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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297729 matches for " Miles J. Padgett "
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Interface between path and OAM entanglement for high-dimensional photonic quantum information
Robert Fickler,Radek Lapkiewicz,Marcus Huber,Martin P. J. Lavery,Miles J. Padgett,Anton Zeilinger
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5502
Abstract: Photonics has become a mature field of quantum information science, where integrated optical circuits offer a way to scale the complexity of the setup as well as the dimensionality of the quantum state. On photonic chips, paths are the natural way to encode information. To distribute those high-dimensional quantum states over large distances, transverse spatial modes, like orbital angular momentum (OAM) possessing Laguerre Gauss modes, are favourable as flying information carriers. Here we demonstrate a quantum interface between these two vibrant photonic fields. We create three-dimensional path entanglement between two photons in a non-linear crystal and use a mode sorter as the quantum interface to transfer the entanglement to the OAM degree of freedom. Thus our results show a novel, flexible way to create high-dimensional spatial mode entanglement. Moreover, they pave the way to implement broad complex quantum networks where high-dimensionally entangled states could be distributed over distant photonic chips.
Direct Measurement of a 27-Dimensional Orbital-Angular-Momentum State Vector
Mehul Malik,Mohammad Mirhosseini,Martin P. J. Lavery,Jonathan Leach,Miles J. Padgett,Robert W. Boyd
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4115
Abstract: The measurement of a quantum state poses a unique challenge for experimentalists. Recently, the technique of "direct measurement" was proposed for characterizing a quantum state in-situ through sequential weak and strong measurements. While this method has been used for measuring polarization states, its real potential lies in the measurement of states with a large dimensionality. Here we show the practical direct measurement of a high-dimensional state vector in the discrete basis of orbital-angular momentum. Through weak measurements of orbital-angular momentum and strong measurements of angular position, we measure the complex probability amplitudes of a pure state with a dimensionality, d=27. Further, we use our method to directly observe the relationship between rotations of a state vector and the relative phase between its orbital-angular-momentum components. Our technique has important applications in high-dimensional classical and quantum information systems, and can be extended to characterize other types of large quantum states.
Optimising the use of detector arrays for measuring intensity correlations of photon pairs
Daniel S. Tasca,Matthew P. Edgar,Frauke Izdebski,Gerald S. Buller,Miles J. Padgett
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.013816
Abstract: Intensity correlation measurements form the basis of many experiments based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. In the most common situation, two single-photon avalanche diodes and coincidence electronics are used in the detection of the photon pairs, and the coincidence count distributions are measured by making use of some scanning procedure. Here we analyse the measurement of intensity correlations using multi-element detector arrays. By considering the detector parameters such as the detection and noise probabilities, we found that the mean number of detected photons that maximises the visibility of the two photon correlations is approximately equal to the mean number of noise events in the detector array. We provide expressions predicting the strength of the measured intensity correlations as a function of the detector parameters and on the mean number of detected photons. We experimentally test our predictions by measuring far-field intensity correlations of spontaneous parametric down-conversion with an electron multiplying CCD camera, finding excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis.
Divergence of an orbital-angular-momentum-carrying beam upon propagation
Miles J. Padgett,Filippo M. Miatto,Martin Lavery,Anton Zeilinger,Robert W. Boyd
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/17/2/023011
Abstract: There is recent interest in the use of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) for creating multiple channels within free-space optical communication systems. One limiting issue is that, for a given beam size at the transmitter, the beam divergence angle increases with increasing OAM, thus requiring a larger aperture at the receiving optical system if the efficiency of detection is to be maintained. Confusion exists as to whether this divergence scales linarly with, or with the square root of, the beam's OAM. We clarify how both these scaling laws are valid, depending upon whether it is the radius of the Gaussian beam waist or the rms intensity which is kept constant while varying the OAM.
Limitations to the determination of a Laguerre-Gauss spectrum via projective, phase-flattening measurement
Hammam Qassim,Filippo M. Miatto,Juan P. Torres,Miles J. Padgett,Ebrahim Karimi,Robert W. Boyd
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1364/JOSAB.31.000A20
Abstract: One of the most widely used techniques for measuring the orbital angular momentum components of a light beam is to flatten the spiral phase front of a mode, in order to couple it to a single-mode optical fiber. This method, however, suffers from an efficiency that depends on the orbital angular momentum of the initial mode and on the presence of higher order radial modes. The reason is that once the phase has been flattened, the field retains its ringed intensity pattern and is therefore a nontrivial superposition of purely radial modes, of which only the fundamental one couples to a single mode optical fiber. In this paper, we study the efficiency of this technique both theoretically and experimentally. We find that even for low values of the OAM, a large amount of light can fall outside the fundamental mode of the fiber, and we quantify the losses as functions of the waist of the coupling beam of the orbital angular momentum and radial indices. Our results can be used as a tool to remove the efficiency bias where fair-sampling loopholes are not a concern. However, we hope that our study will encourage the development of better detection methods of the orbital angular momentum content of a beam of light.
Normalized Ghost Imaging
Baoqing Sun,Stephen S. Welsh,Matthew P. Edgar,Jeffrey H. Shapiro,Miles J. Padgett
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1364/OE.20.016892
Abstract: We present an experimental comparison between different iterative ghost imaging algorithms. Our experimental setup utilizes a spatial light modulator for generating known random light fields to illuminate a partially-transmissive object. We adapt the weighting factor used in the traditional ghost imaging algorithm to account for changes in the efficiency of the generated light field. We show that our normalized weighting algorithm can match the performance of differential ghost imaging.
EPR-based ghost imaging using a single-photon-sensitive camera
Reuben S. Aspden,Daniel S. Tasca,Robert W. Boyd,Miles J. Padgett
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/15/7/073032
Abstract: Correlated-photon imaging, popularly known as ghost imaging, is a technique whereby an image is formed from light that has never interacted with the object. In ghost imaging experiments two correlated light fields are produced. One of these fields illuminates the object, and the other field is measured by a spatially resolving detector. In the quantum regime, these correlated light fields are produced by entangled photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. To date, all correlated-photon ghost-imaging experiments have scanned a single-pixel detector through the field of view to obtain the spatial information. However, scanning leads to a poor sampling efficiency, which scales inversely with the number of pixels, N, in the image. In this work we overcome this limitation by using a time-gated camera to record the single-photon events across the full scene. We obtain high-contrast images, 90%, in either the image plane or the far-field of the photon pair source, taking advantage of the EPR-like correlations in position and momentum of the photon pairs. Our images contain a large number of modes, >500, creating opportunities in low-light-level imaging and in quantum information processing.
Two-photon optics of Bessel-Gaussian modes
Melanie McLaren,Jacquiline Romero,Miles J. Padgett,Filippus S. Roux,Andrew Forbes
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.033818
Abstract: In this paper we consider geometrical two-photon optics of Bessel-Gaussian modes generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion of a Gaussian pump beam. We provide a general theoretical expression for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum and Schmidt number in this basis and show how this may be varied by control over the radial degree of freedom, a continuous parameter in Bessel-Gaussian modes. As a test we first implement a back-projection technique to classically predict, by experiment, the quantum correlations for Bessel-Gaussian modes produced by three holographic masks, a blazed axicon, binary axicon and a binary Bessel function. We then proceed to test the theory on the down-converted photons using the binary Bessel mask. We experimentally quantify the number of usable OAM modes and con?firm the theoretical prediction of a flattening in the OAM spectrum and a concomitant increase in the OAM bandwidth. The results have implications for the control of dimensionality in quantum states.
Imaging with a small number of photons
Peter A. Morris,Reuben S. Aspden,Jessica Bell,Robert W. Boyd,Miles J. Padgett
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6913
Abstract: Low-light-level imaging techniques have application in many diverse fields, ranging from biological sciences to security. We demonstrate a single-photon imaging system based on a time-gated inten- sified CCD (ICCD) camera in which the image of an object can be inferred from very few detected photons. We show that a ghost-imaging configuration, where the image is obtained from photons that have never interacted with the object, is a useful approach for obtaining images with high signal-to-noise ratios. The use of heralded single-photons ensures that the background counts can be virtually eliminated from the recorded images. By applying techniques of compressed sensing and associated image reconstruction, we obtain high-quality images of the object from raw data comprised of fewer than one detected photon per image pixel.
Infrared single-pixel imaging utilising microscanning
Ming-Jie Sun,Matthew P. Edgar,David B. Phillips,Graham M. Gibson,Miles J. Padgett
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Since the invention of digital cameras there has been a concerted drive towards detector arrays with higher spatial resolution. Microscanning is a technique that provides a final higher resolution image by combining multiple images of a lower resolution. Each of these low resolution images is subject to a sub-pixel sized lateral displacement. In this work we apply the microscanning approach to an infrared single-pixel camera. For the same final resolution and measurement resource, we show that microscanning improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of reconstructed images by approximately 50%. In addition, this strategy also provides access to a stream of low-resolution 'preview' images throughout each high-resolution acquisition. Our work demonstrates an additional degree of flexibility in the trade-off between SNR and spatial resolution in single-pixel imaging techniques.
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