sheets the approximate evaluation of topology-controlled bound-state energies is shown feasible. In a cubic-oscillator model the low-lying spectrum is shown decreasing with winding number N.

Abstract:
In the quantization scheme which weakens the hermiticity of a Hamiltonian to its mere PT invariance the superposition V(x) = x^2+ Ze^2/x of the harmonic and Coulomb potentials is defined at the purely imaginary effective charges (Ze^2=if) and regularized by a purely imaginary shift of x. This model is quasi-exactly solvable: We show that at each excited, (N+1)-st harmonic-oscillator energy E=2N+3 there exists not only the well known harmonic oscillator bound state (at the vanishing charge f=0) but also a normalizable (N+1)-plet of the further elementary Sturmian eigenstates \psi_n(x) at eigencharges f=f_n > 0, n = 0, 1, ..., N. Beyond the first few smallest multiplicities N we recommend their perturbative construction.