Model of an atom by analogy with the transmission line is derived
using Maxwell’s equations and Lorentz’ theory of electrons. To be realistic such a
model requires that the product of the structural coefficient of Lecher’s
transmission lines σ and atomic number Z is constant. It was
calculated that this electromechanical constant is 8.27756, and we call it
structural constant. This constant_{ }builds the fine-structure
constant 1/α=137.036, and with permeability μ,
permittivity ε and elementary charge e builds Plank’s constant h.
This suggests the electromagnetic character of Planck’s constant. The relations
of energy, frequency, wavelength and momentum of electromagnetic wave in an
atom are also derived. Finally, an equation, similar to Schrodinger’s equation,
was derived, with a clear meaning of the wave function, which represents the
electric or magnetic field strength of the observed electromagnetic wave.

The equations for energy, momentum, frequency, wavelength and also
Schr?dinger equation of the electromagnetic wave in the atom are derived using
the model of atom by analogy with the transmission line. The action constant A_{0 }= (μ_{0}/ε_{0})^{1/2}s_{0}^{2}e^{2} is a key term in the above
mentioned equations. Besides the other well-known quantities, the only one
unknown quantity in the last expression is a structural constant s_{0.} Therefore, this article
is dedicated to the calculation of the structural constant of the atoms on the
basis of the above mentioned model. The structural constant of the atoms s_{0 }= 8.27756 shows
up as a link between macroscopic and atomic world. After calculating this
constant we get the theory of atoms based on Maxwell’s and Lorentz
equations only. This theory does not require Planck constant h, which once was introduced
empirically. Replacement for h is the
action constant A_{0}, which
is here theoretically derived, while the replacement for fine structure
constant α is 1/(2s_{0}^{2}). In this way,
the structural constant s_{0} replaces both constants, h and α. This paper also defines the stationary
states of atoms and shows that the maximal atomic number is equal to 2s_{0}^{2 }= 137.036, i.e., as integer should be Z_{max}=137. The presented model
of the atoms covers three of the four fundamental interactions, namely the
electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions.

Abstract:
A century ago the classical physics couldn’t explain many atomic physical phenomena. Now the situation has changed. It’s because within the framework of classical physics with the help of Maxwell’s equations we can derive Schrödinger’s equation, which is the foundation of quantum physics. The equations for energy, momentum, frequency and wavelength of the electromagnetic wave in the atom are derived using the model of atom by analogy with the transmission line. The action constant A0 = (μ0/ε0)1/2s02e2 is a key term in the above mentioned equations. Besides the other well-known constants, the only unknown constant in the last expression is a structural constant of the atom s0. We have found that the value of this constant is 8.277 56 and that it shows up as a link between macroscopic and atomic world. After calculating this constant we get the theory of atoms based on Maxwell’s and Lorentz equations only. This theory does not require knowledge of Planck’s constant h, which is replaced with theoretically derived action constant A0, while the replacement for the fine structure constant α^{-1} is theoretically derived expression 2s02 = 137.036. So, the structural constant s0 replaces both constants h and α. This paper also defines the stationary states of atoms and shows that the maximal atomic number is equal to Zmax = 137. The presented model of the atoms covers three of the four fundamental interactions, namely the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions.

Abstract:
Instead of calculating the number π in this article special attention is paid to the method of measuring it. It has been found that there is a direct and indirect measurement of that number. To perform such a measurement, a selection was made of some mathematical and physical quantities which within themselves contain a number π. One such quantity is a straight angle Pi, which may be expressed as Pi = π rad. By measuring the angle, using the direct method, we determine the number π as π = arccos(-1). To implement an indirect measurement of the number π, a system consisting of a container with liquid and equating it with the measuring pot has been conceived. The accuracy of measurement by this method depends on the precision performance of these elements of the system.

Abstract:
Application of Maxwell’s equations and the theory of relativity on the processes in atoms with real oscillator leads to the structural constant of atoms s_{0} = 8.278692517. Measurements show that the ratio of energy of the photon and its frequency is not constant which means that Planck’s h is not constant. The theory which is consistent with these measurements, has been found. This theory covers processes in electron configuration and also at the core of atoms. Based on the structural constant s_{0} the maximum possible atomic number Z is determined. In order to encompass all atoms and all nuclides a new measurement unit has been proposed. That is the measurement unit for the order of substance. The introduction of structural constant s_{0} makes 11 fundamental constants redundant, including Planck’s h. The structural constant of atoms s_{0} stands up as the most stable constant in a very wide range of measurement, so it may replace variable Planck’s h well. Continuity of the bremsstrahlung is explained.

Abstract:
Using Pearson correlation coefficient a statistical analysis of Duane-Hunt and Kulenkampff's measurement results was performed. This analysis reveals that empirically based Duane-Hunt's law is not entirely consistent with the measurement data. The author has theoretically found the action of electromagnetic oscillators, which corresponds to Planck's constant, and also has found an alternative law based on the classical theory. Using the same statistical method, this alternative law is likewise tested, and it is proved that the alternative law is completely in accordance with the measurements. The alternative law gives a relativistic expression for the energy of electromagnetic wave emitted or absorbed by atoms and proves that the empirically derived Planck-Einstein's expression is only valid for relatively low frequencies. Wave equation, which is similar to the Schr\"odinger equation, and wavelength of the standing electromagnetic wave are also established by the author's analysis. For a relatively low energy this wavelength becomes equal to the de Broglie wavelength. Without any quantum conditions, the author made a formula similar to the Rydberg's formula, which can be applied to the all known atoms, neutrons and some hyperons.

Abstract:
A quantum
information theory is derived for multidimensional signals scaling. Dynamical data
modeling methodology is described for decomposing a signal in a coupled structure
of binding synergies, in scale-space. Mass conservation principle, along with a
generalized uncertainty relation, and the scale-space wave propagation lead to a
polynomial decomposition of information. Statistical map of data, through dynamical
cascades, gives an effective way of coding and assessing its control structure.
Using a multi-scale approach, the scale-space wave information propagation is utilized
in computing stochastic resonance synergies (SRS), and a data ensemble is conceptualized
within an atomic structure. In this paper, we show the analysis of multidimensional
data scatter, exhibiting a point scaling property. We discuss applications in image
processing, as well as, in neuroimaging. Functional neuro-cortical mapping by multidimensional
scaling is explained for two behaviorally correlated auditory experiments, whose
BOLD signals are recorded by fMRI. The point scaling property of the information
flow between the signals recorded in those two experiments is analyzed in conjunction
with the cortical feature detector findings and the auditory tonotopic map. The
brain wave nucleons from an EEG scan, along with a distance measure of synchronicity
of the brain wave patterns, are also explained.

Abstract:
Automatic road detection, in dense urban areas, is a challenging application in the remote sensing community. This is mainly because of physical and geometrical variations of road pixels, their spectral similarity to other features such as buildings, parking lots and sidewalks, and the obstruction by vehicles and trees. These problems are real obstacles in precise detection and identification of urban roads from high-resolution satellite imagery. One of the promising strategies to deal with this problem is using multi-sensors data to reduce the uncertainties of detection. In this paper, an integrated object-based analysis framework was developed for detecting and extracting various types of urban roads from high-resolution optical images and Lidar data. The proposed method is designed and implemented using a rule-oriented approach based on a masking strategy. The overall accuracy (OA) of the final road map was 89.2%, and the kappa coefficient of agreement was 0.83, which show the efficiency and performance of the method in different conditions and interclass noises. The results also demonstrate the high capability of this object-based method in simultaneous identification of a wide variety of road elements in complex urban areas using both high-resolution satellite images and Lidar data.

Abstract:
This paper proposes to tackle a subject that many authors have warned should not be taken lightly: “the new paradigms of Science” and the theory of management. The paper begins with a brief explanation about the changing environment which began during the 1970s. This section contains background and relevant criticism made by several authors, and sets out the argument for the need to change to a new paradigm. This is followed by an exploration of new concepts and ideas that have emerged in New Science that have direct relevance to developing new organizational models. Finally, a way to envision and conceptualize the organization as a living entity and to undertake the construction of a new paradigm is suggested.

Infinite horizon
discrete time non-cooperative games with observable actions of players and discounting
of future single period payoffs are a suitable tool for analyzing emergence and
sustainability of cooperation between all players because they do not contain
the last period. A subgame perfect equilibrium is a standard solution concept
for them. It requires only immunity to unilateral deviations in any subgame. It
does not address immunity to deviations by coalitions. In particular, it does
not rule out cooperation based on punishments of unilateral deviations that the
grand coalition would like to forgive. We first briefly review concepts of
renegotiation-proofness that rule out such forgiveness. Then we discuss the
concept of strong perfect equilibrium that requires immunity to all deviations
by all coalitions in all subgames. In games with only one level of players
(e.g. members of the population engaged in the same type of competitive
activity), it fails to exist when the Pareto efficient frontier of the set of
single period payoff vectors has no sufficiently large flat portion. In such a
case, it is not possible to punish unilateral deviations in a weakly Pareto efficient
way. In games with two levels of players (e.g. members of two populations with
symbiotic relationship, while activities within each population are
competitive), it is possible to overcome this problem. The sum of benefits of
all players during a punishment can be the same as when nobody is punished but
its distribution between the two populations can be altered in favor of the
punishers.